- secrete September 25, 2018Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for September 25, 2018 is: secrete \sih-KREET\ verb 1 : to deposit or conceal in a hiding place 2 : to appropriate secretly : abstract Examples: The squirrel had secreted nuts all over the yard in preparation for winter, and as spring approached, more were still to be […]Merriam-Webster
On This Day
1803 – British scientist John Dalton begins using symbols to represent the atoms of different elements.
John Dalton FRS (/ˈdɔːltən/; 6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. He is best known for introducing the atomic theory into chemistry, and for his research into colour blindness, sometimes referred to as Daltonism in his honour.
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Born On This Day
1857 – Zelia Nuttall, American archeologist and historian (d. 1933)
Zelia Maria Magdalena Nuttall (September 6, 1857 – April 12, 1933) was an American archaeologist and anthropologist.
Nuttall was born in San Francisco in 1857 to Irish father Dr. Robert Kennedy Nuttall and Mexican-American mother Magdalena Parrott. She specialised in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican manuscripts and the pre-Aztec culture in Mexico. She traced the Mixtec codex now called the Codex Zouche-Nuttall and wrote the introduction to its first facsimile publication.
She was educated in France, Germany, and Italy, and at Bedford College, London. During Nuttall’s first trip to Mexico in 1884 with her family, she worked for the National Museum of Anthropology, and collected terracotta heads from San Juan Teotihuacan.(). This was the foundation of the publication which would lead her into prominence, the “Terra Cotta Heads of Teotihuacan” for the American Journal of Archaeology (1886).[] She was appointed Special Assistant of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard, and was named Honorary Professor of Archaeology at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico.
She was the basis for D.H. Lawrence’s character Mrs. Norris in his novel The Plumed Serpent.
Nuttall, Zelia (1886). The Terracotta Heads of Teotihuacan. Baltimore, American Journal of Archaeology. OCLC 25124813
Nuttall, Zelia (1888). Standard or head-dress? An historical essay on a relic of ancient Mexico. Cambridge, Mass., Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. OCLC 313707016
Nuttall, Zelia (1891). The atlatl or spear-thrower of the ancient Mexicans. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. OCLC 3536622.
Nuttall, Zelia (1901) . The fundamental principles of Old and New World civilizations : a comparative research based on a study of the Ancient Mexican religious, sociological and calendrical systems. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. OCLC 219742748.
Nuttall, Zelia (1983) . The book of the life of the ancient Mexicans : containing an account of their rites and superstitions : an anonymous Hispano-Mexican manuscript preserved at the Biblioteca nazionale centrale, Florence, Italy. Berkeley: University of California Press. OCLC 10719260.
Nuttall, Zelia (1904) . A Penitential Rite of the Ancient Mexicans. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Museum. OCLC 2991502.
Nuttall, Zelia (1910). The island of Sacrificios. New Era Printing Co., 1910, 39pp. (Reprinted from: American Anthropologist, vol. XII, no. 2, April–June 1910.) OCLC 29606682
Nuttall, Zelia; Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa; Nuno da Silva (1914) . New Light on Drake: Documents Relating to his Voyage of Circumnavigation 1577-1580. London: Hakluyt Society. OCLC 2018572.
Burton Leon Reynolds Jr. (February 11, 1936 – September 6, 2018) was an American actor, director and producer. He first rose to prominence starring in television series such as Gunsmoke (1962–1965), Hawk (1966), and Dan August (1970–1971).
His breakout film role was as Lewis Medlock in Deliverance (1972). Reynolds played the leading role in a number of box office hits, such as The Longest Yard (1974), Smokey and the Bandit (1977), Semi-Tough (1977), Hooper (1978), Smokey and the Bandit II (1980), The Cannonball Run (1981) and The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas (1982).
After a few box office failures, Reynolds returned to television, starring in the sitcom Evening Shade (1990–1994). He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Boogie Nights (1997).
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On This Day
1791 – Olympe de Gouges writes the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen.
The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (French: Déclaration des droits de la femme et de la citoyenne), also known as the Declaration of the Rights of Woman, was written on 5 September in 1791 by French activist, feminist, and playwright Olympe de Gouges in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. By publishing this document, de Gouges hoped to expose the failures of the French Revolution in the recognition of sexual equality, but failed to create any lasting impact on the direction of the Revolution. As a result of her writings (including The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen), de Gouges was accused, tried and convicted of treason, resulting in her immediate execution, along with the Girondists in the Reign of Terror (one of only three women beheaded during the Reign of Terror – and the only executed for her political writings). While The Declaration of the Rights of Woman should not, by any means, be considered a manifesto of the women’s movement of the late eighteenth century, it is significant because it brought attention to a set of feminist concerns that collectively reflected and influenced the aims of many French Revolution activists.
Born On This Day
1867 – Amy Beach, American pianist and composer (d. 1944)
Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (September 5, 1867 – December 27, 1944) was an American composer and pianist. She was the first successful American female composer of large-scale art music. Her “Gaelic” Symphony, premiered by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1896, was the first symphony composed and published by an American woman. She was one of the first American composers to succeed without the benefit of European training, and one of the most respected and acclaimed American composers of her era. As a pianist, she was acclaimed for concerts she gave featuring her own music in the United States and in Germany.
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On This Day
1882 – The Pearl Street Station in New York City becomes the first power plant to supply electricity to paying customers.
Pearl Street Station was the first commercial central power plant in the US. It was located at 255-257 Pearl Street in Manhattan on a site measuring 50 by 100 feet (15 by 30 m), just south of Fulton Street and fired by coal. It began with six dynamos, and it started generating electricity on September 4, 1882, serving an initial load of 400 lamps at 82 customers. By 1884, Pearl Street Station was serving 508 customers with 10,164 lamps. The station was built by the Edison Illuminating Company, which was headed by Thomas Edison. The station was originally powered by custom-made Porter-Allen high-speed steam engines designed to provide 175 horsepower at 700 rpm, but these proved to be unreliable with their sensitive governors. They were removed and replaced with new engines from Armington & Sims that proved to be much more suitable for Edison’s dynamos.
Pearl Street Station was also the world’s first cogeneration plant. While the steam engines provided grid electricity, Edison made use of the thermal byproduct by distributing steam to local manufacturers, and warming nearby buildings on the same Manhattan block.
The station burned down in 1890, destroying all but one dynamo that is now kept in the Greenfield Village Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.
In 1929 the Edison Company constructed three scale working models of the station. When a button was pushed, a motor turned the engines, generators, and other equipment in the model. A set of lamps connected to labelled buttons identified the various areas of the building. Cut-outs in the side of the model building allowed examination of the boilers on the first level, reciprocating steam engines and dynamos on the reinforced second level, and the control and test gear on the third and fourth levels. The models were constructed to a scale of one-half inch to the foot and were 62 inches long, 34 inches high and 13 inches wide. The models still exist and are on display at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History in Washington, at the Consolidated Edison Learning Center in Long Island City, New York and at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. Up to 31 people worked on constructing the models which took about 6 months to complete.
Born On This Day
1848 – Lewis Howard Latimer, American inventor (d. 1928)
Lewis Howard Latimer (September 4, 1848 – December 11, 1928) was an American inventor and draftsman.
Lewis Howard Latimer was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, on September 4, 1848, the youngest of four children of Rebecca Latimer (1823 – August 13, 1910) and George Latimer (July 4, 1818 – May 29, 1896). George Latimer had been the slave of James B. Gray of Virginia. George Latimer ran away to freedom in Boston, Massachusetts, in October 1842, along with his wife Rebecca, who had been the slave of another man. When Gray, the owner, appeared in Boston to take them back to Virginia, it became a noted case in the movement for abolition of slavery, gaining the involvement of such abolitionists as William Lloyd Garrison. Eventually funds were raised to pay Gray $400 for the freedom of George Latimer.
Lewis Latimer joined the U.S. Navy at the age of 15 on September 16, 1863, and served as a Landsman on the USS Massasoit. After receiving an honorable discharge from the Navy on July 3, 1865, he gained employment as an office boy with a patent law firm, Crosby Halstead and Gould, with a $3.00 per week salary. He learned how to use a set square, ruler and other tools. Later, after his boss recognized his talent for sketching patent drawings, Latimer was promoted to the position of head draftsman earning $20.00 a week by 1872.
He married Mary Wilson Lewis on November 15, 1873, in Fall River, Massachusetts. She was born in Providence, Rhode Island, the daughter of William and Louisa M. Lewis. The couple had two daughters, Emma Jeanette (June 12, 1883 – February 1978) and Louise Rebecca (April 19, 1890 – January 1963). Jeanette married Gerald Fitzherbert Norman, the first black person hired as a high school teacher in the New York City public school system, and had two children: Winifred Latimer Norman (October 7, 1914 – February 4, 2014), a social worker who served as the guardian of her grandfather’s legacy; and Gerald Latimer Norman (December 22, 1911 – August 26, 1990), who became an administrative law judge.
For 25 years, from 1903 until his death in 1928, Lewis Howard Latimer lived with his family in a home on Holly Avenue in what is now known as East Flushing section of Queens, New York. Lewis Howard Latimer died on December 11, 1928, at the age of 80. Some sixty years after his death, his home was moved from Holly Avenue to 137th Street in Flushing, Queens, which is about 1.4 miles northwest of its original location.
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Tanzanite is the blue and violet variety of the mineral zoisite (a calcium aluminium hydroxyl sorosilicate) belonging to the epidote group. The gemstone was discovered by Manuel de Souza in the Mererani Hills of Manyara Region in Northern Tanzania in 1967, near the city of Arusha and Mount Kilimanjaro. Tanzanite is only found in Tanzania, in a very small mining area (approximately 7 km (4.3 mi) long and 2 km (1.2 mi) wide) near the Mirerani Hills.
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On This Day
1895 – John Brallier becomes the first openly professional American football player, when he was paid US$10 by David Berry, to play for the Latrobe Athletic Association in a 12–0 win over the Jeanette Athletic Association.
John Kinport “Sal” Brallier (December 12, 1876 – September 17, 1960) was one of the first professional American football players. He was nationally acknowledged as the first openly paid professional football player when he was given $10 to play for the Latrobe Athletic Association for a game against the Jeanette Athletic Association in 1895.
Born On This Day
1803 – Prudence Crandall, American educator (d. 1890)
Prudence Crandall (September 3, 1803 – January 28, 1890) was an American schoolteacher and activist who pushed for women’s suffrage and the rights of African Americans in the United States. Originally from Rhode Island, Crandall was raised as a Quaker in Canterbury, Connecticut, and she became known for establishing an academy for the education of African-American girls and women.
In 1831, Crandall opened a private school for young white girls. However, when she admitted Sarah Harris, a 17-year-old African-American female student in 1832, she had what is considered to be the first integrated classroom in the United States. After Crandall decided to admit girls of color into her school, the parents of the white children began to withdraw their support. Despite the backlash she eventually received from the townspeople, she continued to educate, exclusively, young girls of color before she was forced to leave, with her husband Rev. Calvin Philleo, due to the magnitude of retaliation from the townspeople. In 1886, two decades after the end of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery, Connecticut passed a resolution honoring Crandall and providing her with a pension; she died a few years later in 1890.
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On This Day
1901 – Vice President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt utters the famous phrase, “Speak softly and carry a big stick” at the Minnesota State Fair.
Big stick ideology, big stick diplomacy, or big stick policy refers to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy: “speak softly and carry a big stick.” Roosevelt described his style of foreign policy as “the exercise of intelligent forethought and of decisive action sufficiently far in advance of any likely crisis.”
The idea is negotiating peacefully but also having strength in case things go wrong. Simultaneously threatening with the “big stick”, or the military, ties in heavily with the idea of Realpolitik, which implies a pursuit of political power that resembles Machiavellian ideals. It is comparable to gunboat diplomacy, as used in international politics by imperial powers.
Born On This Day
1873 – Lily Poulett-Harris, Australian cricketer and educator (d. 1897)
Lily Poulett-Harris (2 September 1873 – 15 August 1897) was an Australian sportswoman and educationalist, notable for being the founder and captain of the first Women’s cricket team in Australia. Poulett-Harris continued to play until forced to retire due to ill health from the tuberculosis that was eventually to claim her life.
Born Harriet Lily Poulett-Harris (but referred to in all subsequent sources as Lily) on 2 September 1873, she was the youngest daughter of Richard Deodatus Poulett-Harris and his second wife, Elizabeth Eleanor (née Milward). Her father was renowned for being the head of the Hobart Boys’ High School and a founding father of the University of Tasmania, so it is no surprise that she and several of his other children followed him into careers in education.
As a young child Lily grew up in Hobart, where her father taught. Her mother was 31 and her father was 57 when Lily and her twin Violet were born. Lily’s father was also a part-time rector at Holy Trinity Anglican Church, Hobart. Lily grew up in this devout, resolutely low church environment.
Life must have been difficult at times for Lily growing up. Her father, who had arrived in Tasmania in 1856, was “melancholy in outlook and prone to depression, he had much sadness in his family life. He mourned the separation from the three daughters left in England [from his first marriage] and the early death of his son Richard from severe burns. His second daughter Charlotte Maria became of unsound mind, was committed to an institution in February 1872 and died a few years later.” (Note that this conflicts with the electoral roll and a Supreme Court record that establishes she did in fact die in the Lachlan Hospital at New Norfolk, in June 1941.)
Furthermore, “he was charged with assaulting boys with a cane in March 1860 and June 1868, the first case being dismissed and the second settled out of court, but he maintained the school’s pre-eminent position in the colony until 1878 when he lost his midlands boarders to Horton College and Launceston Church Grammar School. Thereafter his health declined and in 1885, suffering acute physical pain and mental depression, he surrendered to Christ College, with the shareholders’ agreement, all leasehold rights in return for an annuity of £300. The school was closed on 15 August 1885.”
A “a bright, inquisitive, adventurous and active child”, Lily was schooled by her father and received a Level II mark prize in December 1882. Lily was allowed to sit the major exams as a “trial of strength” in 1884 even though she was not eligible for a scholarship. She came second.
She also played the violin at school. She would go on playing this instrument, and also the piano, all of her life, giving occasional public performances at Peppermint Bay and Hobart. For instance, she gave a recital at a church choir fundraising event at her home parish of All Saints in South Hobart less than a year before she died.
When her father retired in 1885, he purchased a hotel at Peppermint Bay (Woodbridge) and converted it into a house which he named “The Cliffs”. Lily was to spend her adolescence and young adulthood here.
Saving her mother from fire
However, the first indication of Lily’s strength of character comes from November 1885, when she was twelve years old. One day, “Miss May Harris, with her two little sisters, Violet and Lily, and Miss Gaynor, a guest, went down to the beach to bathe, and a little while afterwards Mrs. Harris followed them down to look after them. On her way to the beach, and when, a little way only from it, her attention was caught by some brushwood and dry grass which she thought might harbour snakes. She accordingly set fire to it with the hope of removing it, and was still engaged in the operation, when she suddenly – the fire having spread without her noticing it – found that her dress had caught ablaze, and that the sleeves were burning. This was the first intimation she had of her danger, and she at once screamed out, and rolling herself on the ground, tried to put out the fire in that way. Lily, the younger of the twins, was the only one near enough to assist her mother, and rushing up, the little child had the presence of mind to pull off her wet bathing dress and wrap it round her mother’s body, thus saving her from much worse injuries than those she received. Mrs Harris was taken home, and was found to be suffering from severe burns on the arms and back.”
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On This Day
1763 – Catherine II of Russia endorses Ivan Betskoy’s plans for a Foundling Home in Moscow
The Moscow Orphanage or Foundling Home (Russian: Воспитательный дом в Москве) was an ambitious project conceived by Catherine the Great and Ivan Betskoy, in the early 1760s. This idealistic experiment of the Age of Enlightenment was intended to manufacture “ideal citizens” for the Russian state by bringing up thousands of abandoned children to a very high standard of refinement, cultivation, and professional qualifications. Despite more than adequate staffing and financing, the Orphanage was plagued by high infant mortality and ultimately failed as a social institution.
The main building, one of the earliest and largest Neoclassical structures in the city, occupies a large portion of Moskvoretskaya Embankment between the Kremlin and Yauza River, boasting a 379-metre frontage on Moskva River. The complex was built in three stages over two centuries, from Karl Blank’s master plan (1767) to its complete implementation in the 1940s. Today, the ensemble of the Orphanage houses the Academy of Missile Forces and Russian Academy of Medicine.
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Born On This Day
1848 – Auguste Forel, Swiss myrmecologist, neuroanatomist, and psychiatrist (d. 1931)
Auguste-Henri Forel (1 September 1848 – 27 July 1931) was a Swiss myrmecologist, neuroanatomist, psychiatrist and eugenicist, notable for his investigations into the structure of the human brain and that of ants. For example, he is considered a co-founder of the neuron theory. Forel is also known for his early contributions to sexology and psychology. From 1978 until 2000 Forel’s image appeared on the 1000 Swiss franc banknote.
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Rell Kapolioka’ehukai Sunn (July 31, 1950, Makaha, Oahu, Hawaii – January 2, 1998, Makaha, Oahu, Hawaii)
was an American world surfing champion. Known as “Queen of Makaha” and “Aunty Rell”, she was a pioneer in the world of Women’s surfing.
In 1982, during a pro surf meet in Huntington Beach, California, Sunn felt a lump in her breast which turned out to be breast cancer. When she was diagnosed in 1983, her prognosis was for one year. Sunn continued to surf every day after her diagnosis, despite the pain and chemotherapy associated with the disease.
Following her diagnosis, Sunn became a radio disc jockey and surf reporter, a physical therapist at a Waianae care home, and a counselor at a cancer research center. She helped pilot a program for breast cancer awareness at the Wai’anae Cancer Research Center that involved educating local women about the causes and prevention of breast cancer.
Over the next 14 years, her cancer went into remission three times, and she underwent a mastectomy and a bone marrow transplant.
Rell Sunn died on January 2, 1998, aged 47. More than 3,000 people attended her memorial service, where her ashes were scattered in the ocean off her native Makaha.
Rell Sunn had one daughter, Jan Sunn-Carreira.
Tributes, honors, and memorials
In 1996, Sunn was the topic of the song “Mother Of The Sea” by Hawaiian Singer/Songwriter Darren Benitez.
In August 1996 she was inducted into the Surfing Walk of Fame as that year’s Woman of the Year; the Walk is in Huntington Beach, California.
In 1997, an award-winning documentary about Sunn’s life, Heart of the Sea, was filmed by Charlotte Lagarde and Lisa Denker.
In 2010 a book, Stories of Rell Sunn: Queen of Mākaha, was published.
Dave Wronski, lead guitarist of Slacktone, composed an instrumental surf rock tune, “Rell Sunn Aloha”, in her honor.
Rell Sunn Website
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Camp Coffee is a concentrated coffee-flavoured syrup, which was first produced in 1876 by Paterson & Sons Ltd., in a plant on Charlotte Street, Glasgow. Almost one hundred years later, in 1974, businessman Dennis Jenks merged his business with Paterson to form Paterson Jenks plc. In 1984, Paterson Jenks plc was bought by McCormick & Company. McCormick UK Ltd. assimilated Paterson Jenks plc into the Schwartz brand.
On This Day
1935 – In an attempt to stay out of the growing tensions concerning Germany and Japan, the United States passes the first of its Neutrality Acts.
The Neutrality Acts were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism and non-interventionism in the US following its costly involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts.
The legacy of the Neutrality Acts is widely regarded as having been generally negative: they made no distinction between aggressor and victim, treating both equally as “belligerents”; and they limited the US government’s ability to aid Britain and France against Nazi Germany. The acts were largely repealed in 1941, in the face of German submarine attacks on U.S. vessels and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Born On This Day
1775 – Agnes Bulmer, English poet and author (d. 1836)
Agnes Bulmer (31 August 1775 – 20 August 1836) was an English poet. She is believed to have written the longest epic poem ever written by a woman. The piece, Messiah’s Kingdom, took over nine years to complete.
She was born Agnes Collinson, in London, England, in 1775. Her parents were Edward and Elizabeth Collinson. Bulmer had two other sisters and she was the youngest. The family lived on Lombard Street in London.
Bulmer’s parents were Methodists, and were friends with John Wesley. Bulmer was baptized by Wesley and she was admitted to his school, in December 1789. She attended the City Road Chapel, and remained a member of the society until her death. She was also a devout patron of the Church of England.
The family was defined as middle class, and Bulmer’s education provided her access to literature, which she enjoyed very much. By the age of twelve she had read Edward Young’s Night-Thoughts. It was a major influence on her own style. By age fourteen she had published her first work, On the Death of Charles Wesley. Wesley sent her a personal note, thanking her for the piece, he also advised her to “Beware of pride; beware of flattery; suffer none to commend you to your face; remember, one good temper is of more value, in the sight of God, than a thousand good verses. All you want is to have the mind that was in Christ, and to walk as Christ walked.”
In school, she befriended Elizabeth Richie Mortimer and Sarah Wesley, the latter being the wife of Charles Wesley. She studied under Hester Ann Rogers in school, and would eventually write an elegy upon Rogers death.
She married Joseph Bulmer in 1793. He was a London-based warehouse worker and merchant, also involved in the Methodist church. He was financially successful and popular within the church, and other non-church related local communities.
The couple socialized frequently, spending time with the likes of Adam Clarke, Joseph Benson, Jabez Bunting, and Richard Watson. Clarke was fond of Bulmer, and stated that she “astonished” him with her intellect and skill. She was described as being a “match for men,” in Wesleyan Methodist Magazine regarding her intelligence and interests. However, she was often described as being equal yet “feminine” in her qualities by writers, showing that while men believed her to be equal, she was still “domestic” and “delicate,” according to William Bunting, and other writers.
Bulmer taught at City Road Chapel, until 1822, and wrote. She was involved in social activities, including the Ladies Working Society, and also did visits at hospitals and with the poor. During this period she worked on Bible stories for children, which were published as Scripture Histories. Joseph Bulmer died on 23 July 1822 from an illness. Bulmer’s mother died also. She entered into a deep period of mourning, and wrote a lot of poetry related to death.
She died on 20 August 1836. She became sick during a trip to the Isle of Wight, and died. William Bunting presided over the funeral. She is buried in City Road Chapel.
Her earliest published work was On the Death of Charles Wesley, in 1788. Bulmer wrote an elegy for Hester Ann Rogers, after Rogers died in 1793. The piece was published in 1794. She wrote Messiah’s Kingdom, an epic poem. The latter was published in a series of twelve books, in 1833. Messiahs’ Kingdom is considered the longest poem ever written by a woman. The piece took nine years to complete, with over 14,000 lines. Her children’s biblical stories, Scripture Histories, were regularly published in Methodist publications. She wrote her first biography in 1835, about her friend Elizabeth Mortimer, The Memoirs of Elizabeth Mortimer.
Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson (born August 26, 1918) is an African-American mathematician whose calculations of orbital mechanics as a NASA employee were critical to the success of the first and subsequent U.S. manned spaceflights. During her 35-year career at NASA and its predecessor, she earned a reputation for mastering complex manual calculations and helped the space agency pioneer the use of computers to perform the tasks.
Johnson’s work included calculating trajectories, launch windows and emergency return paths for Project Mercury spaceflights, including those of astronauts Alan Shepard, the first American in space, and John Glenn, the first American in orbit, and rendezvous paths for the Apollo lunar lander and command module on flights to the Moon. Her calculations were also essential to the beginning of the Space Shuttle program, and she worked on plans for a mission to Mars. In 2015, President Barack Obama awarded Johnson the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
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On This Day
1363 – The five-week Battle of Lake Poyang begins, in which the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders (Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang) meet to decide who will supplant the Yuan dynasty.
The battle of Lake Poyang (鄱陽湖之戰) was a naval conflict which took place 30 August – 4 October 1363 between the rebel forces of Zhu Yuanzhang and Chen Youliang during the Red Turban Rebellion which led to the fall of the Yuan dynasty. Chen Youliang besieged Nanchang with a large fleet on Lake Poyang, China’s largest freshwater lake, and Zhu Yuanzhang met his force with a smaller fleet. After an inconclusive engagement exchanging fire, Zhu employed fire ships to burn the enemy tower ships and destroyed their fleet. This was the last major battle of the rebellion prior to the rise of the Ming dynasty.
Born On This Day
1812 – Agoston Haraszthy, Hungarian-American businessman, founded Buena Vista Winery (d. 1869)
Agoston Haraszthy (/ˈɑːɡəstən ˈhærəsti/; Hungarian: Haraszthy Ágoston, pronounced [ˈhɒrɒsti ˈaːɡoʃton]; August 30, 1812, Pest, Hungary – July 6, 1869, Corinto, Nicaragua) was a Hungarian-American nobleman, adventurer, traveler, writer, town-builder, and pioneer winemaker in Wisconsin and California, often referred to as the “Father of California Viticulture,” or the “Father of Modern Winemaking in California”. One of the first men to plant vineyards in Wisconsin, he was the founder of the Buena Vista Winery in Sonoma, California, and an early writer on California wine and viticulture.
He was the first Hungarian to settle permanently in the United States and only the second to write a book about the country in his native language. He is remembered in Wisconsin as the founder of the oldest incorporated village in the state. He also operated the first commercial steamboat on the upper Mississippi River. In San Diego he is remembered as the first town marshal and the first county sheriff. In California he introduced more than three hundred varieties of European grapes.
Marie Severin (/məˈriː ˈsɛvərɪn/; August 21, 1929 – August 29, 2018) was an American comics artist and colorist best known for her work for Marvel Comics and the 1950s’ EC Comics.
She was inducted into the Will Eisner Comics Hall of Fame in 2001. Her brother John Severin was also an artist who worked for EC and Marvel.
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