1755 – The Braddock Expedition is soundly defeated by a smaller French and Native American force in its attempt to capture Fort Duquesne in what is now downtown Pittsburgh.The Braddock expedition, also called Braddock’s campaign or, more commonly, Braddock’s Defeat, was a failed British military expedition which attempted to capture the French Fort Duquesne (modern-day downtown Pittsburgh) in the summer of 1755 during the French and Indian War. It was defeated at the Battle of the Monongahela on July 9, and the survivors retreated. The expedition takes its name from General Edward Braddock, who led the British forces and died in the effort. Braddock’s defeat was a major setback for the British in the early stages of the war with France and has been described as one of the most disastrous defeats for the British in the 18th century.
The debate on how Braddock, with professional soldiers, superior numbers, and artillery, could fail so miserably began soon after the battle and continues to this day. Some blamed Braddock, some blamed his officers, some blamed the British regulars or the colonial militia. George Washington, for his part, supported Braddock and found fault with the British regulars.
Braddock’s tactics are still debated. One school of thought holds that Braddock’s reliance on time-honoured European methods, where men stand shoulder-to-shoulder in the open and fire mass volleys in unison, was not appropriate for frontier fighting and cost Braddock the battle. Skirmish tactics that American colonials had learned from frontier fighting, where men take cover and fire individually, “Indian style”, was the superior method in the American environment.
However, in some studies, the interpretation of “Indian style” superiority has been argued to be a myth by several military historians. European regular armies already employed irregular forces of their own and had extensive theories of how to use and counter guerilla warfare. Stephen Brumwell argues just the opposite, stating that contemporaries of Braddock, like John Forbes and Henry Bouquet, recognized that “war in the forests of America was a very different business from war in Europe.” Peter Russell argues it was Braddock’s failure to rely on the time-honoured European methods that cost him the battle. The British had already waged war on the irregular forces in the Jacobite uprisings. And East-European irregulars, such as Pandours and Hussars, had already made an impact on European warfare and theory by the 1740s. Braddock’s failure, according to proponents of this theory, was that he did not adequately apply traditional military doctrine (particularly by not using distance), not the lack of use of frontier tactics. Russell, in his study, shows that on several occasions before the battle, Braddock successfully adhered to standard European tactics to counter ambushes, and as a result had been nearly immune to earlier French and Canadian attacks.
1901 – Barbara Cartland, English author and singer (d. 2000)
Dame Barbara Cartland DBE CStJ (9 July 1901 – 21 May 2000), born as Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland, was an English author of romance novels, one of the best-selling authors as well as one of the most prolific and commercially successful worldwide of the twentieth century. Her 723 novels were translated into 38 languages and she continues to be referenced in the Guinness World Records for the most novels published in a single year in 1976. As Barbara Cartland she is known for her numerous romantic novels but she also wrote under her married name of Barbara McCorquodale and briefly under the pseudonym of Marcus Belfry. She wrote more than 700 books, as well as plays, music, verse, drama, magazine articles and operetta, and was a prominent philanthropist. She reportedly sold more than 750 million copies. Other sources estimate her book sales at more than two billion copies. She specialised in 19th-century Victorian era pure romance. Her novels all featured portrait-style artwork, particularly the cover art, usually designed by Frances Marshall.
As head of Cartland Promotions, she also became one of London’s most prominent society figures, of the latter always presenting herself in pink gown and plumed hat, she was one of Britain’s most popular media personalities, right up until her death in 2000.
by Jacob Kastrenakes: Anchor’s audio show app can now publish podcasts to Apple and Google
Shows will still disappear for listeners after 24 hours on Anchor — a gimmick that makes the app’s recordings a bit like Snapchat stories — but the podcasts that get published to Apple and Google will stay live, so that other people can continue to find and listen to them. They’ll also be archived inside the Anchor app for the creator.
Author: Michael E. Ruane, The Washington Post Marked dead in Vietnam, a long journey back to life
Filed by Gary Price: Standards: W3C Gives Go Ahead to DRM for the Web
Filed by Gary Price: Lorraine Haricombe, Director of Libraries at University of Texas at Austin, Discusses Need for Open Textbooks in Op/Ed
In Texas, Gov. Greg Abbott recently signed Senate Bill 810 into law supporting the adoption of open educational resources similar to the Affordable Learning Georgia program out of the University System of Georgia, which has saved students more than $16 million through expanding the use of free and open course materials.
Other states such as Florida, California, Minnesota, North Dakota, Oregon and Washington have enacted legislation that has expanded or stabilized open educational resources.