1831 – Samuel Francis Smith writes “My Country, ‘Tis of Thee” for the Boston, Massachusetts July 4 festivities.
“My Country, ‘Tis of Thee”, also known as “America”, is an American patriotic song, whose lyrics were written by Samuel Francis Smith. The melody used is the same as that of the national anthem of the United Kingdom, “God Save the Queen”, arranged by Thomas Arne. The song served as one of the de facto national anthems of the United States (along with songs like “Hail, Columbia”) before the adoption of “The Star-Spangled Banner” as the official anthem in 1931.
1826 – Stephen Foster, American songwriter and composer (d. 1864)
Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 – January 13, 1864), known as “the father of American music”, was an American songwriter primarily known for his parlor and minstrel music. Foster wrote over 200 songs; among his best-known are “Oh! Susanna”, “Hard Times Come Again No More”, “Camptown Races”, “Old Folks at Home” (“Swanee River”), “My Old Kentucky Home”, “Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair”, “Old Black Joe”, and “Beautiful Dreamer”. Many of his compositions remain popular more than 150 years after he wrote them. His compositions are thought to be autobiographical. He has been identified as “the most famous songwriter of the nineteenth century” and may be the most recognizable American composer in other countries. His compositions are sometimes referred to as “childhood songs” because they have been included in the music curriculum of early education. Most of his handwritten music manuscripts are lost, but copies printed by publishers of his day can be found in various collections.
List of songs written by Stephen Foster
This is a list of songs written by Stephen Foster (1826-1864) including those published posthumously. Foster may have written words and/or music for each song.
Several of Foster’s songs have alternate titles which are included in the “Title” column along with the original title. The original title is always given first.
Remembering July 4, 1944…when WASP Susan Parker Clarke will killed flying for our country.
Susan was born in Cooperstown, New York, 1918. After graduating high school, she attended secretarial school in New York City. She earned her pilot’s license and had completed 35 hours when she was accepted into AAF Flight training.
She reported to Avenger Field in September, 1943 and graduated on March 11 as a member of class 44-W-2. After earning her silver WASP wings, Susan was sent to Fairfax Field, Kansas City, Missouri as a ferry pilot. She was killed on July 4, 1944 when the BT-13 she was ferrying crashed near Columbia, South Carolina.
On this July 4, 73 years later, may we never forget her sacrifice.
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I am recently returned from three weeks in England–our eleventh trip there. Of all these trips and all the stately homes I’ve visited, I’ve never been able to see Althorp, the ancestral home of the Spencers, Princess Diana’s illustrious family. The home is still owned by the family, her brother Earl Spencer, age 53. It’s usually open to the public in August, but I’ve never visited England in August because Europeans holiday at that time, and I don’t like crowds.
When I discovered the home was to be open to the public from noon to 5 on Father’s Day, I was ecstatic.
Little did I know that single trip to Althorp would be the most memorable in a long list of memorable trips. And not in a good way.
1754 – French and Indian War: George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to French forces.
The Battle of Fort Necessity (also called the Battle of the Great Meadows) took place on July 3, 1754, in what is now the mountaintop hamlet of Farmington in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. The engagement was one of the first battles of the French and Indian War and George Washington’s only military surrender. The battle, along with the May 28 Battle of Jumonville Glen, contributed to a series of military escalations that resulted in the global Seven Years’ War.
Washington built Fort Necessity on an alpine meadow west of the summit of a pass through the Allegheny Mountains. Another pass nearby leads to Confluence, Pennsylvania; to the west, Nemacolin’s Trail begins its descent to Uniontown, Pennsylvania, and other parts of Fayette County along the relatively low altitudes of the Allegheny Plateau.
Main article: French and Indian War
Throughout the 1740s and early 1750s, British and French traders had increasingly come into contact in the Ohio Country, including the upper watershed of the Ohio River in what is now western Pennsylvania. Authorities in New France became more aggressive in their efforts to expel British traders and colonists from this area, and in 1753 began construction of a series of fortifications in the area. In previous wars, the Québecois had more than held their own against the English colonials.
The French action drew the attention of not just the British, but also the Indian tribes of the area. Despite good Franco-Indian relations, British traders became successful in convincing the Indians to trade with them in preference to the Canadiens, and the planned large-scale advance was not well received by all. The reason for this was that they had to provide them with the goods that the Anglo-American traders had previously supplied, and at similar prices. This proved to be singularly difficult. With the exception of one or two Montreal merchant traders, the Canadians showed a great reluctance to venture into the Ohio country. In particular, Tanacharison, a Mingo chief also known as the “Half King”, became anti-French as a consequence. In a meeting with Paul Marin de la Malgue, commander of the Canadian construction force, the latter reportedly lost his temper, and shouted at the Indian chief, “I tell you, down the river I will go. If the river is blocked up, I have the forces to burst it open and tread under my feet all that oppose me. I despise all the stupid things you have said.” He then threw down some wampum that Tanacharison had offered as a good will gesture. Marin died not long after, and command of the operations was turned over to Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre.
Virginia colonial Lieutenant Colonel George Washington was sent by Governor Robert Dinwiddie to travel from Williamsburg to Fort LeBeouf in the Ohio Territory (a territory claimed by several of the British colonies, including Virginia) as an emissary in December 1753, to deliver a letter. Saint-Pierre politely informed Washington that he was there pursuant to orders, and Washington’s letter should have been addressed to his commanding officer in Canada.
Washington returned to Williamsburg and informed Governor Dinwiddie that the French refused to leave. Dinwiddie ordered Washington to begin raising a militia regiment to hold the Forks of the Ohio, in present-day Pittsburgh, a site Washington had identified as a fine location for a fortress. The governor also issued a captain’s commission to Ohio Company employee William Trent, with instructions to raise a small force and immediately begin construction of a fortification on the Ohio. Dinwiddie issued these instructions on his own authority, without even asking for funding from the Virginia House of Burgesses until after the fact. Trent’s company arrived on site in February 1754, and began construction of a storehouse and stockade with the assistance of Tanacharison and the Mingos. In response, the Canadians sent a force of about 500 men, Canadian, French, and Indians under Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur (rumors reaching Trent’s men put its size at 1,000). On April 16, they arrived at the forks; the next day, Trent’s force of 36 men, led by Ensign Edward Ward in Trent’s absence, agreed to leave the site. The Canadians tore down the British works, and began construction of the fort they called Fort Duquesne.
1743 – Sophia Magdalena of Denmark (d. 1813)
Sophia Magdalena of Denmark (Danish: Sofie Magdalene; 3 July 1746 – 21 August 1813) was Queen of Sweden as the spouse of King Gustav III.
Princess Sofie Magdalene was born on 3 July 1746 at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen as the eldest surviving child of King Frederick V of Denmark and his first consort, the former Princess Louise of Great Britain. She was the heir presumptive to the throne of Denmark from the death of her elder brother in 1747 until the birth of her second brother in 1749, and retained her status as next in line to the Danish throne after her brother until her marriage. She was therefore often referred to as Crown Princess of Denmark.
In the spring of 1751, at the age of five, she was betrothed to Gustav, the heir apparent to the throne of Sweden, and she was brought up to be the Queen of Sweden. The marriage was arranged by the Riksdag of the Estates, not by the Swedish royal family. The marriage was arranged as a way of creating peace between Sweden and Denmark, which had a long history of war and which had strained relations following the election of an heir to the Swedish throne in 1743, where the Danish candidate had lost. The engagement was met with some worry from Queen Louise, who feared that her daughter would be mistreated by the Queen of Sweden, Louisa Ulrika of Prussia. The match was known to be disliked by the Queen of Sweden, who was in constant conflict with the Parliament; and who was known in Denmark for her pride, dominant personality and hatred of anything Danish, which she demonstrated in her treatment of the Danish ambassadors in Stockholm.
After the death of her mother early in her life, Sophia Magdalena was given a very strict and religious upbringing by her grandmother and her stepmother, who considered her father and brother to be morally degenerate. She is noted to have had good relationships with her siblings, her grandmother and her stepmother; her father, however, often frightened her when he came before her drunk, and was reportedly known to set his dogs upon her, causing in her a lifelong phobia.
In 1760, the betrothal was again brought up by Denmark, which regarded it as a matter of prestige. The negotiations were made between Denmark and the Swedish Queen, as King Adolf Frederick of Sweden was never considered to be of any more than purely formal importance. Louisa Ulrika favored a match between Gustav and her niece Philippine of Brandenburg-Schwedt instead, and claimed that she regarded the engagement to be void and forced upon her by Carl Gustaf Tessin. She negotiated with Catherine the Great and her brother Frederick the Great to create some political benefit for Denmark in exchange for a broken engagement. However, the Swedish public was very favorable to the match due to expectations Sophia Magdalena would be like the last Danish-born Queen of Sweden, Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark, who was very loved for her kindness and charity. This view was supported by the Caps political party, which expected Sophia Magdalena to be an example of a virtuous and religious representative of the monarchy in contrast to the haughty Louisa Ulrika. Fredrick V of Denmark was also eager to complete the match: “His Danish Majesty could not have the interests of his daughter sacrificed because of the prejudices and whims of the Swedish Queen”. In 1764 Crown Prince Gustav, who was at this point eager to free himself from his mother and form his own household, used the public opinion to state to his mother that he wished to honor the engagement, and on 3 April 1766, the engagement was officially celebrated. When a portrait of Sophia Magdalena was displayed in Stockholm, Louisa Ulrika commented: “why Gustav, you seem to be already in love with her! She looks stupid”, after which she turned to Prince Charles and added: “She would suit you better!”
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626 – Li Shimin, the future Emperor Taizong of Tang, ambushes and kills his rival brothers Li Yuanji and Li Jiancheng in the Xuanwu Gate Incident.
The Xuanwu Gate Incident (玄武門之變) was a palace coup for the throne of the Tang dynasty on 2 July 626,[a] when Prince Li Shimin (Prince of Qin) and his followers assassinated Crown Prince Li Jiancheng and Prince Li Yuanji (Prince of Qi). Li Shimin, the second son of Emperor Gaozu, was in an intense rivalry with his elder brother Li Jiancheng and younger brother Li Yuanji. He took control and set up an ambush at Xuanwu Gate, the northern gate leading to the Palace City of the imperial capital Chang’an. There, Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji were assassinated by Li Shimin and his men. Within three days after the coup, Li Shimin was installed as the crown prince. Emperor Gaozu abdicated another sixty days later and passed the throne to Li Shimin, who would become known as Emperor Taizong.
1575 – Elizabeth de Vere, Countess of Derby, British businessman (d. 1627)
Elizabeth de Vere, Countess of Derby, Lord of Mann (2 July 1575 – 10 March 1627), was an English noblewoman and the eldest daughter of the Elizabethan courtier, poet, and playwright Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford.
She was the Lord of Mann from 1612 to 1627, and prior to holding the title, she had taken over many administrative duties appertaining to the Isle of Man’s affairs. Elizabeth was the first female to rule as the island’s head of state.
She served as a Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England before her marriage to William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby. Their wedding is one of eleven that have been suggested as the inspiration for William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and the occasion of the play’s first performance.
Family and early years
Elizabeth Vere was born on 2 July 1575 at Theobalds House, Hertfordshire, the eldest surviving daughter of Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, and Anne Cecil, the daughter of statesman William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Queen Elizabeth I’s chief advisor and leading member of her Privy Council. Anne’s mother was Mildred Cooke, Burghley’s second wife, and Elizabeth was baptised on 10 July.
As Elizabeth’s birth had occurred while her father was abroad touring the Continent, upon his return to England he suspected her mother of adultery, and separated from her. They were later reconciled in January 1582, when Elizabeth was acknowledged as her father’s child.
Elizabeth had two younger sisters, Bridget and Susan. Her brother, Lord Bulbecke, died in 1583 as an infant, and she had another sister, Frances, who died in 1587. She also had an illegitimate half-brother, Edward Vere, by her father’s notorious affair with Anne Vavasour, the Queen’s Lady of the Bedchamber. The birth of this child in March 1581 caused the arrest of both her father and his mistress.
Following the death of Anne Cecil on 5 June 1588, Elizabeth and her sisters remained in the household of their maternal grandfather, Lord Burghley, where they received an excellent education. In 1591 Elizabeth’s father married secondly, Elizabeth Trentham, who on 24 February 1593 gave birth to a son, Henry, who would later succeed as 18th Earl of Oxford.
Lady Elizabeth went to court where she served as one of Queen Elizabeth’s Maids of Honour. She held this position until her marriage.
Marriage and issue
By 1590 Burghley was negotiating with Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montague, and Mary Wriothesley, Countess of Southampton, for a marriage between Elizabeth and Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton. However the match was not to Southampton’s liking, and in a letter written in November 1594, about six weeks after Southampton had turned 21, the Jesuit Henry Garnet reported the rumour that ‘The young Erle of Southampton refusing the Lady Veere payeth £5000 of present payment’.
Lord Burghley soon found Elizabeth another husband. On 26 January 1595, she married William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby (1561 – 29 September 1642), at Greenwich Palace in the presence of Queen Elizabeth. It has been claimed that William Shakespeare wrote A Midsummer Night’s Dream for the occasion of their wedding, and that the play was first performed at the wedding banquet, though the wedding of Sir Thomas Berkeley to Elizabeth Carey is the most popular candidate. In the early years of their marriage, the couple’s relationship was tempestuous and there were persistent rumours that Elizabeth had had affairs with Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and Walter Ralegh. The allegations concerning her relationship with Essex were particularly strong in 1596 and 1597. Whether there was any truth in the rumours remains unknown.
They made their principal home at Knowsley Hall, and had five children:
Lady Anne Stanley (c.1600 – February 1657), married firstly, Sir Henry Portman; secondly Robert Kerr, 1st Earl of Ancram, by whom she had issue.
James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby (31 January 1607 – 15 October 1651), married Charlotte de la Tremoille, by whom he had issue.
Sir Robert Stanley (died 1632), married Elizabeth Gorges, by whom he had issue. His line eventually became extinct.
Elizabeth Stanley (died young)
Elizabeth Stanley (died young)
In art and literature
Lady Elizabeth’s portrait was painted at an unknown date by an artist whose name is not known.
Henry Lok wrote a sonnet to Elizabeth, published with Lok’s other sonnets by Richard Field in 1597.
Lord of Mann
As the Earls of Derby were the hereditary heads of state of the Isle of Man, and Elizabeth’s husband took up the title of Lord of Mann in 1609 (following an Act of Parliament), she, in lieu of her husband, began taking over many administrative duties appertaining to the Isle’s political affairs. That same year she attempted to influence business on behalf of the Isle, and there is a letter extant, written on 15 September 1609 by Elizabeth to her uncle Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, regarding the shipment of money from the Isle of Man. In 1612, Elizabeth was appointed the first female Lord of Mann, a title she held until her death in 1627. She was succeeded by her eldest son, James.
Elizabeth died on 10 March 1627 at Richmond, Surrey, and was buried the next day in Westminster Abbey, London. On her tomb, which she shares with her mother, grandmother, and sisters, is her effigy.
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1523 – Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes become the first Lutheran martyrs, burned at the stake by Roman Catholic authorities in Brussels.
Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes were the first two Lutheran martyrs executed by the Council of Brabant for their adherence to Reformation doctrine. They were burned at the stake in Brussels on 1 July 1523.
Esch and Voes were Augustinian monks of Saint Augustine’s Monastery in Antwerp. When in 1522 all the monks there publicly professed Lutheran doctrine, the Bishop of Cambrai had them all arrested and imprisoned in Vilvorde, where they were interrogated by Jacob van Hoogstraten from Cologne and some dependably Catholic professors. When the monks realized that they risked being burned alive if they did not recant, all except three—Johann Esch, Heinrich Voes, and Lampertus Thorn—recanted. The recanting monks were released but were not returned to the monastery, which instead was declared defiled and soon demolished.
Refusal to recant
Esch, Voes, and Thorn, still held in custody, were questioned again by the ecclesiastical inquisition court, but they refused to recant. They were then handed over to the secular court and sentenced to death. They were taken to Brussels and held until the appointed day of execution on July 1, 1523. New attempts were made meanwhile to get them to renounce. Voes was brought first to the inquisitors, but he refused to recant. Esch also refused to renounce Lutheranism. Thorn asked for an additional four-day period to study the scriptures with respect to his views, and thus he was not executed then with Esch and Voes. Esch and Voes were summarily delivered to the executioner, brought to the marketplace in Brussels, and burned alive. For some reason, the charges against them were not read aloud as was the established practice; it has been conjectured that the authorities were concerned that hearing the charges might cause Lutheran ideas to spread among the public witnesses or that the ideas were already there and would ignite a protest. Thorn was spared in prison for an additional five years, dying in prison in 1528.
On learning of the execution of Esch and Voes, Martin Luther wrote what is thought to be his first hymn, “Ein neues Lied wir heben an” (“A new song we raise”) which was printed in the Erfurt Enchiridion of 1524. This is generally known in English as John C. Messenger’s translation by the first line and title “Flung to the Heedless Winds” and sung to tune IBSTONE composed in 1875 by Maria C. Tiddeman or to tune DENBY composed in 1904 by Charles J. Dale).
1725 – Rhoda Delaval, English painter (d. 1757)
Rhoda Delaval Astley (1 July 1725 – 1757) was an English aristocrat and artist. She was married to Edward Astley, with whom she had a daughter and three sons. Lady Astley studied painting with Arthur Pond, who painted her portrait. Seaton Delaval Hall passed from the Delaval family to the Astley family through her descendants.
Rhoda Delaval was born on 1 July 1725 to Captain Francis Blake Delaval (the elder) and Rhoda Apreece and baptized at St George’s, Hanover Square in London on 22 July 1725.:133 She was their oldest daughter of 12 children. Her siblings were Anne Hussey, Mary Elizabeth, Sarah, Robert, George, Henry, Ralph, Francis, Edward, Thomas, John. Two years after her birth, her brother, Sir Francis Blake Delaval (the younger) (1727–1771) was born. A brother George, who died as a young adult, also pursued the art of painting with her instructor, Arthur Pond. She was known to be a talented, beautiful woman. One of her sisters was Sarah, Countess of Mexborough.
Marriage and children
On 23 May 1751, she married Edward Astley, who became the 4th Baronet of Melton Constable. They lived at 11 Downing Street when in London. Astley gave birth to four children, one daughter and three sons. Editha Rhoda was born 14 April 1755 and died by 12 May, when she was brought to be buried. Edward was born and died by 1757 and Francis was born in 1757.:133–134 Sir Jacob Henry Astley, 5th Baronet was born 12 September 1756.:134
She died in 1757 following the birth of Francis:133–134 and was buried 21 October 1757 at Widcombe, Bath with her son Edward and daughter Edith Rhoda at a church near the manor.:133–134
Edward Astley lived at Melton Constable with his children after her death. Her letters, before and after her marriage, describe the personal daily lives of the people she knew in Northumberland. As the result of Edward and Rhoda’s marriage, Seaton Delaval Hall came into the Astley family in 1814 through Jacob, when none of her brothers produced a male heir.:134
Periodically between 1744 and 1750, Astley studied art under Arthur Pond, who also painted her portrait. She purchased prints for about £1,500 (equivalent to £212,816 in 2015) from Pond.
The National Portrait Gallery has the painting of her drawing with pastels. Her painting of Sir Jacob Astley, 1st Baron Astley of Reading was made from a 17th-century original painting. She made a painting of herself and her brother entitled Painting and Poetry, patterned after Bernardino Luini. The painting of Anne Hussey Delaval (1737–1812), Lady Stanhope in the National Trust is attributed to Rhoda Delaval and is loan by Lord Hastings. Lady Anne Delaval Stanhope was Astley’s sister.:183 She had been commissioned, for a total of about £300 (equivalent to £42,563 in 2015), to paint portraits of her sisters and brothers.
James MacArdell made an engraving of her self-portrait. In 1756, her portrait was painted by Joshua Reynolds and the painting was at Ford Castle in 1897. Another painting of her is in Doddington Hall, Lincolnshire.:133
“Keep your attention focused entirely on what is truly your own concern, and be clear that what belongs to others is their business and none of yours.”
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Therese Willkomm, Ph.D.
Therese Willkomm, PhD, is the Director of New Hampshire’s State Assistive Technology Program with the Institute on Disability at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and is an associate professor in the Department of Occupational Therapy.
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1688 – The Immortal Seven issue the Invitation to William (continuing the English rebellion from Rome), which would culminate in the Glorious Revolution.
The Invitation to William was a letter sent by seven notable Englishmen, later named the Immortal Seven, to William III, Prince of Orange, received by him on 30 June 1688 (Julian calendar, 10 July Gregorian calendar). In England a Catholic male heir to the throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, had been born, and the letter asked William to force the ruling king, his uncle and father-in-law James II of England, by military intervention to make William’s Protestant wife Mary, James’s eldest daughter, heir, alleging that the newborn Prince of Wales was an impostor.
The letter informed William that if he were to land in England with a small army, the signatories and their allies would rise up and support him. The Invitation briefly rehashed the grievances against King James. It claimed that the king’s son was supposititious (fraudulently substituted) and that the English people generally believed him to be so. The present consensus is that he was almost certainly their real son. It deplored that William had sent a letter to James congratulating him for the birth of his son, and offered some brief strategy on the logistics of the proposed landing of troops. It was carried to William in The Hague by Rear Admiral Arthur Herbert (the later Lord Torrington) disguised as a common sailor, and identified by a secret code.
The invitation caused William to carry out his existing plans to land with a large Dutch army, culminating in the Glorious Revolution during which James was deposed and replaced by William and Mary as joint rulers. William and Mary had previously asked for such an invitation when William started to assemble an invasion force in April of that year. This request was done through secret correspondence that had been taking place since April 1687, between them and several leading English politicians, regarding how best to counter the pro-Catholic policies of James. William later justified his invasion by the fact that he was invited, which helped to disguise the military, cultural and political impact that the Dutch regime had on England at a time his reign was unpopular and he feared a popular uprising.
The signatories were:
The Earl of Shrewsbury
The Earl of Devonshire
The Earl of Danby
The Viscount Lumley
The Bishop of London (Henry Compton)
Henry Sydney (who wrote the Invitation)
Of the seven, Danby and Compton were generally considered to be Tories, while the other five signatories were generally seen as Whigs.
1891 – Man Mountain Dean, American wrestler and sergeant (d. 1953)
Man Mountain Dean (June 30, 1891 – May 29, 1953), born Frank Simmons Leavitt, was a professional wrestler of the early 1900s.
Leavitt was born in New York City, the son of John McKenney Leavitt and Henrietta N. (née Decker) Leavitt. From childhood, Leavitt was above average in size and strength. This led to a lifelong interest in competitive sport, and also enabled him to lie about his age in order to join the Army at the age of fourteen.
While enlisted he saw duty on the Mexico–United States border with John J. Pershing, and was later sent to France where he participated in combat during World War I. Also during this period (1914) he began his wrestling career using the ring name of “Soldier Leavitt”.
Post World War I career
After the war, Leavitt embarked on a career in athletics. Although he played with the New York Brickley Giants of the National Football League from 1919–20, he concentrated most of his efforts on professional wrestling. He competed in the ring for a time under the name “Hell’s Kitchen Bill-Bill” (a “hillbilly” reference which was suggested to him by the writer Damon Runyon) but eventually settled on the moniker of “Stone Mountain”.
Leavitt wrestled with limited success at first, and after an injury took a job as a police officer in Miami, Florida. Here he met his wife, Doris Dean, who also became his manager. At her suggestion, in 1932 he adopted the nickname “Man Mountain” and substituted the more Anglo-Saxon-sounding last name of Dean. At a stocky 5’11” and weighing over 300 pounds, Dean was an imposing figure. He also grew a long, full beard as part of his ring persona. After a successful wrestling tour of Germany which had been booked by his wife, Doris Dean, he was invited to take a job in the UK as stunt-double for Charles Laughton in the movie The Private Life of Henry VIII. This would be the beginning of a subsidiary movie career for Dean, who would appear in various roles in twelve other movies, playing himself in five of them. One of the movies in which he portrayed himself was the Joe E. Brown comedy The Gladiator, a 1938 adaptation of Philip Gordon Wylie’s 1930 novel Gladiator.
Meanwhile, he continued a successful wrestling career, participating altogether in 6,783 professional bouts and commanding fees upwards of $1,500 for each match. In 1940 he retired from the ring to a farm outside of Norcross, Georgia.
Dean ran for a seat in the Georgia House of Representatives in 1938 but withdrew his candidacy, citing discomfort with the political process. During World War II he again joined the Army despite his age, and eventually retired with the rank of master sergeant. In the 1940s he was the First Sergeant of the Military Intelligence Training Center at Camp Ritchie, Md. Afterward he studied at the University of Georgia’s school of journalism. He appeared as a guest on the December 29, 1944 episode of the radio program It Pays to be Ignorant. During the program, broadcast from New York City, Dean gave his weight as 280 pounds (127 kg). Several other wrestlers would go on to use the “Man Mountain” moniker, including Man Mountain Mike and Man Mountain Rock.
Dean died of a heart attack in his home in Norcross, Georgia, aged 61, in 1953, and is buried in Marietta National Cemetery under a military marker bearing his birth name and an erroneous year of birth (1889).
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1881 – In Sudan, Muhammad Ahmad declares himself to be the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of Islam.
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (Arabic: محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; August 12, 1844 – June 22, 1885) was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on June 29, 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith. His proclamation came during a period of widespread resentment among the Sudanese population towards the oppressive policies of the Turco-Egyptian rulers, and capitalized on the messianic beliefs popular among the various Sudanese religious sects of the time. More broadly, the Mahdiyya, as Muhammad Ahmad’s movement was called, was influenced by earlier Mahdist movements in West Africa and other forms of Islamic revivalism that developed in reaction to the growing military and economic dominance of the European powers throughout the 19th century.
From his announcement of the Mahdiyya in June 1881 until the fall of Khartoum in January 1885, Muhammad Ahmad led a successful military campaign against the Turco-Egyptian government of the Sudan (known as the Turkiyah). During this period, many of the theological and political doctrines of the Mahdiyya were established and promulgated among the growing ranks of the Mahdi’s supporters, the Ansars. After Muhammad Ahmad’s unexpected death on 22 June 1885, a mere six months after the conquest of Khartoum, his chief deputy, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad took over the administration of the nascent Mahdist state.
1916 – Ruth Warrick, American actress and activist (d. 2005)
Ruth Elizabeth Warrick (June 29, 1916 – January 15, 2005), DM, was an American singer, actress and political activist, best known for her role as Phoebe Tyler Wallingford on All My Children, which she played regularly from 1970 until her death in 2005. At the time of her death she was twenty-second on the all-time list of longest-serving soap opera actors in the United States.
She made her film debut in Citizen Kane, and years later celebrated her 80th birthday by attending a special screening of the film to a packed, standing-room-only audience. Over the years, she collected several books about Orson Welles and Citizen Kane, in which she wrote “Property of Ruth Warrick, Mrs. Citizen Kane”.
Chuck FeeCharles Francis “Chuck” Feeney (born April 23, 1931) is an Irish-American businessman and philanthropist and the founder of The Atlantic Philanthropies, one of the largest private foundations in the world. He made his fortune as a co-founder of the Duty Free Shoppers Group, which pioneered the concept of duty-free shopping. Feeney gave away his fortune in secret for many years, until a business dispute resulted in his identity being revealed in 1997. Over the course of his life, Feeney has given away more than $8 billion.
Feeney is known for his frugality, living in a rented apartment, not owning a car or a house, and flying economy-class.
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Luminoodle LED Rope Lights for Camping, Hiking, Safety, Emergencies – Portable LED String Light That Doubles as an LED Lantern
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Price: $19.99 – $29.99 Free Shipping for Prime Members
Item Package Quantity: 1
INCLUDES: The Luminoodle light rope includes USB-powered, waterproof LED rope lights producing 180 (5ft) to 360 (10ft) lumens of light. Also includes noodle ties, embedded and sliding magnets, utility loop for easy hanging, and a rip-stop nylon carry bag designed to diffuse light and double as a tent lamp, hiking lamp or LED lantern.*BATTERY PACK NOT INCLUDED*
VERSATILE: You can use these portable LED string lights for anything. Add it to your collection of backpacking and camping essentials (who doesn’t want easy tent LED lighting?), use it as a safety light for kids and pets, or as bright, fun lights to make any party that much better. The LED rope USB plug is reversible and universal so you can use any USB battery pack.
BEAUTIFUL, WIDESPREAD LIGHT: Sometimes you want bright, widespread light and the ability to use both hands – the Luminoodle makes it easy. With universal noodle ties, magnets and a utility loop, this LED rope is easy to hang wherever you need it. Your friends and family will be impressed when you use this great lighting system on your patio, in your backyard or as a camping lights string to light up your camping area.
SAFETY FOR YOU AND YOUR LOVED ONES: Drape this LED light strip around you and your kids while you take a walk at night, keep it in the glove box as an emergency safety tool in case your car breaks down after the sun sets, or wear it as you ride your bike around town.
LANTERN MODE: Turn your light rope into a lantern with the included rip-stop nylon bag designed to diffuse light and allow for easy carrying and hanging.
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