# Category: FYI

FYI

## FYI May 08, 2017

#### On this day:

589 – Reccared I summons the Third Council of Toledo.
The Third Council of Toledo (589) marks the entry of Visigothic Spain into the Catholic Church, and known for codifying the filioque clause into Western Christianity.[1][2] The council also enacted restrictions on Jews, and the conversion of the country to Christianity led to repeated conflict with the Jews.[3]

Arian Goths
In the 4th century, the bishop Wulfila (c 310 – 383) invented a script for the Gothic language, translated the Bible into Gothic, and converted the Goths to Arian Christianity.[4] When the Visigoths traveled west, they encountered Latin Christians, for whom Arianism was anathema. The Visigoths held to their Arian beliefs and refused to join the Catholic Church.

Attempts to Unify
Prior to the Council in Toledo, King Reccared had convened informal assemblies of bishops to resolve the religious schism in his kingdom. At the second assembly both Arian and Catholic bishops presented their arguments, while Reccared pointed out that no Arian bishop had ever performed a healing miracle. The last assembly consisted of only Catholic bishops, where upon Reccared accepted the Catholic faith.[5]

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1794 – Branded a traitor during the Reign of Terror by revolutionists, French chemist Antoine Lavoisier, who was also a tax collector with the Ferme générale, is tried, convicted and guillotined in one day in Paris.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; French: [ɑ̃twan lɔʁɑ̃ də lavwazje]; 26 August 1743 – 8 May 1794;[1]) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.[2] He is widely considered in popular literature as the “father of modern chemistry”.[3][4]

It is generally accepted that Lavoisier’s great accomplishments in chemistry largely stem from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion. He recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783) and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He predicted the existence of silicon (1787)[5] and was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element (1777) rather than a compound.[6] He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same.

Lavoisier was a powerful member of a number of aristocratic councils, and an administrator of the Ferme générale. The Ferme générale was one of the most hated components of the Ancien Régime because of the profits it took at the expense of the state, the secrecy of the terms of its contracts, and the violence of its armed agents.[7] All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. At the height of the French Revolution, he was accused by Jean-Paul Marat of selling adulterated tobacco[citation needed]and of other crimes, and was eventually guillotined a year after Marat’s death.

#### Born on this day:

1753 – Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Mexican priest and rebel leader (d. 1811)
Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor[3] (8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo, was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.

He was a professor at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid and was ousted in 1792. He served in a church in Colima and then in Dolores, Guanajuato. After his arrival, he was shocked by the poverty he found. He tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, but in Mexico, growing these crops was discouraged or prohibited by the authorities due to Spanish imports of the items.[4] In 1810 he gave the famous speech, “The Cry of Dolores”, calling upon the people to protect the interest of their King Fernando VII (held captive by Napoleon) by revolting against the European-born Spaniards who had overthrown the Spanish Viceroy.[5]

He marched across Mexico and gathered an army of nearly 90,000 poor farmers and Mexican civilians who attacked and killed both Spanish Peninsulares and Criollo elites, even though Hidalgo’s troops lacked training and were poorly armed. These troops ran into an army of 6,000 well-trained and armed Spanish troops; most fled or were killed at the Battle of Calderón Bridge.[6]

Early years
Hidalgo was the second-born child of Don Cristóbal Hidalgo y Costilla and Doña Ana María Gallaga.[7] Hidalgo was born a criollo.[note 1][7] Under the system of the day, Hidalgo’s rights as a criollo were far less than those of someone born in Spain but better than a mestizo, a person of both Spanish and Amerindian ancestry, and other castas. Both of Hidalgo’s parents were descended from well-respected families within the criollo community. Hidalgo’s father was an hacienda manager, which presented Hidalgo with the opportunity to learn at a young age to speak the indigenous languages of the laborers. Eight days after his birth, Hidalgo was baptized into the Roman Catholic faith in the parish church of Cuitzeo de los Naranjos. Hidalgo’s parents would have three other sons; José Joaquín, Manuel Mariano, and José María.[citation needed]

In 1759, Charles III of Spain ascended to the throne of Spain; he soon sent out a visitor-general with the power to investigate and reform all parts of colonial government. During this period, Don Cristóbal was determined that Miguel and his younger brother Joaquín should both enter the priesthood and hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. Being of significant means he paid for all of his sons to receive the best education the region had to offer. After receiving private instruction, likely from the priest of the neighboring parish, Hidalgo was ready for further education.[7]

Education, ordination, and early career
At the age of fifteen Hidalgo was sent to Valladolid (now Morelia), Michoacán to study at the Colegio de San Francisco Javier with the Jesuits, along with his brothers.[8] When the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in 1767, he entered the Colegio de San Nicolás,[2][9][10] where he studied for the priesthood.[2]

He completed his preparatory education in 1770. After this, he went to the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico in Mexico City for further study, earning his degree in philosophy and theology in 1773.[8] His education for the priesthood was traditional, with subjects in Latin, rhetoric and logic. Like many priests in Mexico, he learned some Indian languages,[10] such as Nahuatl, Otomi and Purépecha. He also studied Italian and French, which were not commonly studied in Mexico at this time.[9] He earned the nickname “El Zorro” (“The Fox”) for his reputation for cleverness at school.[1][11] Hidalgo’s study of French allowed him to read and study works of the Enlightenment current in Europe[2] but, at the same time, forbidden by the Catholic church in Mexico.[1]

Hidalgo was ordained as a priest in 1778 when he was 25 years old.[9][11] From 1779 to 1792, he dedicated himself to teaching at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid (now Morelia); it was “one of the most important educational centers of the viceroyalty.”[12] He was a professor of Latin grammar and arts, as well as a theology professor. Beginning in 1787, he was named treasurer, vice-rector and secretary,[8] becoming dean of the school in 1790 when he was 39.[2][13] As rector, Hidalgo continued studying the liberal ideas that were coming from France and other parts of Europe. Authorities ousted him in 1792 for revising traditional teaching methods there, but also for “irregular handling of some funds.”[14] The Church sent him to work at the parishes of Colima and San Felipe Torres Mochas until he became the parish priest in Dolores, Guanajuato,[9] succeeding his brother Felipe (also a priest), who died in 1802.

Although Hidalgo had a traditional education for the priesthood, as an educator at the Colegio de San Nicolás, he had innovated in teaching methods and curriculum. In his personal life, he did not advocate or live the way expected of 18th-century Mexican priests. Instead, his studies of Enlightenment-era ideas caused him to challenge traditional political and religious views. He questioned the absolute authority of the Spanish king and challenged numerous ideas presented by the Church, including the power of the popes, the virgin birth, and clerical celibacy. As a secular cleric, he was not bound by a vow of poverty, so he, like many other secular priests, pursued business activities, including owning three haciendas;[15] but contrary to his vow of chastity, he formed liaisons with women. One was with Manuela Ramos Pichardo, with whom he had two children, as well as a child with Bibiana Lucero.[14] He later lived with a woman named María Manuela Herrera,[10] fathering two daughters out of wedlock with her, and later fathered three other children with a woman named Josefa Quintana.[16] He enjoyed dancing and gambling.

These actions resulted in his appearance before the Court of the Inquisition, although the court did not find him guilty.[10] Hidalgo was egalitarian. As parish priest in both San Felipe and Dolores, he opened his house to Indians and mestizos as well as creoles.[17] He obtained this parish in spite of his hearing before the Inquisition, which did not stop his secular practices.[10]

After Hidalgo settled in Dolores, he turned over most of the clerical duties to one of his vicars, Fr. Francisco Iglesias, and devoted himself almost exclusively to commerce, intellectual pursuits and humanitarian activity.[11] He spent much of his time studying literature, scientific works, grape cultivation, and the raising of silkworms.[1][18] He used the knowledge that he gained to promote economic activities for the poor and rural people in his area. He established factories to make bricks and pottery and trained indigenous people in the making of leather.[1][18] He promoted beekeeping.[18] He was interested in promoting activities of commercial value to use the natural resources of the area to help the poor.[2] His goal was to make the Indians and mestizos more self-reliant and less dependent on Spanish economic policies. However, these activities violated policies designed to protect agriculture and industry in Spain, and Hidalgo was ordered to stop them. These policies as well as exploitation of mixed race castas fostered resentment in Hidalgo of the Peninsular-born Spaniards in Mexico.[10]

In addition to restricting economic activities in Mexico, Spanish mercantile practices caused misery for the native peoples. A drought in 1807–1808 caused a famine in the Dolores area, and, rather than releasing stored grain to market, Spanish merchants chose instead to block its release, speculating on yet higher prices. Hidalgo lobbied against these practices.[19]

Grito de Dolores” or “Cry of Dolores”
Main article: Grito de Dolores

Fearing his arrest,[10] Hidalgo commanded his brother Mauricio, as well as Ignacio Allende and Mariano Abasolo to go with a number of other armed men to make the sheriff release prison inmates in Dolores on the night of 15 September 1810. They managed to set eighty free. On the morning of 16 September 1810, Hidalgo called Mass, which was attended by about 300 people, including hacienda owners, local politicians and Spaniards. There he gave what is now known as the Grito de Dolores (Cry, or Shout, of Dolores),[18] calling the people of his parish to leave their homes and join with him in a rebellion against the current government, in the name of their King.[1]

Hidalgo’s Grito didn’t condemn the notion of monarchy or criticize the current social order in detail, but his opposition to the events in Spain and the current viceregal government was clearly expressed in his reference to bad government. The Grito also emphasized loyalty to the Catholic religion, a sentiment with which both Creoles and Peninsulares could sympathize.[10]

## FYI May 07, 2017

#### On this day:

1274 – In France, the Second Council of Lyon opens to regulate the election of the Pope.
The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, France, in 1272–1274.[1] Pope Gregory X presided over the council, called to act on a pledge by Byzantine emperor Michael VIII to reunite the Eastern church with the West.[2] The council was attended by about 300 bishops, 60 abbots[3] and more than a thousand prelates or their procurators, among whom were the representatives of the universities. Due to the great number of attendees, those who had come to Lyon without being specifically summoned were given “leave to depart with the blessing of God” and of the Pope. Among others who attended the council were James I of Aragon, the ambassador of the Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos with members of the Greek clergy and the ambassadors of Abaqa Khan of the Ilkhanate. Thomas Aquinas had been summoned to the council, but died en route at Fossanova Abbey. Bonaventure was present at the first four sessions, but died at Lyon on 15 July 1274. As at the First Council of Lyons Thomas Cantilupe was an English attender and a papal chaplain.[4]

In addition to Aragon, which James represented in person, representatives of the kings of Germany, England, Scotland, France, the Spains and Sicily[5] were present, with procurators also representing the kingdoms of Norway, Sweden, Hungary, Bohemia, the “realm of Dacia” and the duchy of Poland. In the procedures to be observed in the council, for the first time the nations appeared as represented elements in an ecclesiastical council, as they had already become represented in the governing of medieval universities. This innovation marks a stepping-stone towards the acknowledgment of coherent ideas of nationhood, which were in the process of creating the European nation-states.

The main topics discussed at the council were the conquest of the Holy Land and the union of the Eastern and Western Churches. The first session took place on 7 May 1274 and was followed by five additional sessions on 18 May 1274, 4 or 7 June 1274, 6 July 1274, 16 July 1274, and 17 July 1274. By the end of the council, 31 constitutions were promulgated. In the second session, the fathers approved the decree Zelus fidei, which contained no juridical statutes but rather summed up constitutions about the perils of the Holy Land, the means for paying for a proposed crusade, the excommunication of pirates and corsairs and those who protected them or traded with them, a declaration of peace among Christians, a grant of an indulgence for those willing to go on crusade, restoration of communion with the Greeks, and the definition of the order and procedure to be observed in the council. The Greeks conceded on the issue of the Filioque (two words added to the Nicene creed), and union was proclaimed, but the union was later repudiated by Andronicus II,[2] heir to Michael VIII. The council also recognized Rudolf I as Holy Roman Emperor, ending the Interregnum.[2]

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#### Born on this day:

1913 – Simon Ramo, American physicist and engineer (d. 2016)
Simon “Si” Ramo (May 7, 1913 – June 27, 2016) was an American engineer, businessman, and author. He led development of microwave and missile technology and is sometimes known as the father of the intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). He also developed General Electric’s electron microscope. He has been partly responsible for the creation of two Fortune 500 companies, Ramo-Wooldridge (TRW after 1958) and Bunker-Ramo (now part of Honeywell).

Early years
Ramo was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, the son of Clara (Trestman) and Benjamin Ramo.[1] His father was a Polish Jewish immigrant and his mother was a Russian Jewish immigrant. He entered the University of Utah at the age of 16, where he joined Theta Tau Professional Engineering Fraternity and earned a B.S. in electrical engineering at the age of 20. By 1936, at the age of 23, he had earned dual PhD degrees from Caltech in physics and electrical engineering.[2]

Career
General Electric

From 1936 until 1946, he led electronics research at General Electric, where he accumulated 25 patents before the age of 30 and was cited as one of America’s most outstanding young electrical engineers. He became globally recognized as a leader in microwave research and headed the development of GE’s electron microscope.

Hughes Aircraft
In 1946 he returned to California to become director of research for the electronics department of Hughes Aircraft, and his career became coupled with that of Dean Wooldridge. Together they formed a successful team for many years, with Wooldridge concentrating on investment and general business aspects while Ramo led research, development and engineering.

By 1948, Hughes had created its Aerospace Group to work with the newly created U.S. Air Force. Dr. Ramo became a Vice-President and the Group’s Director of Operations. Ramo employed his skills in Systems Engineering to allow Hughes to deliver integrated RADAR and aircraft fire-control systems. He developed the air-to-air missile, creating the Falcon missile.

In 1953 Ramo and Dean Wooldridge left Hughes Aircraft and formed the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation, later TRW Inc.

Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation (TRW Inc.)
By 1953 Ramo and the Air Force had become increasingly frustrated with management problems at Hughes. Ramo and Wooldridge were particularly concerned when Howard Hughes avoided their attempts to discuss the problem. In September they jointly resigned, and within a week they formed the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation on September 16, 1953.

In October 1953 an Assistant Secretary of Defense, Trevor Gardner, created a committee to consider the future of guided missiles. This Strategic Missile Evaluation Committee (SMEC) was headed by John von Neumann and included both Ramo and Wooldridge. In four months, the committee produced their report and recommended that a crash program was needed to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles, and that such a program might enable the United States to overtake Russian developments by 1959 or 1960.

The Ramo-Wooldridge Corp. became the lead contractor for the resulting Air Force program. With Dr. Ramo as the driving scientific and engineering officer, they succeeded. In 1958, an Atlas rocket delivered a payload 5,000 miles downrange. The Atlas would go on to serve as the launch vehicle for NASA’s Project Mercury orbital flights, starting with John Glenn in Friendship 7. USAF General Bernard Schriever, head of the ICBM program, described Ramo as “the architect of the Thor, Atlas, and Titan” rockets.

According to a July 30, 2002 article, Ramo’s comments are legendary for capsulizing complex ideas into off-the-cuff witticisms.[3]

During a series of key experiments of ballistic missiles in the 1950s at Cape Canaveral, Florida, at which Ramo and Air Force General Bernard Schriever were observers, test rockets kept blowing up on their launch pads. When one missile rose about 6 inches before toppling over and exploding, Ramo reportedly beamed and said: “Well, Benny, now that we know the thing can fly, all we have to do is improve its range a bit.”

Ramo-Wooldridge merged with Thompson Products to become TRW Inc, and Simon Ramo became Vice-Chairman. In 1964, TRW and Martin Marietta formed the jointly owned Bunker-Ramo Corporation with Ramo as President, which expanded into the computer and communications technology fields.

In January 2008, he joined the faculty of the University of Southern California’s Viterbi School of Engineering as a presidential chair and professor of electrical engineering.[4] Ramo is also a founding member of the National Academy of Engineering.[5]

Awards, appointments and fellowships
During his long and successful career, Ramo has received numerous awards and fellowships. He has been honored by the American Philosophical Society, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the American Physical Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Some consider Ramo a founder of modern systems engineering. His definition of the discipline is:

…a branch of engineering which concentrates on the design and application of the whole as distinct from the parts, looking at a problem in its entirety, taking account of all the facets and all the variables and linking the social to the technological.[6]

Ramo has served as an advisor to the United States government on science and technology. He has been a member of the National Science Board, the White House Council on Energy R&D, the Advisory Council to the Secretary of Commerce, the Advisory Council to the Secretary of State for Science and Foreign Affairs, and of many special advisory committees to the Defense Department and NASA. President Gerald Ford appointed Ramo as co-chairman of a committee of distinguished scientists and engineers, requesting Ramo to list the science and technology issues most deserving of attention by the White House and to recommend actions. Following this, Ramo was appointed by President Ford to be chairman of The President’s Advisory Committee on Science and Technology, a position created by Congress to advise on how to ensure that science and technology matters receive proper attention at the White House.

In 1980, then-President-elect Ronald Reagan asked Ramo to assemble a transition task force to advise on executive branch appointments where science and technology background was desirable. President Reagan subsequently invited Ramo to be a Science Adviser to the President of the Republic of China. In that assignment, Ramo aided greatly Taiwan’s development of a strong high-technology industry.

On February 23, 1983, Ramo was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Reagan.

In 1982, the IEEE Board of Directors initiated the IEEE Simon Ramo Medal for exceptional achievement in systems engineering and systems science.

In 1988, Theta Tau Professional Engineering Fraternity inducted Simon Ramo, Lambda (Utah)’33, into its Alumni Hall of Fame.

In 2007, the Space Foundation awarded Ramo its highest honor, the General James E. Hill Lifetime Space Achievement Award.[7]

In 2009, the Theta Tau Educational Foundation named an annual scholarship in his honor.

Founders Medal, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
John Fritz Medal, American Association of Engineering Societies
Medal of Honor, Electronic Industries Association
Kagan Medal, Columbia University
Henry Heald Award, Illinois Institute of Technology
Distinguished Service Medal, Armed Forces Communication and Electronics Association
Delmer S. Fahrney Medal
Aesculapian Award, UCLA School of Medicine
Durand Medal, Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Space and Missile Pioneer Award, U.S. Air Force
Pioneer Award, International Council on Systems Engineering
Howard Hughes Memorial Award
Distinguished Alumnus Award, University of Utah
National Trophy for Lifetime Achievement, Smithsonian Institution
NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal
University of Southern California Presidential Medallion
Space Foundation General James E. Hill Lifetime Space Achievement Award
Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame inductee

Ramo has received numerous patents including one at age 100 concerning the use of technology in education making him the oldest American to be awarded a U.S. patent.
Publications

Ramo has authored dozens of books on topics ranging from science textbooks, corporate and technology management, society’s relation to technology, economy, and how to play tennis. A selection:
Fields and Waves in Modern Radio by Simon Ramo and John R. Whinnery (1944)
Introduction to Microwaves (1945)
Peacetime Uses of Space (1959, 1977)
Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics (1965)
Extraordinary Tennis For The Ordinary Player (1970)
The Islands of E, Cono & My (1973)
America’s Technology Slip (1980)
The Management of Innovative Technological Corporations (1980)
What’s Wrong with Our Technological Society–and How to Fix it (1983)
Tennis By Machiavelli (1984)
The Business of Science: Winning and Losing in the High-Tech Age (1988)
Meetings, Meetings, and More Meetings: Getting Things Done When People Are Involved (2005)
Strategic Business Forecasting: A Structured Approach to Shaping the Future of Your Business by Dr. Simon Ramo and Dr. Ronald Sugar (2009)
Tales from the Top: How CEOs Act and React (2011)
To Wit: A Sense of Humor – A Mandatory Tool of Management (2011)
Let Robots do the Dying (2011)
Guided Missile Engineering: University of California Engineering Extension Series by Allen E. Puckett and Simon Ramo (2013)

Stephen B. Johnson; The Secret of Apollo: Systems Management in American and European Space Programs 2002, The Johns Hopkins University Press (ISBN 0-8018-6898-X).
Davis Dyer; TRW: Pioneering Technology and Innovation since 1900 1998, Harvard Business School Press (ISBN 0-87584-606-8).
G. Harry Stine; ICBM 1991, Orion Books (ISBN 0-517-56768-7).
Ernest Schwiebert; History of the U.S. Air Force Ballistic Missiles 1965, Praeger Publishers.

Personal life
Ramo was married to Virginia (née Smith) from 1937 until her death in 2009. They have two sons, James Brian and Alan Martin, four grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. Ramo died on June 27, 2016 at the age of 103.[8]

## FYI May 06, 2017

#### On this day:

1757 – English poet Christopher Smart is admitted into St Luke’s Hospital for Lunatics in London, beginning his six-year confinement to mental asylums.
Christopher Smart (11 April 1722 – 21 May 1771), also known as “Kit Smart”, “Kitty Smart”, and “Jack Smart”,[citation needed] was an English poet.

He was a major contributor to two popular magazines and a friend to influential cultural icons like Samuel Johnson and Henry Fielding. Smart, a high church Anglican, was widely known throughout London.[1]

Smart was infamous as the pseudonymous midwife “Mrs. Mary Midnight” and widespread accounts of his father-in-law, John Newbery, locking him away in a mental asylum for many years over Smart’s supposed religious “mania”. Even after Smart’s eventual release, a negative reputation continued to pursue him as he was known for incurring more debt than he could repay; this ultimately led to his confinement in debtors’ prison until his death.

Smart’s two most widely known works are A Song to David and Jubilate Agno, both at least partly written during his confinement in asylum. However, Jubilate Agno was not published until 1939 and A Song to David received mixed reviews until the 19th century. To his contemporaries, Smart was known mainly for his many contributions in the journals The Midwife and The Student, along with his famous Seaton Prize poems and his mock epic The Hilliad. Although he is primarily recognised as a religious poet, his poetry includes various other themes, such as his theories on nature and his promotion of English nationalism.

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Death
In response to his uncle’s death, Christopher Hunter wrote, “I trust he is now at peace; it was not his portion here.”[117] Fanny Burney, in her journal, wrote:

But now I speak of authors, let me pay the small tribute of regret and concern due to the memory of poor Mr. Smart, who died lately in the King’s Bench Prison; a man by nature endowed with talents, wit, and vivacity, in an eminent degree; and whose unhappy loss of his sense was a public as well as private misfortune. I never knew him in his glory, but ever respected him in his decline, from the fine proofs he had left of his better day, and from the account I have heard of his youth from my father, who was then his intimate companion; as, of late years, he has been his most active and generous friend, having raised a kind of fund for his relief, though he was ever in distress. His intellects, so cruelly impaired, I doubt not, affected his whole conduct.[118]

On 22 May 1771, a jury of twelve fellow inmates of the King’s Bench Prison declared that Smart “upon the Twentieth day of May Instant died a Natural Death within the Rules of the Prison.”[118] He was buried on 26 May in St Paul’s Covent Garden.[118]

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#### Born on this day:

1836 – Max Eyth, German engineer and author (d. 1906)
He was born in Kirchheim unter Teck to Edward Eyth (1809–1884), a teacher of Greek and history at an evangelical seminar and his wife Julie. He lived from 1841 to 1852 in Schöntal Abbey where his father was Ephorus at the Evangelical Seminary Maulbronn and Blaubeuren. Besides his profession his father wrote lyrics boks about history and literature history. His mother also was an author.[1] Young Max spent School time in Heilbronn, and also the first years of his teaching at the Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Heilbronn Hahn & Göbel. From 1852 till 1856 he studied at the Polytechnikum Stuttgart Mechanical engineering. Since this time he was a member of Corps Stauffia Stuttgart. He collected his first experiences at the steam engine factory Gotthilf Kuhn in Berg near Stuttgart. Although his degree, he had to absolve a trainig as mechanist before he was allowed to make constructors work. Before this he made technical drawings. 1862 he went to steam plow factory John Fowler in Leeds and overtook foreign agency for steam plows. There were many travels and stays in foreign countries, for example in Egypt and the United States. During the time of the American Civil War he travelled to Egypt. Egypt tried at this time to become the main producer of cotton for Europe.

Max Eyth founded the German Agricultural Society (DLG) in 1885.

The German Agricultural Society (Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft), commonly known as DLG, is an international non-profit organisation for agricultural industry in Germany. DLG was founded in 1885 by Max Eyth, has over 23,000 members as of 2011 and is headquartered in Frankfurt am Main.[1] Its main purpose is to promote technical progress and scientific advances in the food and agricultural industry, including setting standards.[2]

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## FYI May 05, 2017

#### On this day:

1980 – Operation Nimrod: The British Special Air Service storms the Iranian embassy in London after a six-day siege.
The Iranian Embassy siege took place from 30 April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in South Kensington, London. The gunmen, members of an Iranian Arab group campaigning for Arab national sovereignty in the southern region of Khūzestān Province, took 26 people hostage—mostly embassy staff, but also several visitors as well as a police officer who had been guarding the embassy. They demanded the release of Arab prisoners from prisons in Khūzestān and their own safe passage out of the United Kingdom.[1] Margaret Thatcher’s government quickly resolved that safe passage would not be granted, and a siege ensued. Over the following days, police negotiators secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions, such as the broadcasting of the hostage-takers’ demands on British television.

By the sixth day of the siege the gunmen had become increasingly frustrated at the lack of progress in meeting their demands. That evening, they killed one of the hostages and threw his body out of the embassy. As a result, the government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment of the British Army, to conduct an assault—Operation Nimrod— to rescue the remaining hostages. Shortly afterwards, SAS soldiers abseiled from the roof of the building and forced entry through the windows. During the 17-minute raid, they rescued all but one of the remaining hostages, and killed five of the six hostage-takers. The soldiers later faced accusations of unnecessarily killing two of the five, but an inquest into the deaths eventually cleared the SAS of any wrongdoing. The sole remaining gunman was prosecuted and served 27 years in British prisons.

The hostage-takers and their cause were largely forgotten after the Iran–Iraq War broke out later that year and the hostage crisis in Tehran continued until January 1981. Nonetheless, the operation brought the SAS to the public eye for the first time and bolstered the reputation of Thatcher. The SAS was quickly overwhelmed by the number of applications it received from people inspired by the operation and experienced greater demand for its expertise from foreign governments. The building, having suffered major damage from a fire that broke out during the assault, was not reopened as the Iranian embassy until 1993.

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#### Born on this day:

1830 – John Batterson Stetson, American businessman, founded the John B. Stetson Company (d. 1906)
John Batterson Stetson (May 5, 1830 – February 18, 1906) was an American hatter, hat manufacturer, and, in the 1860s, the inventor of the cowboy hat. He founded the John B. Stetson Company as a manufacturer of headwear; the company’s hats are now commonly referred to simply as Stetsons.

Stetson was born in New Jersey, the 7th of 12 children. His father, Stephen Stetson, was a hatter. As a youth, John Stetson worked with his father until John was diagnosed with tuberculosis and his doctor predicted he had only a short time to live. Given this dire prognosis, he left the hat-making business to explore the American West, afraid this would be his only chance to see it.[1][2] There he met drovers, bullwhackers and cowboys.[2] The former hat-maker turned a critical eye to the flea-infested coonskin caps favored by many of the gold seekers, and wondered whether fur-felt would work for a lightweight, all-weather hat suitable for the West.[3]

Boss of the Plains
In 1865 — “a time when almost everyone wore hats” — Stetson moved to Philadelphia to enter the hat-making craft he’d learned from his father and began manufacturing hats there suited to the needs of the Westerners.[2] Stetson made a western hat for each hat dealer in the Boss of the Plains style he had invented, during the trek to Pike’s Peak. These lightweight hats were natural in color with four inch crowns and brims; a plain strap was used for the band.[4]

Thanks to the time he had spent with cowboys and Western settlers, Stetson knew firsthand that the headwear they wore (such as coonskin caps, sea captain hats, straw hats, and wool derbies) was impractical. He decided to offer people a better hat. Made from waterproof felt, the new hat was durable. The wide brim would protect people from the hot sun.

Noted one observer, “It kept the sun out of your eyes and off your neck. It was an umbrella. It gave you a bucket (the crown) to water your horse and a cup (the brim) to water yourself. It made a hell of a fan, which you need sometimes for a fire but more often to shunt cows this direction or that.”[5] Before the invention of the cowboy hat (which means before John B. Stetson came along), the cowpunchers of the plains wore castoffs of previous lives and vocations.[6]

The hat achieved instant popularity and was named the “Boss of the Plains,” the first real cowboy hat. Stetson went on to build the Carlsbad, easily identified by its main crease down the front.[7]
Buffalo Bill

His hat was called a Stetson, because he had his name John B. Stetson Company embossed in gold in every hatband. The Stetson soon became the most well known hat in the West. All the high-crowned, wide-brimmed, soft felt western hats that followed are intimately associated with the cowboy image created by Stetson.[8]

The Stetson Cowboy hat was the symbol of the highest quality. Western icons such as Buffalo Bill Cody, Calamity Jane, Will Rogers, Annie Oakley, Pawnee Bill, Tom Mix, and the Lone Ranger wore Stetsons. The company also made hats for law enforcement departments, such as the Texas Rangers. Stetson’s Western-style hats were worn by employees of the National Park Service, U.S. Cavalry soldiers, and many U.S. Presidents.[2]

The cowboy hat is truly an example of form following function. “Invented by John B. Stetson,” today’s cowboy hat has remained basically unchanged in construction and design since the first one was created in 1865.[6] In addition to the cowboy hats, Stetson also made fedoras, and women’s hats.[2]

The Company
Under Stetson’s direction, The John B. Stetson Company became one of the largest hat firms in the world. Stetson hats won numerous awards, but as his company grew, he “faced the challenge of developing a reliable labor force.” [2] Reportedly, “people working in the hat trade at that time tended to drift from employer to employer” and “absenteeism was rampant.” [2] Stetson, “guided by Baptist religious principles, believed that by providing for his employees he would lend stability to their lives and attract higher caliber ones.” [2] Unlike most other employers, Stetson decided to offer benefits to entice workers to stay.[2] Stetson also made sure his employees had a clean, safe place to work, including building a hospital, a park and houses for his 5,000 employees.[2] Stetson’s unusual moves helped him build a factory in Philadelphia that grew to 25 buildings on 9 acres (36,000 m2). By 1915, nine years after Stetson’s death, 5,400 employees were turning out 3.3 million hats.[2]

Philanthropy
While Stetson profited from his business, he also wanted to give back to his community. Near the end of his life, Stetson began donating almost all of his money to charitable organizations.[2] He built grammar and high schools and helped build colleges, including Temple and Stetson Universities. He also helped establish the YMCA in Philadelphia.[2] Stetson donated generously to the DeLand Academy (in DeLand, Fla.), which was renamed (1889) John B. Stetson University. In 1900, Stetson University founded the first law school in Florida: Stetson University Law School.

Stetson co-founded Sunday Breakfast Rescue Mission, a homeless shelter and soup kitchen, in 1878.[9] Sunday Breakfast Rescue Mission has since expanded to provide more services and is still in use for the homeless population of Philadelphia.[10]

Stetson owned a mansion in DeLand where he died in 1906. The over 8,000 ft² masterpiece called John B. Stetson House is a mixture of Gothic, Tudor, and Moorish styles, and is open to the public for tours. Stetson is buried in West Laurel Hill Cemetery, Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.
In Popular Culture
The actor Alan Young, known for his role in the sitcom, Mr. Ed, played Stetson in the 1962 episode “The Hat That Won the West” of the syndicated television series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews.

## FYI May 04, 2017

#### On this day:

1436 – Assassination of the Swedish rebel (later national hero) Engelbrekt EngelbrektssonEngelbrekt Engelbrektsson (1390s – 4 May 1436) was a Swedish rebel leader and later statesman. He was the leader of the Engelbrekt rebellion in 1434 against Eric of Pomerania, king of the Kalmar Union.[1]

Biography
Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson was a mine owner and a nobleman from the Bergslag of Norberg in the historic Swedish province of Dalarna. His family originally came from Germany, having migrated to Sweden in the 1360s.[2] The family coat of arms shows three half-lilies formed into a triangle.

Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson was dissatisfied by the numerous offenses of the Danish local bailiffs and heavy taxation. In 1434 he started a rebellion with the support of mine workers and peasants from his home area. Engelbrekt set against the king’s bailiff in Västerås, Jösse Eriksson, who was blamed for the distress that mining men suffered under his rule. The rebellion grew into a massive force sweeping the country.

In 1435 Engelbrekt was appointed Rikshövitsman, Commander in chief, at a Riksdag in Arboga that is often considered the first Riksdag in Sweden. However, he was not able to withstand the Swedish nobility, who wanted to exploit the rebellion. He was somewhat forced into the background. The nobility and clergy decided to support Karl Knutsson Bonde, who in 1436 supplanted Engelbrekt as Rikshövitsman.[3]

On 4 May 1436 Engelbrekt was assassinated at Engelbrektsholmen, an islet in Lake Hjälmaren, by the aristocrat Måns Bengtsson, who lived in the nearby Göksholm Castle. Engelbrekt was buried in Örebro church. Måns Bengtsson was a Swedish knight and chief judge in the traditional Swedish province of Närke. He was a member of the family Natt och Dag, a family from Östergötland which belongs to the Swedish noble class.[4][5]

Legacy
Over the next few decades Engelbrekt became a national hero, depicted as a public protector and an opponent of the Kalmar Union. His rebellion came to be seen as the start of the Swedish national awakening, which would triumph in the following century with the victory of King Gustav Vasa (reigned 1523–1560). Engelbrekt himself had no such ideas, which must have been anachronistic at the time; however his rebellion gave peasants a voice in Swedish politics which they never lost afterwards. The Engelbrekt rebellion caused the unity of the Kalmar Union to erode, leading to the expulsion of Danish forces from Sweden. Although later Danish kings regained influence over Sweden, the rebellion had set a precedent for Swedish claims to sovereignty.

A bronze statue of Engelbrekt by Swedish sculptor Carl Gustaf Qvarnström (1810–1867) was unveiled in Örebro in 1865. Statues of Engelbrekt also stand in Stockholm, Arboga and Falun. No known contemporary image of Engelbrekt survives.

Engelbrekt became the subject of Engelbrekt (1928), an opera by the Swedish composer Natanael Berg (1879–1957).[6] Engelbrekts församling (parish) and church in the Church of Sweden Diocese of Stockholm take their name from the hero.

#### Born on this day:

1907 – Lincoln Kirstein, American soldier and playwright, co-founded the New York City Ballet (d. 1996)
Lincoln Edward Kirstein (May 4, 1907 – January 5, 1996) was an American writer, impresario, art connoisseur, philanthropist, and cultural figure in New York City, noted especially as co-founder of the New York City Ballet. He developed and sustained the company with his organizing ability and fundraising for more than four decades, serving as the company’s General Director from 1946 to 1989. According to the New York Times, he was “an expert in many fields,” organizing art exhibits and lecture tours in the same years.[1]

Early life
Kirstein was born in Rochester, New York to Jewish parents, the son of Rose Stein (1873–1952)[2] and Louis E. Kirstein (1867–1942).[3][4] His sister was Mina Kirstein[5] and his paternal grandparents were Jeanette (née Leiter) and Edward Kirstein, a successful Rochester clothing manufacturer who ran E. Kirstein and Sons, Company. He grew up in a wealthy Jewish Bostonian family and attended the private Berkshire School, along with George Platt Lynes, graduating in 1926.[6] He then attended Harvard, where his father, the vice-president of Filene’s Department Store, had also attended, graduating in 1930.[7] His maternal grandfather was Nathan Stein, a senior executive at the Stein-Bloch & Co., in Rochester.[7]

Career
Early career

Further information: Hound & Horn and School of American Ballet
In 1927, while still an undergraduate at Harvard, Kirstein was annoyed that the literary magazine The Harvard Advocate would not accept his work. With a friend Varian Fry, who met his wife Eileen through Lincoln’s sister Mina, he convinced his father to finance their own literary quarterly, the Hound & Horn. After graduation, he moved to New York in 1930, taking the quarterly with him. The publication gained prominence in the artistic world and ran until 1934 when Lincoln instead decided to fund the Russian choreographer George Balanchine in his development of an American ballet school and company.

His interest in ballet and Balanchine started when he saw Balanchine’s Apollo performed by the Ballets Russes.[8] Kirstein became determined to bring Balanchine to America. In October 1933, together with Edward Warburg, a classmate from Harvard, and Vladimir Dimitriew, Balanchine’s manager, they started the School of American Ballet in Hartford, Connecticut. In 1934, the studio moved to the fourth floor of a building at Madison Avenue and 59th Street in New York City. Warburg’s father, Felix M. Warburg, invited the group of students from the evening class to perform at a private party. The ballet they performed was Serenade, the first major ballet choreographed by Balanchine in the United States. Just months later Kirstein and Warburg founded, together with Balanchine and Dimitriew, the American Ballet which became the resident company of the Metropolitan Opera. That arrangement was unsatisfactory because the Opera would not allow Balanchine and Kirstein artistic freedom.

World War II and Monuments Men
Further information: Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program
Kirstein’s theatrical career was interrupted by the United States’ entry into World War II. After enlisting in 1943, before going overseas he started working on a project gathering and documenting soldier art. He eventually developed this as the exhibit and book Artists Under Fire. In the spring of 1944, Kirstein traveled to London for the U. S. Arts and Monuments Commission and after a month, was transferred to the unit in France that came to be known as the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (MFAA). The section was devoted to rescuing and preserving European art.[9] Soon after in January 1945, Kirstein was promoted to Private First Class in Patton’s Third Army and his unit moved to Germany. Kirstein was personally involved with retrieving artworks around Munich and from the salt mines at Altaussee. His article “The Quest for the Golden Lamb” about the quest was published in Town & Country in September 1945, the same month he was discharged from the Army.

Ballet
Further information: New York City Ballet
In 1946, Balanchine and Kirstein founded the Ballet Society, which was renamed the New York City Ballet in 1948.[1] In a letter that year, Kirstein stated, “The only justification I have is to enable Balanchine to do exactly what he wants to do in the way he wants to do it.”[10] Kirstein went on to serve as the company’s General Director from 1946 until 1989.[9]

In a 1959 monograph titled What Ballet Is All About, Kirstein wrote: “Our Western ballet is a clear if complex blending of human anatomy, solid geometry and acrobatics offered as a symbolic demonstration of manners—the morality of consideration for one human being moving in time with another.”[1]

In a conversation with the poet Vernon Scannell in 1976, he said that “he regarded dancers not as artists but as acrobats’; their skills were, he maintained, entirely physical and he felt his involvement with the dance was a salutary escape from the cerebral and sedentary life into a world that was closer to that of the athlete than the artist.”[11] Kirstein’s and Balanchine’s collaboration lasted until the latter’s death in 1983.[8]

Personal life
Beginning in 1919, Kirstein kept a diary continuing through the practice until the late 1930s. In a 2007 biography of Kirstein, The Worlds of Lincoln Kirstein, Martin Duberman drew on his diaries, as well as Kirstein’s numerous letters.[8] Kirstein wrote about enjoying sex with various men including Harvard undergraduates, sailors, street boys, and casual encounters in the showers at the 63rd St. YMCA. He had longer affairs with Pete Martinez, a dancer, Dan Maloney, an artist, and Jensen Yow, a conservator. Kirstein had both platonic relationships and many that started as casual sex and developed into long-term friendships.[12]
Lincoln Kirstein House, East 19th Street

Despite his same-sex affairs, he also maintained relationships with women. In 1941, he married Fidelma Cadmus (1906–1991),[13] a painter and the sister of the artist Paul Cadmus.[14] Kirstein and his wife enjoyed an amicable if sometimes stressful relationship until her death in 1991,[15] but she withdrew from painting and then from life, suffering breakdowns that were eventually more permanent than his.[10] Some of his boyfriends lived with them in their East 19th Street house; “Fidelma was enormously fond of most of them.”[16] The New York art world considered Kirstein’s bisexuality an “open secret,” although he did not publicly acknowledge his sexual orientation until 1982.

Kirstein’s eclectic interests, ambition and keen interest in high culture, funded by independent means, drew a large circle of creative friends from many fields of the arts. These included: Glenway Wescott, George Platt Lynes, Jared French, Bernard Perlin, Pavel Tchelitchev, Katherine Anne Porter, Barbara Harrison, Gertrude Stein, Donald Windham, Cecil Beaton, Jean Cocteau, W. H. Auden, George Tooker, Margaret French Cresson, Walker Evans, Sergei Eisenstein and others.[6]

In his later years, Kirstein struggled with bipolar disorder – mania, depression, and paranoia. He destroyed the studio of friend Dan Maloney. He sometimes had to be constrained in a straitjacket for weeks at a psychiatric hospital.[16] His illness did not generally affect his professional creativity until the end of his life.

Legacy
English critic Clement Crisp wrote: “He was one of those rare talents who touch the entire artistic life of their time. Ballet, film, literature, theatre, painting, sculpture, photography all occupied his attention.”

Kirstein helped organize a 1959 American tour for musicians and dancers from the Japanese Imperial Household Agency. At that time, Japanese Imperial court music, gagaku, had only rarely been performed outside the Imperial Music Pavilion in Tokyo at some of the great Japanese shrines.[1]

Kirstein commissioned and helped to fund the physical home of the New York City Ballet: the New York State Theater building at Lincoln Center, designed in 1964 by architects Philip Johnson and John Burgee.[17] Despite its conservative modernist exterior, the glittery red and gold interior recalls the imaginative and lavish backdrops of the Ballets Russes. He served as the general director of the ballet company from 1948 to 1989.

On March 26, 1984, President Ronald Reagan presented Kirstein with the Presidential Medal of Freedom for his contributions to the arts.[18]

Kirstein was also a serious collector. Soon after the opening at Lincoln Center of the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, he contributed a significant amount of historic dance materials to the Jerome Robbins Dance Division. Before his death in 1996, Kirstein also donated his personal papers, artworks, and other materials related to the history of dance and his life in the arts to the Division. Kirstein was also the primary patron of Fidelma’s brother, the artist Paul Cadmus, buying many of his paintings and subsidizing his living expenses.[19][20] Cadmus had difficulty selling his work through galleries because of the erotically charged depictions of working and middle class men, which provoked controversy.[6]

Honors
Presidential Medal of Freedom, US.[1]
Handel Medallion, NYC highest cultural award.[1]
Brandeis University Notable Achievement Award.[1]
National Medal of Arts, US, 1985.[1]
Royal Society of Arts, Benjamin Franklin Medal, UK, 1981.[1]
National Society of Arts and Letters, National Gold Medal of Merit Award, US.[1]
National Museum of Dance Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame inductee, 1987.

The Saint of Bleecker Street [Original, Play, Drama, Play with music] Production Supervisor December 27, 1954 – April 2, 1955
Misalliance [Revival, Play, Comedy] New York City Drama Company managing director March 6, 1953 – June 27, 1953
The Ballet Caravan – Billy the Kid choreographed by Eugene Loring – May 24, 1939 – [unknown]
Filling Station [Original, ballet, One Act] choreographed by Lew Christensen, premiered January 6, 1938, Hartford Connecticut

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## FYI May 03, 2017

#### On this day:

May 3, 1715
This animation shows the eclipse path over England and northern Europe.

1715 – A total solar eclipse was visible across northern Europe, and northern Asia, as predicted by Edmond Halley to within 4 minutes accuracy.
A total solar eclipse occurred on 3 May 1715. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon’s apparent diameter is larger than the Sun’s, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth’s surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide. This total eclipse was visible across England, northern Europe, and northern Asia.

Observation
This total solar eclipse was observed in England from Cornwall in the south-west to Lincolnshire and Norfolk in the east. It was also observed in Ireland, where large crowds turned out in Dublin to watch it: the weather in Dublin was exceptionally cold and wet, and the eminent judge Joseph Deane caught a fatal chill as a result.

This eclipse is known as Halley’s Eclipse, after Edmond Halley (1656–1742) who predicted this eclipse to within 4 minutes accuracy. Halley observed the eclipse from London where the city of London enjoyed 3 minutes 33 seconds of totality. He also drew a predictive map showing the path of totality across England. The original map was about 20 miles off the observed eclipse path, mainly due to his use of inaccurate lunar ephemeris. After the eclipse, he corrected the eclipse path, and added the path and description of the 1724 total solar eclipse.[1]

Drawing upon lunar tables made by the first Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed, William Whiston produced a more technical predictive eclipse map around the same time as Halley. Both Halley’s and Whiston’s maps were published by John Senex in March 1715.[2][3]

Note: Great Britain didn’t adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752, so the date was considered 22 April 1715.

#### Born on on this day:

1695 – Henri Pitot, French physicist and engineer, invented the Pitot tube (d. 1771)
Henri Pitot (May 3, 1695 – December 27, 1771) was a French hydraulic engineer and the inventor of the pitot tube.

In a pitot tube, the height of the fluid column is proportional to the square of the velocity of the fluid at the depth of the inlet to the pitot tube. This relationship was discovered by Henri Pitot in 1732, when he was assigned the task of measuring the flow in the river Seine.

He rose to fame with the design of the Aqueduc de Saint-Clément near Montpellier and the extension of Pont du Gard in Nîmes. In 1724, he became a member of the French Academy of Sciences, and in 1740 a fellow of the Royal Society.

The Pitot theorem of plane geometry is named after him.

Pitot tube
A pitot (/ˈpiːtoʊ/ PEE-toh) tube is a pressure measurement instrument used to measure fluid flow velocity. The pitot tube was invented by the French engineer Henri Pitot in the early 18th century[1] and was modified to its modern form in the mid-19th century by French scientist Henry Darcy.[2] It is widely used to determine the airspeed of an aircraft, water speed of a boat, and to measure liquid, air and gas flow velocities in industrial applications. The pitot tube is used to measure the local flow velocity at a given point in the flow stream and not the average flow velocity in the pipe or conduit.[3]

Theory of operation
The basic pitot tube consists of a tube pointing directly into the fluid flow. As this tube contains fluid, a pressure can be measured; the moving fluid is brought to rest (stagnates) as there is no outlet to allow flow to continue. This pressure is the stagnation pressure of the fluid, also known as the total pressure or (particularly in aviation) the pitot pressure.

The measured stagnation pressure cannot itself be used to determine the fluid flow velocity (airspeed in aviation). However, Bernoulli’s equation states:

Stagnation pressure = static pressure + dynamic pressure

Which can also be written

p t = p s + ( ρ u 2 2 ) {\displaystyle p_{t}=p_{s}+\left({\frac {\rho u^{2}}{2}}\right)} p_{t}=p_{s}+\left({\frac {\rho u^{2}}{2}}\right)

Solving that for flow velocity:

u = 2 ( p t − p s ) ρ {\displaystyle u={\sqrt {\frac {2(p_{t}-p_{s})}{\rho }}}} u={\sqrt {\frac {2(p_{t}-p_{s})}{\rho }}}

NOTE: The above equation applies only to fluids that can be treated as incompressible. Liquids are treated as incompressible under almost all conditions. Gases under certain conditions can be approximated as incompressible. See Compressibility.

where:

u {\displaystyle u} u is flow velocity to be measured in m/s;
p t {\displaystyle p_{t}} p_{t} is stagnation or total pressure in pascals;
p s {\displaystyle p_{s}} p_{s} is static pressure in pascals;
and ρ {\displaystyle \rho } \rho is fluid density in k g / m 3 {\displaystyle kg/m^{3}} kg/m^{3}.

The dynamic pressure, then, is the difference between the stagnation pressure and the static pressure. The dynamic pressure is then determined using a diaphragm inside an enclosed container. If the air on one side of the diaphragm is at the static pressure, and the other at the stagnation pressure, then the deflection of the diaphragm is proportional to the dynamic pressure.

In aircraft, the static pressure is generally measured using the static ports on the side of the fuselage. The dynamic pressure measured can be used to determine the indicated airspeed of the aircraft. The diaphragm arrangement described above is typically contained within the airspeed indicator, which converts the dynamic pressure to an airspeed reading by means of mechanical levers.

Instead of separate pitot and static ports, a pitot-static tube (also called a Prandtl tube) may be employed, which has a second tube coaxial with the pitot tube with holes on the sides, outside the direct airflow, to measure the static pressure.[4]

If a liquid column manometer is used to measure the pressure difference p t {\displaystyle p_{t}} p_{t} – p s {\displaystyle p_{s}} p_{s}, or Δ p {\displaystyle \Delta p} \Delta p,

Δ h = Δ p ρ l g {\displaystyle \Delta h={\frac {\Delta p}{\rho _{l}g}}} \Delta h={\frac {\Delta p}{\rho _{l}g}}

where:

Δ h {\displaystyle \Delta h} \Delta h is the height difference of the columns in meters.
ρ l {\displaystyle \rho _{l}} \rho _{l} is the density of the liquid in the manometer;
g is the acceleration of gravity in m / s 2 {\displaystyle m/s^{2}} m/s^{2}

Therefore,

V = 2 ( Δ h ∗ ( ρ l g ) ) ρ {\displaystyle V={\sqrt {\frac {2(\Delta h*(\rho _{l}g))}{\rho }}}} V={\sqrt {\frac {2(\Delta h*(\rho _{l}g))}{\rho }}}

Aircraft
Main article: Pitot-static system
A pitot-static system is a system of pressure-sensitive instruments that is most often used in aviation to determine an aircraft’s airspeed, Mach number, altitude, and altitude trend. A pitot-static system generally consists of a pitot tube, a static port, and the pitot-static instruments.[5] Errors in pitot-static system readings can be extremely dangerous as the information obtained from the pitot static system, such as airspeed, is potentially safety-critical.

Several commercial airline incidents and accidents have been traced to a failure of the pitot-static system. Examples include Austral Líneas Aéreas Flight 2553, Northwest Airlines Flight 6231, and one of the two X-31s.[6] The French air safety authority BEA said that pitot tube icing was a contributing factor in the crash of Air France Flight 447 into the Atlantic Ocean.[7] In 2008 Air Caraïbes reported two incidents of pitot tube icing malfunctions on its A330s.[8]

Birgenair Flight 301 had a fatal pitot tube failure which investigators suspected was due to insects creating a nest inside the pitot tube; the prime suspect is the Black and yellow mud dauber wasp.

Aeroperú Flight 603 had a pitot-static system failure due to the cleaning crew leaving the static port blocked with tape.

Industry applications
In industry, the flow velocities being measured are often those flowing in ducts and tubing where measurements by an anemometer would be difficult to obtain. In these kinds of measurements, the most practical instrument to use is the pitot tube. The pitot tube can be inserted through a small hole in the duct with the pitot connected to a U-tube water gauge or some other differential pressure gauge for determining the flow velocity inside the ducted wind tunnel. One use of this technique is to determine the volume of air that is being delivered to a conditioned space.

The fluid flow rate in a duct can then be estimated from:

Volume flow rate (cubic feet per minute) = duct area (square feet) × flow velocity (feet per minute)
Volume flow rate (cubic meters per second) = duct area (square meters) × flow velocity (meters per second)

In aviation, airspeed is typically measured in knots.

In weather stations with high wind speeds, the pitot tube is modified to create a special type of anemometer called pitot tube static anemometer.[9]

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#### FYI:

Susan Gardner, Wyckoff Street, Brooklyn, NY

by Sarah Laskow: How FDR Used Famous Immigrants to Extoll America’s Greatness

This is great!

## FYI May 02, 2017

#### On this day:

2000 – President Bill Clinton announces that accurate GPS access would no longer be restricted to the United States military.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS,[a][b] is a space-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.[3]

The GPS system does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS system provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. However, the US government can selectively deny access to the system, as happened to the Indian military in 1999 during the Kargil War.[4]

The GPS project was launched in the United States in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems,[5] integrating ideas from several predecessors, including a number of classified engineering design studies from the 1960s. The U.S. Department of Defense developed the system, which originally used 24 satellites. It became fully operational in 1995. Roger L. Easton of the Naval Research Laboratory, Ivan A. Getting of The Aerospace Corporation, and Bradford Parkinson of the Applied Physics Laboratory are credited with inventing it.[6]

Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS and implement the next generation of GPS Block IIIA satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX).[7] Announcements from Vice President Al Gore and the White House in 1998 initiated these changes. In 2000, the U.S. Congress authorized the modernization effort, GPS III.

In addition to GPS, other systems are in use or under development, mainly because of a potential denial of access by the US government. The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s.[8] GLONASS can be added to GPS devices, making more satellites available and enabling positions to be fixed more quickly and accurately, to within two meters.[9] There are also the European Union Galileo positioning system and China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System.

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2011 – Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind behind the September 11 attacks and the FBI’s most wanted man, is killed by the United States special forces in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

Osama bin Laden was killed in Abbottabad, Pakistan, on May 2, 2011, shortly after 1:00 am local time (4:00 pm eastern time)[note 1][222][223] by a United States special forces military unit.

The operation, code-named Operation Neptune Spear, was ordered by United States President Barack Obama and carried out in a U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operation by a team of United States Navy SEALs from the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group (also known as DEVGRU or informally by its former name, SEAL Team Six) of the Joint Special Operations Command,[224] with support from CIA operatives on the ground.[225][226] The raid on bin Laden’s compound in Abbottabad was launched from Afghanistan.[227] After the raid, reports at the time stated that U.S. forces had taken bin Laden’s body to Afghanistan for positive identification, then buried it at sea, in accordance with Islamic law, within 24 hours of his death.[228] Subsequent reporting has called this account into question—citing, for example, the absence of evidence that there was an imam on board the USS Carl Vinson, where the burial was said to have taken place.[229]

#### Born on this day:

1843 – Elijah McCoy, Canadian-American engineer (d. 1929)
Elijah J. McCoy (May 2, 1844 [2] – October 10, 1929) was a Canadian-American inventor and engineer who was notable for his 57 U.S. patents, most having to do with the lubrication of steam engines. Born free in Canada, he returned as a five-year-old with his family to the United States in 1847, where he lived for the rest of his life and became a U.S. citizen.

Early life
Elijah J. McCoy was born free in 1844 in Colchester, Ontario, Canada to George and Mildred (Goins) McCoy. They were fugitive slaves who had escaped from Kentucky to Canada via helpers through the Underground Railroad. George and Mildred arrived in Colchester Township, Essex, Ontario Canada in 1837 via Detroit. Elijah McCoy had eleven siblings. Ten of the children were born in Canada from Alferd (1839) to William (1859). Based on 1860 Tax Assessment Rolls, land deeds of sale, and the 1870 USA Census it can be determined the George McCoy family moved to Ypsilanti, Washtenaw, Michigan in 1859-60.

Elijah McCoy was educated in black schools of Colchester Township due to the 1850 Common Schools act which segregated the Upper Canada schools in 1850. At age 15, in 1859, Elijah McCoy was sent to Edinburgh, Scotland for an apprenticeship and study. After some years, he was certified in Scotland as a mechanical engineer. After his return, he rejoined his family. By this time, the George McCoy family had established themselves on the farm of John and Maryann Starkweather in Ypsilanti. George used his skills of a tobacconist to establish a tobacco and cigar business.

Career
When Elijah McCoy arrived in Michigan, he could find work only as a fireman and oiler at the Michigan Central Railroad. In a home-based machine shop in Ypsilanti, Michigan McCoy also did more highly skilled work, such as developing improvements and inventions. He invented an automatic lubricator for oiling the steam engines of locomotives and ships, patenting it in 1872 as “Improvement in Lubricators for Steam-Engines” (U.S. Patent 129,843).

Similar automatic oilers had been patented previously; one is the displacement lubricator, which had already attained widespread use and whose technological descendants continued to be widely used into the 20th century. Lubricators were a boon for railroads, as they enabled trains to run faster and more profitably with less need to stop for lubrication and maintenance.[3]

McCoy continued to refine his devices and design new ones; 50 of his patents dealt with lubricating systems. After the turn of the century, he attracted notice among his black contemporaries. Booker T. Washington in Story of the Negro (1909) recognized him as having produced more patents than any other black inventor up to that time. This creativity gave McCoy an honored status in the black community that has persisted to this day. He continued to invent until late in life, obtaining as many as 57 patents. Most of these were related to lubrication, but others also included a folding ironing board and a lawn sprinkler. Lacking the capital with which to manufacture his lubricators in large numbers, he usually assigned his patent rights to his employers or sold them to investors. Lubricators with the McCoy name were not manufactured until 1920, near the end of his career. He formed the Elijah McCoy Manufacturing Company to produce his works.[3]

Historians have not agreed on the importance of McCoy’s contribution to the field of lubrication. He is credited in some biographical sketches with revolutionizing the railroad or machine industries with his devices. Early twentieth-century lubrication literature barely mentions him; for example, his name is absent from E. L. Ahrons’ Lubrication of Locomotives (1922), which does identify several other early pioneers and companies of the field.

Regarding the phrase “The real McCoy”
Main article: The real McCoy
This popular expression, typically meaning the real thing, has been associated with Elijah McCoy’s oil-drip cup invention. One theory is that railroad engineers looking to avoid inferior copies would request it by name,[4] and inquire if a locomotive was fitted with “the real McCoy system”.[5][6] This theory is mentioned in Elijah McCoy’s biography at the National Inventors Hall of Fame.[7] It can be traced to the December 1966 issue of Ebony in an advertisement for Old Taylor bourbon whiskey: “But the most famous legacy McCoy left his country was his name.”[8] A 1985 pamphlet printed by the Empak Publishing Company also notes the phrase’s origin but does not elaborate.[9] Other possibilities for its origin have been proposed.[3]

The expression, “The real McCoy”, was first published in Canada in 1881, but the expression, “The Real McKay”, can be traced to Scottish advertising in 1856. In James S. Bond’s The Rise and Fall of the “Union Club”: or, Boy Life in Canada, a character says, “By jingo! yes; so it will be. It’s the ‘real McCoy,’ as Jim Hicks says. Nobody but a devil can find us there.”[10]
Marriage and family

McCoy married Ann Elizabeth Stewart in 1868; she died four years later.

He married for the second time in 1873 to Mary Eleanor Delaney. The couple moved to Detroit when McCoy found work there. Mary McCoy (b. – d. 1922) helped found the Phillis Wheatley Home for Aged Colored Men in 1898.[11]

Elijah McCoy died in the Eloise Infirmary in Nankin Township, now Westland, Michigan, on October 10, 1929, at the age of 85, after suffering injuries from a car accident seven years earlier in which his wife Mary died. He is buried at Detroit Memorial Park East in Warren, Michigan.[12]
In popular culture

1966, an ad for Old Taylor bourbon cited Elijah McCoy with a photo and the expression “the real McCoy”, ending with the tag line, “But the most famous legacy McCoy left his country was his name.”[13]
2006, Canadian playwright Andrew Moodie’s The Real McCoy portrayed McCoy’s life, the challenges he faced as an African American, and the development of his inventions. It was first produced in Toronto[6] and has also been produced in the United States, for example in Saint Louis, Missouri, in 2011, where it was performed by the Black Rep Theatre.
In her novel Noughts and Crosses, Malorie Blackman describes a racial dystopia in which the roles of black and white people are reversed; Elijah McCoy is among the black scientists, inventors, and pioneers mentioned in a history class that Blackman “never learned about in school”.[14]

Legacy
1974, the state of Michigan put an historical marker (P25170) at the McCoys’ former home at 5720 Lincoln Avenue[15] and at his gravesite.[16]
1975, Detroit celebrated Elijah McCoy Day by placing a historic marker at the site of his home. The city also named a nearby street for him.[17]
1994, Michigan installed a historical marker (S0642) at his first workshop in Ypsilanti, Michigan.[15]
2001, McCoy was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in Akron, Ohio.[7]
2011, Senator Debbie Stabenow offered an amendment to the Patent Reform Act of 2011 to name the first satellite office of the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office, which opened in Detroit, Michigan, on July 13, 2012, as the “Elijah J. McCoy United States Patent and Trademark Office”.[18][19][20][21][22] In fact the satellite office of the United States Patent and Trademark office is now so named.[A]

References
Notes
“And the people of Detroit have time and again been they very sort of pioneers who shape our country with innovative audacity. Near the end of the 19th century, an inventor named Elijah McCoy came to this city, drawn by its potential, and history was made-with more than 57 U.S. patents by the end of his remarkable life, Elijah’s vision transformed the railroad system, and with it our trade economy. That’s the story of American possibility, realized through the power of the American patent-and I can think of no more fitting name to adorn the walls of this new office than the “Real McCoy” himself.”[23][24][25]

#### FYI:

Ryan F. Mandelbaum: Scientists Want to Grow Your Music-Blasted Ears Some New Parts

Raptitude: How Billionaires Stole My Mind
Using the Internet, 2007 style
For the next 30 days, I will not be waking up to a torrent of images, opinions, jokes and fears from around the world. The first step was to get the most addictive apps—Facebook, Twitter and Reddit, for me—off my phone. I still have accounts, and will still use them, but I’ve set them up so that I can’t reach them from my bed, or from waiting rooms, coffee shops, and sidewalks. And they can’t reach me in those places.
More…

Stef Schrader: Sports Car Legend And Flea Market Mogul Preston Henn Dies At 86

damndelicious: 15 Best Quick and Cozy Soup Recipes

## FYI May 01, 2017

May 1, 2017 – MAY DAY – SCHOOL PRINCIPALS’ DAY – NATIONAL MELANOMA MONDAY – NATIONAL MOTHER GOOSE DAY – NATIONAL CHOCOLATE PARFAIT DAY – NATIONAL LAW DAY – NATIONAL SILVER STAR SERVICE BANNER DAY – NATIONAL LOYALTY DAY

May 01 LAW DAY

#### On this day:

International Workers’ Day
International Workers’ Day, also known as Labour Day in some countries,[1][2] is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement, socialists, communists, and anarchists which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.[3][4] The date was chosen for International Workers’ Day by the Second International, a pan-national organization of socialist and communist political parties, to commemorate the Haymarket affair, which occurred in Chicago on 4 May 1886.[4] The 1904 International Socialist Conference in Amsterdam, the Sixth Conference of the Second International, called on “all Social Democratic Party organisations and trade unions of all countries to demonstrate energetically on the First of May for the legal establishment of the 8-hour day, for the class demands of the proletariat, and for universal peace.”[5]

Being a traditional European spring celebration, May Day is a national public holiday in several European countries. The date is currently celebrated specifically as “Labour Day” or “International Workers’ Day” in the majority of countries, including those that didn’t traditionally celebrate May Day. Some countries celebrate a Labour Day on other dates significant to them, such as the United States, which celebrates Labor Day on the first Monday of September.

History
Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labour movements grew, a variety of days were chosen by trade unionists as a day to celebrate labour. In the United States and Canada, a September holiday, called Labor or Labour Day, was first proposed in the 1880s. In 1882, Matthew Maguire, a machinist, first proposed a Labor Day holiday on the first Monday of September[nb 1] while serving as secretary of the Central Labor Union (CLU) of New York.[6] Others argue that it was first proposed by Peter J. McGuire of the American Federation of Labor in May 1882,[7] after witnessing the annual labour festival held in Toronto, Canada.[8] In 1887, Oregon was the first state of the United States to make it an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty U.S. states officially celebrated Labor Day.[7] Thus by 1887 in North America, Labor Day was an established, official holiday but in September,[9] not on 1 May.

1 May was chosen to be International Workers’ Day to commemorate the 4 May 1886 Haymarket affair in Chicago. The police were trying to disperse a public assembly during a general strike for the eight-hour workday, when an unidentified person threw a bomb at the police. The police responded by firing on the workers, killing four demonstrators.[10][nb 2] The following day on 5 May in Milwaukee Wisconsin, the state militia fired on a crowd of strikers killing seven, including a schoolboy and a man feeding chickens in his yard.[12]

In 1889, a meeting in Paris was held by the first congress of the Second International, following a proposal by Raymond Lavigne that called for international demonstrations on the 1890 anniversary of the Chicago protests.[4] May Day was formally recognised as an annual event at the International’s second congress in 1891.[citation needed] Subsequently, the May Day riots of 1894 occurred. The International Socialist Congress, Amsterdam 1904 called on “all Social Democratic Party organisations and trade unions of all countries to demonstrate energetically on the First of May for the legal establishment of the 8-hour day, for the class demands of the proletariat, and for universal peace.”[5] The congress made it “mandatory upon the proletarian organisations of all countries to stop work on 1 May, wherever it is possible without injury to the workers.”[5]

May Day has been a focal point for demonstrations by various socialist, communist and anarchist groups since the Second International. May Day is one of the most important holidays in communist countries such as the People’s Republic of China, North Korea, Cuba and the former Soviet Union. May Day celebrations in these countries typically feature elaborate workforce parades, including displays of military hardware and soldiers.

In 1955, the Catholic Church dedicated 1 May to “Saint Joseph the Worker”. Saint Joseph is the patron saint of workers and craftsmen, among others.[13]

During the Cold War, May Day became the occasion for large military parades in Red Square by the Soviet Union and attended by the top leaders of the Kremlin, especially the Politburo, atop Lenin’s Mausoleum. It became an enduring symbol of that period.

Today, the majority of countries around the world celebrate a workers’ day on May 1.

#### Born on this day:

1579 – Wolphert Gerretse, Dutch-American farmer, co-founded New Netherland (d. 1662)
Wolphert Gerretse (1 May 1579 – 1662), also known as Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven and Wolfert Gerritsen Van Couwenhoven, was an original patentee, director of bouweries (farms), and a founder of the New Netherlands colony;[1] founder of the first European settlement on Long Island, New Amersfoort,[2] and a Schepen of New Amsterdam in 1654. “He played an active role in laying the foundations of the communities of Manhattan, Albany, Rensselaer, and Brooklyn.”[3]

Some descendants of Wolphert anglicized the surname “Van Kouwenhoven” to “Conover,” as well as “Crownover”, with Dennis Conover (born 1764) being the first direct descendent (4th Great Grandson) to use “‘Conover'” as his surname.[4]

Early life
Wolphert was born on 1 May 1579 in Amersfoort, Netherlands,[5] one of three sons of Gerrit Wolfert Suype Van Kouwenhoven and his wife, Styne Sara Roberts.[6]

Dutch West India Company
Gerretse ran a baking and clothes bleaching business, when in 1625 he was assigned as one of the first settlers to cultivate farms in the New Netherlands colony by the Dutch West India Company.[5]

Director of Bouweries for Kiliaen van Rensselaer
Following that service, in 1630 he returned to the Netherlands, where he entered into a contract with Kiliaen Van Rensselaer to return to the colony to manage his farms. Wolphert arrived back in the colony aboard the ship “Eendracht”,[7] where he proceeded in his duties as director for van Rensselaer’s farms in Rensselaerwyck and Fort Orange.[8] His contract was to run through 1636, but Gerretse requested it cancelled early so he could pursue his own interests. Rensselaer agreed. In 1632, Gerretse was released from his contractual obligations.[7]

New Amersfoort
Shortly thereafter, he leased a bouwerie in New Amsterdam[8] and managed it until 1636, when he was granted a patent of several hundred acres on Long Island. He called his plantation “Achervelt”; later it served as the founding of the town of New Amersfoort, named after Gerretse’s original home.[2] Today the area is known as Flatlands. His plantation was located near the current intersection of King’s Highway and Flatbush Avenue.

In 2007 the deed of the granted land in Long Island was sold to a private collector for $156,000 becoming “one of the oldest Dutch documents in private hands.” The deed dated June 6, 1663 is written in Dutch and outlines the purchase of the land (3,600-acre) from the Lenape Indians. [9] Public service In 1637, he became a Freeholder in Midwout, and again in 1641.[6] In 1653, he was sent by the colony to the States-General in the Netherlands as a Commissioner. In 1654, Wolphert served as a Schepen of New Amsterdam,[10] and in 1657 was made a Burgher.[11] He served on the citizens council of Eight Men. Marriage and children Gerretse died in 1662. A member of the Dutch Reformed Church, on 17 January 1605, he married Neeltje Jacobsdochter at the church in Amersfoort, Netherlands. With her he had three sons: Gerrit (b. 1610-d. 1648)-was a Representative at the Council of Eight in 1643[12] Jacob (b. 1612–1670)-assistant to Gov. Woulter Van Twiller, Representative at the Board of Nine in 1647, 1649–1650,[12] sat on the Court of Arbitrators between 1649–1650, Delegate of New Netherlands to the Hague in Holland[12][13] Pieter (b. 1614-d. 1699)-one of the first magistrates of New Netherlands, member of the Schepens Court 1653–1654, 1658–1659, 1661 and 1663, Delegate from New Amsterdam to the Convention of 1653, Lieutenant in the Esopus War, signer of the peace treaty 1664 with the Esopus Indians[12] Notable descendants U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt[5] U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt[5] U.S. Senator Sidney Breese[14] Astronomer John Monroe Van Vleck Governor William A. Newell (New Jersey) (founder United States Life-Saving Service)[15] Nobel Prize winner John Hasbrouck Van Vleck Cardiology pioneer William B. Kouwenhoven[16] Philanthropist Edward Harriman[17] Diplomat William Harriman[17] Railroad baron E.H. Harriman[17] Vice-Admiral Arthur S. Carpender Actress Diana Douglas (née Diana Dill; mother of actor Michael Douglas) Actor Michael Douglas[5] (by mother Diana) Honorary Consul of the Kingdom of Denmark, Christopher N. Smith Tennis Player Andy Roddick Governor Howard Dean Inventor Lloyd Conover Associate Supreme Court Justice Willis Van Devanter[18] Legacy Gerritsen Beach, Brooklyn, New York Kouwenhoven Lane, Brooklyn, New York #### FYI: Simple as that: 5 National Parks to Visit as a Family Visit US National Parks FREE in 2017 In 2017 the National Parks Service will be waiving all entrance fees on these 10 days: January 16—Martin Luther King Jr. Day February 20—Presidents Day April 15-16 and 22-23—Weekends of National Park Week August 25—National Park Service Birthday September 30—National Public Lands Day November 11-12—Veterans Day Weekend ## FYI April 30, 2017 April 30th is National Raisin Day April 30, 2017 – NATIONAL HAIRSTYLIST APPRECIATION DAY – NATIONAL MILITARY BRATS DAY – NATIONAL HONESTY DAY – NATIONAL ADOPT A SHELTER PET DAY – NATIONAL SARCOIDOSIS DAY – NATIONAL OATMEAL COOKIE DAY – NATIONAL PREPAREATHON! DAY – NATIONAL RAISIN DAY – NATIONAL PET PARENTS DAY Week of April 30 – May 6 NATIONAL DAY FLAVOR #### On this day: 1927 – The Federal Industrial Institute for Women opens in Alderson, West Virginia, as the first women’s federal prison in the United States. The Federal Prison Camp, Alderson (FPC Alderson) is a minimum-security United States federal prison for female inmates in West Virginia. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. FPC Alderson is located in two West Virginia counties, near the town of Alderson. A portion of the prison is located in unincorporated Monroe County, while the other portion of the prison, including the dormitories, lies in unincorporated Summers County.[2][3] Four other area towns, Hinton, Lewisburg, Ronceverte, and White Sulphur Springs, are within commuting distance of FPC Alderson.[4] History In the 1920s, there was a shortage of federal prison space for female inmates.[5] Women offenders either were given alternative punishments or were housed alone within all-male institutions. Prison staff and fellow inmates sexually exploited girls and women who were incarcerated in these facilities.[5] Mabel Walker Willebrandt, the Assistant U.S. Attorney General, first encouraged establishment of a facility for women.[6] FPC Alderson, which opened in 1927, was the first federal women’s prison in the United States.[7] It was opened during a reform movement in the 1920s to help reform female offenders.[8] The first warden, Mary B. Harris, was chosen by Mabel Willebrandt.[6] Despite later bureau mythology that Alderson opened its doors with moonshining women from the hills of West Virginia, 174 women had been sent to the facility in the first year of operation before its formal November 14, 1928, opening.[9] Serving as a model for prison reform at the time, it was styled after a boarding school offering education with no armed guards.[10] The facility followed a reformatory model with no fenced grounds.[5] The prison consisted of primarily work-oriented facilities designed for minor federal offenders. It originally consisted of fourteen cottages built in a horseshoe pattern on two-tiered slopes.[11] The offenders segregated by race in the cottages and each building contained a kitchen and rooms for about thirty women.[11] The vast majority of the women were imprisoned for drug and alcohol charges imposed during the Prohibition era.[12] Facility FPC Alderson is a 159-acre (64 ha) facility and is the largest employer in the Alderson, West Virginia area.[13] While there is no barbed wire on the fence surrounding the camp, the prisoners have schedules and each one must work. Inmates get holidays off except those who work in the powerhouse and kitchen.[14] From its beginning, Alderson’s staff members have maintained a focus on vocational training and personal growth experiences, with craft-shop activities an integral part of vocational training.[15] Free time is spent walking around the sidewalk that is set between the two dorms as this is within bounds for the inmates. Since 2004 inmates are no longer free to roam the entire campus and are restricted in areas of the prison. They also play recreational activities such as volleyball. Most of the inmates at FPC Alderson have been convicted of non-violent or white-collar crime. Many are in the drug program and have come from other prisons to attend the program at Alderson. They sleep in bunk beds in two large dormitories. The dormitories hold 500 plus inmates a piece. Each inmate sleeps in a 5-by-9-foot (1.5 m × 2.7 m) cinderblock cube inside of this open dormitory.[citation needed] The prison was nicknamed “Camp Cupcake” by members of the news media when Martha Stewart was sentenced to a five-month term there.[16] Local residents have also referred to it as “the college campus.”[16] It was called “Yale” by one-time attendee Martha Stewart.[17] By 2004, according to Alexandra Marks of The Independent, the operating model for Alderson followed “a punitive rather than a rehabilitative model”.[8] John Benish, the former co-manager of the Alderson Hospitality House, a hospitality establishment where families of Alderson inmates stay, said that FPC Alderson is “built like a college campus. There is lot of property, a lot of greenery and there is no barbed wire around.” The Alderson facility includes two dormitories with 500 inmates each. Inmates live in two person cubicles instead of traditional barred prison cells.[18] As of 2004, most prisoners at Alderson were convicted of recreational drug-related offenses. Esther Heffernan, a sociology professor at Edgewood College, said that throughout history the inmates included “relatives of famous mobsters and grandmotherly women who embezzled money from banks. You’ve had a real mixture.” Hefferman added that in Alderson, which was a “not undesirable” place to be confined, the isolation from urban life could be stressful for inmates. She said that the inmates, “Coming from the streets of New York and D.C.,” were awakened at night by crickets and frogs.[19] Prisoners are not permitted to patronize Alderson, West Virginia area businesses.[20] The facility allows weekend visits, but special hours are available for holidays.[14] In prior years the families of inmates were allowed past visiting rooms only on Thanksgiving Day when they could also share in a holiday feast for$1.75.[14]

FPC Alderson is one of six Federal and State Prisons participating in the paws4people TM paws4prisons TM Service Dog Training program. This program allows for college level classes and instruction in the raising and training of dogs to be placed with Veterans and Active Duty Military with PTSD, TBI and MST, as well as Adolescents with physiological, physical and other challenges. This program works as a re-entry program for Alderson inmates who are in demand as dog trainers upon release.

More on wiki:
Notable inmates (current and former)
Inmates released from custody prior to 1982 are not listed on the Federal Bureau of Prisons website.

#### Born on this day:

1857 – Eugen Bleuler, Swiss psychiatrist and eugenicist (d. 1940)
Paul Eugen Bleuler (German: [ˈɔɪɡeːn ˈblɔɪlər]; 30 April 1857 – 15 July 1939)[1] was a Swiss psychiatrist and eugenicist[2] most notable for his contributions to the understanding of mental illness and for coining the terms “schizophrenia”,[3][4] “schizoid”,[5] “autism”,[6] and what Sigmund Freud called “Bleuler’s happily chosen term ambivalence”.[7]
Biography
Bleuler was born in Zollikon, a town near Zürich in Switzerland, to Johann Rudolf Bleuler, a wealthy farmer, and Pauline Bleuler-Bleuler. He studied medicine in Zürich and following his graduation in 1881 he worked as a medical assistant to Gottlieb Burckhardt at the Waldau Psychiatric Clinic in Bern.[8] Leaving this post in 1884 he spent one year on medical study trips to Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris, to Bernhard von Gudden in Munich and to London.[8] Thereafter he returned to Zürich to take a post as an intern at the Burghölzli, a university hospital.

In 1886 Bleuler became the director of a psychiatric clinic at Rheinau, a hospital located in an old monastery on an island in the Rhine. It was noted at the time for being backward, and Bleuler set about improving conditions for the patients resident there.

Bleuler returned to the Burghölzli in 1898 where he was appointed director.

Relationship with Freud
Following his interest in hypnotism, especially in its “introspective” variant,[9] Bleuler became interested in Sigmund Freud’s work. He favorably reviewed Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud’s Studies on Hysteria.

Like Freud, Bleuler believed that complex mental processes could be unconscious. He encouraged his staff at the Burghölzli to study unconscious and psychotic mental phenomena. Influenced by Bleuler, Carl Jung and Franz Riklin used word association tests to integrate Freud’s theory of repression with empirical psychological findings. As a series of letters demonstrates (published in English in 2003), Bleuler performed a self-analysis with Freud, beginning in 1905.[10]

He found Freud’s movement to be over-dogmatic and resigned from the International Psychoanalytic Association in 1911, writing to Freud that “this ‘all or nothing’ is in my opinion necessary for religious communities and useful for political parties…but for science I consider it harmful”.[11] Bleuler remained interested in Freud’s work, citing him favourably, for example, in his often reprinted Textbook of Psychiatry (1916). He also supported the nomination of Freud for the Nobel Prize in the late twenties.[12]

Dementia Praecox, or the Group of Schizophrenias
Bleuler introduced the term “schizophrenia” to the world in a lecture in Berlin on 24 April 1908. However, perhaps as early as 1907 he and his colleagues had been using the term in Zurich to replace Emil Kraepelin’s term dementia praecox. He revised and expanded his schizophrenia concept in his seminal study of 1911, Dementia Praecox, oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien (Dementia Praecox, or Group of Schizophrenias), which was only translated into English in 1950 (by Joseph Zinkin). Like Kraepelin, Bleuler argued that dementia praecox, or “the schizophrenias,” was fundamentally a physical disease process characterized by exacerbations and remissions. No one was ever completely “cured” of schizophrenia—there was always some sort of lasting cognitive weakness or defect that was manifest in behavior. Unlike Kraepelin, he believed that the overall prognosis was not uniformly grim, the “dementia” was a secondary symptom not directly caused by the underlying biological process (three other “fundamental symtpoms,” deficits in associations, affectivity and ambivalence, were), and that the biological disease was much more prevalent in the population due to its “simple” and especially “latent” forms. Bleuler wrote in 1911: “When the disease process flares up, it is more correct, in my view, to talk in terms of deteriorating attacks, rather than its recurrence. Of course the term recurrence is more comforting to a patient and his relatives than the notion of progressively deteriorating attacks.” (See Noll, American Madness, pages 236-242). The eugenic sterilization of persons diagnosed with (and viewed as predisposed to) schizophrenia was advocated by Bleuler.[13] He believed racial deterioration would result from the propagation of mental and physical cripples in his Textbook of Psychiatry:[14]

The more severely burdened should not propagate themselves… If we do nothing but make mental and physical cripples capable of propagating themselves, and the healthy stocks have to limit the number of their children because so much has to be done for the maintenance of others, if natural selection is generally suppressed, then unless we will get new measures our race must rapidly deteriorate.

He believed the disease’s central characteristics to be the product of a process of splitting between the emotional and the intellectual functions of the personality.[15] He favoured early discharge from hospital into a community environment to avoid institutionalisation.[16]

Further contributions
Bleuler also explored the concept of moral idiocy,[17] and the relationship between neurosis and alcoholism.[18] He followed Freud in seeing sexuality as a potent influence upon anxiety,[19] pondered on the origins of the sense of guilt, and studied the process of what he termed switching (the affective shift from love to hate, for example).[20]

Bleuler was known for his clinical observation and willingness to let symptoms speak for themselves, as well as for his skillful expository writings.[21]

## FYI April 29, 2017

April 29th is National Shrimp Scampi Day!

April 29, 2017 – NATIONAL ZIPPER DAY – NATIONAL PEACE ROSE DAY – NATIONAL SHRIMP SCAMPI DAY – NATIONAL KISS OF HOPE DAY – NATIONAL POOL OPENING DAY – NATIONAL SENSE OF SMELL DAY – NATIONAL REBUILDING DAY

#### On this day:

1944 – World War II: British agent Nancy Wake, a leading figure in the French Resistance and the Gestapo’s most wanted person, parachutes back into France to be a liaison between London and the local maquis group.
Nancy Grace Augusta Wake AC, GM (30 August 1912 – 7 August 2011) served as a British Special Operations Executive agent during the later part of World War II. She became a leading figure in the maquis groups of the French Resistance and was one of the most decorated servicewomen of the war by the Allies. After the fall of France in 1940, she became a courier for the French Resistance and later joined the escape network of Captain Ian Garrow. By 1943, Wake was the Gestapo’s most wanted person, with a 5-million-franc price on her head.

After reaching Britain, Wake joined the Special Operations Executive. On the night of 29–30 April 1944, Wake was parachuted into occupied France Auvergne, becoming a liaison between London and the local maquis group headed by Captain Henri Tardivat in the Forest of Tronçais. From April 1944 until the liberation of France, her 7,000+ maquisards fought 22,000 German soldiers, causing 1,400 casualties, while suffering only 100 among themselves.

Wartime service and Special Operations Executive
In 1937, Wake met wealthy French industrialist Henri Edmond Fiocca (1898–1943), whom she married on 30 November 1939. She was living in Marseille, France when Germany invaded. After the fall of France in 1940, she became a courier for the French Resistance and later, joined the escape network of Captain Ian Garrow. In reference to Wake’s ability to elude capture, the Gestapo called her the White Mouse. The Resistance exercised caution with her missions; her life was in constant danger, with the Gestapo tapping her telephone and intercepting her mail.[4]

In November 1942, Wehrmacht troops occupied the southern part of France after the Allies’ Operation Torch had started. This gave the Gestapo unrestricted access to all papers of the Vichy régime and made life more dangerous for Wake.[citation needed] By 1943, Wake was the Gestapo’s most wanted person, with a price of 5 million francs on her head. When the network was betrayed that same year, she decided to flee Marseille. Her husband, Henri Fiocca, stayed behind. He later was captured, tortured, and executed by the Gestapo.[5] Wake described her tactics: “A little powder and a little drink on the way, and I’d pass their (German) posts and wink and say, ‘Do you want to search me?’ God, what a flirtatious little bastard I was.”[6]

Wake had been arrested in Toulouse,[when?] but was released four days later. An acquaintance, (Scarlet Pimpernel), managed to have her let out by making up stories about her supposed infidelity to her husband.[7] On her sixth attempt, she succeeded in crossing the Pyrenees to Spain. Until the war ended, she was unaware of her husband’s death and subsequently, blamed herself for it.[8]

After reaching Britain, Wake joined the Special Operations Executive. Vera Atkins, who also worked in the SOE, recalls her as “a real Australian bombshell. Tremendous vitality, flashing eyes. Everything she did, she did well.” Training reports record that she was “a very good and fast shot” and possessed excellent fieldcraft. She was noted to “put the men to shame by her cheerful spirit and strength of character.”[8]

On the night of 29–30 April 1944, Wake was parachuted into the Auvergne, becoming a liaison between London and the local maquis group headed by Captain Henri Tardivat in the Forest of Tronçais. Upon discovering her tangled in a tree, Captain Tardivat greeted her remarking, “I hope that all the trees in France bear such beautiful fruit this year.”, to which she replied, “Don’t give me that French shit.”[5][9] Her duties included allocating arms and equipment that were parachuted in and minding the group’s finances. Wake became instrumental in recruiting more members and making the maquis groups into a formidable force, roughly 7,500 strong. She also led attacks on German installations and the local Gestapo HQ in Montluçon.[9] At one point Wake discovered that her men were protecting a girl who was a German spy. They did not have the heart to kill her in cold blood, but when Wake insisted that she would perform the execution, they capitulated.[10]

From April 1944 until the liberation of France, her 7,000+ maquisards fought 22,000 German soldiers, causing 1,400 casualties, while suffering only 100 among themselves. Her French companions, especially Henri Tardivat, praised her fighting spirit, amply demonstrated when she killed an SS sentry with her bare hands to prevent him from raising the alarm during a raid. During a 1990s television interview, when asked what had happened to the sentry who spotted her, Wake simply drew her finger across her throat. “They’d taught this judo-chop stuff with the flat of the hand at SOE, and I practised away at it. But this was the only time I used it – whack – and it killed him all right. I was really surprised.”[6]

On another occasion, to replace codes her wireless operator had been forced to destroy in a German raid, Wake rode a bicycle for more than 500 kilometres (310 mi) through several German checkpoints.[4] During a German attack on another maquis group, Wake, along with two American officers, took command of a section whose leader had been killed. She directed the use of suppressive fire, which facilitated the withdrawal of the group without further losses.[8]

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#### Born on this day:

1854 – Henri Poincaré, French mathematician, physicist, and engineer (d. 1912)
Jules Henri Poincaré (French: [ʒyl ɑ̃ʁi pwɛ̃kaʁe];[2][3] 29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as The Last Universalist by Eric Temple Bell,[4] since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime.

As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics.[5] He was responsible for formulating the Poincaré conjecture, which was one of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics until it was solved in 2002–2003 by Grigori Perelman. In his research on the three-body problem, Poincaré became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern chaos theory. He is also considered to be one of the founders of the field of topology.

Poincaré made clear the importance of paying attention to the invariance of laws of physics under different transformations, and was the first to present the Lorentz transformations in their modern symmetrical form. Poincaré discovered the remaining relativistic velocity transformations and recorded them in a letter to Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz (1853–1928) in 1905. Thus he obtained perfect invariance of all of Maxwell’s equations, an important step in the formulation of the theory of special relativity. In 1905, Poincaré first proposed gravitational waves (ondes gravifiques) emanating from a body and propagating at the speed of light as being required by the Lorentz transformations.

The Poincaré group used in physics and mathematics was named after him.

Life
Poincaré was born on 29 April 1854 in Cité Ducale neighborhood, Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle into an influential family.[6] His father Leon Poincaré (1828–1892) was a professor of medicine at the University of Nancy.[7] His adored younger sister Aline married the spiritual philosopher Emile Boutroux. Another notable member of Henri’s family was his cousin, Raymond Poincaré, who would serve as President of France from 1913 to 1920, and who was a fellow member of the Académie française.[8] He was raised in the Roman Catholic faith, but later left the religion. He became a freethinker, believing in the search for truth and was said to be an atheist.[9][10][11]

Education
During his childhood he was seriously ill for a time with diphtheria and received special instruction from his mother, Eugénie Launois (1830–1897).

In 1862, Henri entered the Lycée in Nancy (now renamed the Lycée Henri Poincaré in his honour, along with the University of Nancy). He spent eleven years at the Lycée and during this time he proved to be one of the top students in every topic he studied. He excelled in written composition. His mathematics teacher described him as a “monster of mathematics” and he won first prizes in the concours général, a competition between the top pupils from all the Lycées across France. His poorest subjects were music and physical education, where he was described as “average at best”.[12] However, poor eyesight and a tendency towards absentmindedness may explain these difficulties.[13] He graduated from the Lycée in 1871 with a bachelor’s degree in letters and sciences.

During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, he served alongside his father in the Ambulance Corps.

Poincaré entered the École Polytechnique in 1873 and graduated in 1875. There he studied mathematics as a student of Charles Hermite, continuing to excel and publishing his first paper (Démonstration nouvelle des propriétés de l’indicatrice d’une surface) in 1874. From November 1875 to June 1878 he studied at the École des Mines, while continuing the study of mathematics in addition to the mining engineering syllabus, and received the degree of ordinary mining engineer in March 1879.[14]

As a graduate of the École des Mines, he joined the Corps des Mines as an inspector for the Vesoul region in northeast France. He was on the scene of a mining disaster at Magny in August 1879 in which 18 miners died. He carried out the official investigation into the accident in a characteristically thorough and humane way.

At the same time, Poincaré was preparing for his doctorate in science in mathematics under the supervision of Charles Hermite. His doctoral thesis was in the field of differential equations. It was named Sur les propriétés des fonctions définies par les équations aux différences partielles. Poincaré devised a new way of studying the properties of these equations. He not only faced the question of determining the integral of such equations, but also was the first person to study their general geometric properties. He realised that they could be used to model the behaviour of multiple bodies in free motion within the solar system. Poincaré graduated from the University of Paris in 1879.

First scientific achievements
After receiving his degree, Poincaré began teaching as junior lecturer in mathematics at the University of Caen in Normandy (in December 1879). At the same time he published his first major article concerning the treatment of a class of automorphic functions.

There, in Caen, he met his future wife, Louise Poulin d’Andesi (Louise Poulain d’Andecy) and on 20 April 1881, they married. Together they had four children: Jeanne (born 1887), Yvonne (born 1889), Henriette (born 1891), and Léon (born 1893).

Poincaré immediately established himself among the greatest mathematicians of Europe, attracting the attention of many prominent mathematicians. In 1881 Poincaré was invited to take a teaching position at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris; he accepted the invitation. During the years of 1883 to 1897, he taught mathematical analysis in École Polytechnique.

In 1881–1882, Poincaré created a new branch of mathematics: the qualitative theory of differential equations. He showed how it is possible to derive the most important information about the behavior of a family of solutions without having to solve the equation (since this may not always be possible). He successfully used this approach to problems in celestial mechanics and mathematical physics.

Career
He never fully abandoned his mining career to mathematics. He worked at the Ministry of Public Services as an engineer in charge of northern railway development from 1881 to 1885. He eventually became chief engineer of the Corps de Mines in 1893 and inspector general in 1910.

Beginning in 1881 and for the rest of his career, he taught at the University of Paris (the Sorbonne). He was initially appointed as the maître de conférences d’analyse (associate professor of analysis).[15] Eventually, he held the chairs of Physical and Experimental Mechanics, Mathematical Physics and Theory of Probability, and Celestial Mechanics and Astronomy.

In 1887, at the young age of 32, Poincaré was elected to the French Academy of Sciences. He became its president in 1906, and was elected to the Académie française in 1909.

In 1887, he won Oscar II, King of Sweden’s mathematical competition for a resolution of the three-body problem concerning the free motion of multiple orbiting bodies. (See #Three-body problem section below)

In 1893, Poincaré joined the French Bureau des Longitudes, which engaged him in the synchronisation of time around the world. In 1897 Poincaré backed an unsuccessful proposal for the decimalisation of circular measure, and hence time and longitude.[16] It was this post which led him to consider the question of establishing international time zones and the synchronisation of time between bodies in relative motion. (See #Work on relativity section below)

In 1899, and again more successfully in 1904, he intervened in the trials of Alfred Dreyfus. He attacked the spurious scientific claims of some of the evidence brought against Dreyfus, who was a Jewish officer in the French army charged with treason by colleagues.

Poincaré was the President of the Société Astronomique de France (SAF), the French astronomical society, from 1901-1903.[17]

In 1912, Poincaré underwent surgery for a prostate problem and subsequently died from an embolism on 17 July 1912, in Paris. He was 58 years of age. He is buried in the Poincaré family vault in the Cemetery of Montparnasse, Paris.

A former French Minister of Education, Claude Allègre, proposed in 2004 that Poincaré be reburied in the Panthéon in Paris, which is reserved for French citizens only of the highest honour.[18]
Students

Poincaré had two notable doctoral students at the University of Paris, Louis Bachelier (1900) and Dimitrie Pompeiu (1905).[19]

Work
Summary

Poincaré made many contributions to different fields of pure and applied mathematics such as: celestial mechanics, fluid mechanics, optics, electricity, telegraphy, capillarity, elasticity, thermodynamics, potential theory, quantum theory, theory of relativity and physical cosmology.

He was also a populariser of mathematics and physics and wrote several books for the lay public.

Among the specific topics he contributed to are the following:

algebraic topology
the theory of analytic functions of several complex variables
the theory of abelian functions
algebraic geometry
Poincaré was responsible for formulating one of the most famous problems in mathematics, the Poincaré conjecture, proven in 2003 by Grigori Perelman.
Poincaré recurrence theorem
hyperbolic geometry
number theory
the three-body problem
the theory of diophantine equations
the theory of electromagnetism
the special theory of relativity
In an 1894 paper, he introduced the concept of the fundamental group.
In the field of differential equations Poincaré has given many results that are critical for the qualitative theory of differential equations, for example the Poincaré sphere and the Poincaré map.
Poincaré on “everybody’s belief” in the Normal Law of Errors (see normal distribution for an account of that “law”)
Published an influential paper providing a novel mathematical argument in support of quantum mechanics.[20][21]

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#### FYI:

The 100 Days Project
During the highly contentious political climate in this country, the terms “fascism” and “Nazi Germany” have been tossed around quite freely by both sides of the political spectrum. As a response to this and in an effort to provide some clarity of what fascism in Nazi Germany actually looked like, we at the Emory University German Department initiated a research project that aims to document the first 100 days of National Socialism- from the day that Adolf Hitler was named Reichskanzler on January 30, 1933 until May 9, 1933.

The general plan for our project is that our research team will work its way through the 100 days, investigating and documenting the events of each day and then posting the findings on a daily basis for public consumption.

Ellie Shechet: ‘The Law Penalizes Us for Remaining Silent’: New York Sex Abuse Survivors Won’t Stop Pushing for Reform