Tiffanie Turner’s Debut Book Shows How To Create Her Masterful Paper Flowers | Colossal

Tiffanie Turner’s Debut Book Shows How To Create Her Masterful Paper Flowers | Colossal

We’ve long admired the breathtaking botanical artwork crafted by San Francisco-based artist Tiffanie Turner (previously here and here). Combining her architectural training with a love of the natural world, Turner has pioneered a seemingly infinite number of techniques to craft incredibly lifelike {more}

FYI August 07, 2017


1679 – The brigantine Le Griffon, commissioned by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the south-eastern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes of North America.
Le Griffon (French pronunciation: ​[lə ɡʁifɔ̃], The Griffin) was a 17th-century barque built by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in his quest to find the Northwest Passage to China and Japan.

Le Griffon was constructed and launched at or near Cayuga Creek on the Niagara River as a seven-cannon, 45-ton barque. La Salle and Father Louis Hennepin set out on Le Griffon’ maiden voyage on August 7, 1679 with a crew of 32, sailing across Lake Erie, Lake Huron and Lake Michigan through uncharted waters that only canoes had previously explored. The ship landed at a location on an island in Lake Michigan where the local tribes had gathered with animal pelts to trade with the French. La Salle disembarked and on September 18 sent the ship back toward Niagara. On its return trip from the island said to be located in the mouth of the body of water which is now known as Green Bay (Lake Michigan), it vanished with all six crew members and its load of furs.

In late December 2014, treasure hunting divers Kevin Dykstra and Frederick Monroe alerted media outlets that they found indisputable proof of Le Griffon’s location. They happened upon the wreckage while searching the floor of Lake Michigan for Confederate gold. Evidently, they spotted the wreck in 2011, but waited until 2014 to reveal the discovery of what some call the “holy grail” of Great Lakes shipwrecks while they consulted experts. There are “no cables, no cabin, and no smokestacks,” no mechanical devices of any kind, and a carving on the front of the ship strongly resembles 17th-century French carvings of griffins, Dykstra says. On January 2, 2015, Frederick Monroe told an interviewer for public radio that he believed Le Griffon was built in Canada, below Niagara Falls, and brought to the upper Great Lakes. He went on to say that the wreck is “the one that got in the way.” Their claim was quickly debunked when Michigan authorities dove down on June 9, 2015 after receiving the coordinates to verify its authenticity. Michigan state maritime archaeologist Wayne R. Lusardi presented evidence that the wreck was, in fact, a tugboat due to its 90-foot (27 m) length and presence of a steam boiler.[3]

Prior to this, wreckage from Le Griffon was thought to have possibly been located near Fairport, Michigan by US wreck diver Steve Libert in 2004. Since then, ownership of the potential remains has been the subject of lawsuits involving the discoverers, the state of Michigan, the U.S. federal government and the government of France.[4] Some scientists concluded it was a bowsprit detached from a ship dating hundreds of years old,[5] while others believe it is a 19th-century pound net (fishing) stake.[6]

Historical context
Le Griffon was the first full-sized sailing ship on the upper Great Lakes of North America and she led the way to modern commercial shipping in that part of the world. Historian J. B. Mansfield reported that this “excited the deepest emotions of the Indian tribes, then occupying the shores of these inland waters”.[1]

French explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, sought a Northwest Passage to China and Japan to extend France’s trade. Creating a fur trade monopoly with the Native Americans would finance his quest and building Le Griffon was an “essential link in the scheme”.[7] While work continued on Le Griffon in the spring of 1679 as soon as the ice began to break up along the shores of Lake Erie, La Salle sent out men from Fort Frontenac in 15 canoes laden with supplies and merchandise to trade with the Illinois for furs at the trading posts of the upper Huron and Michigan Lakes.[7]

More on wiki:

 
 
 
 


1928 – Betsy Byars, American author and academic
Betsy Cromer Byars (born August 7, 1928) is an American author of children’s books. Her novel Summer of the Swans won the 1971 Newbery Medal.[1] She has also received a National Book Award in category Children’s Fiction for The Night Swimmers (1980)[2] and an Edgar Award for Wanted … Mud Blossom (1991).

Byars has been called “one of the ten best writers for children in the world” by Nancy Chambers, editor of the British literary journal Signal,[3] and in 1987 Byars received the Regina Medal for lifetime achievement from the Catholic Library Association.[4] Due to the popularity of her books with children, she has also been listed as one of the Educational Paperback Association’s top 100 authors.[5]

Life
Byars was born Betsy Cromer August 7, 1928, in Charlotte, North Carolina to George Guy, a cotton mill executive, and Nan (née Rugheimer) Cromer, a homemaker.[5] Her early childhood was spent during the Great Depression. She attended Furman University in Greenville, South Carolina, from 1946 to 1948, before transferring to Queens College in Charlotte, where she graduated in 1950 with a bachelor’s degree in English.[5]

After graduating, Cromer met Edward Ford Byars, a graduate student in engineering at Clemson University, and they married on June 24, 1950. They had three daughters and a son between 1951 and 1958: Laurie, Betsy Ann, Nan, and Guy.[5] In 1956, the family moved from Clemson, South Carolina to Urbana, Illinois where Edward pursued further graduate work at the University of Illinois, eventually becoming a professor of engineering.[5] While her husband was busy during the day with his studies, Betsy began writing for magazines. Her work was eventually featured in The Saturday Evening Post, Look, Everywoman’s Magazine, and TV Guide. Her first novel, Clementine, was published in 1962.[5][6]

Betsy and Ed Byars are both licensed aircraft pilots and live on an airstrip in Seneca, South Carolina, the bottom floor of their house being a hangar.[1]

Daughters Betsy Duffey and Laurie Myers are also children’s writers, and the three of them are currently (as of February 2009) working on their fourth book together.[7]
Ambox current red.svg
This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (November 2013)

More on wiki:

 
 
 
 

By Ryan Felton: NYC Mayor Ingenuously Proposes Taxing Rich To Fix Subway System

 
 
 
 
By Kristen Lee: Here Are Your Absolute Worst Convertible Stories
 
 
 
 
By Lauren Evans: These ‘I Love This Woman And Her Curvy Body’ Memes Are Pretty Okay

 
 
 
 
So, the question is wh odoes this employee “serve”?
Solution: Coffee shops owned and run by former law enforcement personnel and families? Imagine police, emergency personnel saying we don’t help, save x.

By Breanna Edwards: NYPD Boycotting Dunkin’ Donuts After Employee Allegedly Refused to Serve 2 Detectives
The cops, who were wearing suit pants, shirts and ties with their badges and pistols on their belts, reportedly got to the counter at the store located in Brooklyn’s Bedford-Stuyvesant section, but were ignored by a clerk who then called up the man standing behind them to take that individual’s order.

The man gave the employee his order, but then said, “These two guys were in front of me.”

“Yeah, I know,” the clerk reportedly responded, “but I don’t serve cops.”
 
 
 
 
By Breanna Edwards: ‘It Was Either Him or Me, and I Wasn’t Going’: Ga. Mom Fatally Shoots Intruder Who Threatened Kids
 
 
 
 
By Breanna Edwards: Viral Video Shows Calif. Cop Pointing Gun at Passenger for More Than 9 Minutes During Traffic Stop
 
 
 
 

By Adele Peters: It’s Hard For People With Criminal Records To Get A Job–This New Job Site Can Help
 
 
 
 
By Ben Paynter: Jeff Bezos Asked The World How To Donate His Money: This Artificial Hive Mind Knows The Answer
 
 
 
 
by Cara Giaimo: The Crow Who Never Learned to Fly, and Then Taught Herself

 
 
 
 
by Sarah Laskow: Your Guide to the Perfect Eclipse-Themed Karaoke Night
 
 
 
 
By Alanna Martinez: Revealing Stats on Museum Salaries May Make You Reconsider That Arts Degree
 
 
 
 
By Julie Zauzmer: Christians are more than twice as likely to blame a person’s poverty on lack of effort
 
 
 
 
Selective teaching: did anyone ever hear about this in school? What do you remember being taught about Anne Frank?
By Elahe Izadi: Anne Frank and her family were also denied entry as refugees to the U.S.
 
 
 
 
When Mistakes/Studio Glitches Give Famous Songs Their Personality: Pink Floyd, Metallica, The Breeders, Steely Dan & More

 
 
 
 

Test pilot: Firefox Notes
 
 
 
 


 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

fonts, typefaces and all things typographical — I love Typography (ILT) August 07, 2017

fonts, typefaces and all things typographical — I love Typography (ILT)

I started the Endangered Alphabets Project in 2010 when I discovered that about a third of the world’s 120-plus writing systems may become extinct within the next one or two generations. As you probably know, every culture has its own spoken language, and in many cases its own written language, too — a writing system […]

Military Strikes Target ISIS Terrorists in Syria, Iraq > U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE > Article

Military Strikes Target ISIS Terrorists in Syria, Iraq > U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE > Article

Military Strikes Target ISIS Terrorists in Syria, Iraq

From a Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve News Release

SOUTHWEST ASIA, Aug. 6, 2017 — U.S. and coalition military forces continued to attack the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria yesterday, conducting 32 strikes consisting of 39 engagements, Combined Joint Task Force Operation Inherent Resolve officials reported today.

Officials reported details of yesterday’s strikes, noting that assessments of results are based on initial reports.

More…

Raptitude: The Cost of a Free Lunch August 07, 2017

The Cost of a Free Lunch

On the walk home, I daydreamed about giving a seminar to the same audience. But instead of selling them things that don’t exist, like stock-market-beating software, I would illustrate what a sales funnel is, and what it feels like to be inside a nasty one.

I would charge $50 for tickets and could almost guarantee, with a clear conscience, at least a five- or ten-fold return on that investment.Lunch—sandwiches from a beloved deli two blocks from the convention center—wouldn’t be free, but it would be so delicious and substantial that everyone would know exactly where their money went.

FYI August 06, 2017


1284 – The Republic of Pisa is defeated in the Battle of Meloria by the Republic of Genoa, thus losing its naval dominance in the Mediterranean.
The Battle of Meloria was fought near the islet of Meloria in the Ligurian Sea on 5 and 6 August 1284 between the fleets of the Republics of Genoa and Pisa as part of the Genoese-Pisan War. The victory of Genoa and the destruction of the Pisan fleet marked the decline of the Republic of Pisa.[11]

Background
In the 13th century, the Republic of Genoa conquered numerous settlements in Crimea, where the Genoese colony of Caffa was established. The alliance with the restored Byzantine Empire increased the wealth and power of Genoa and simultaneously decreased Venetian and Pisan commerce. The Byzantine Empire had granted most of free trading rights to Genoa. In 1282, Pisa tried to gain control of the commerce and administration of Corsica, when Sinucello, the judge of Cinarca, revolted against Genoa and asked for Pisan support.[11][12]

In August 1282, part of the Genoese fleet blockaded Pisan commerce near the River Arno.[12] During 1283, both Genoa and Pisa made war preparations. Pisa gathered soldiers from Tuscany and appointed captains from its noble families. Genoa built 120 galleys; sixty of these belonged to the Republic and the remainder were rented to individuals. This fleet required at least 15,000 to 17,000 rowers and seamen.[12]

In early 1284, the Genoese fleet tried to conquer Porto Torres and Sassari in Sardinia. Part of the Genoese merchant fleet defeated a Pisan force while travelling to the Byzantine Empire. The Genoese fleet blocked Porto Pisano and attacked Pisan ships travelling in the Mediterranean Sea. A Genoese force of thirty ships led by Benedetto Zaccaria travelled to Porto Torres to support Genoese forces which were besieging Sassari.

Battle

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

When the Genoese appeared off Meloria, the Pisans were lying in the Arno at the mouth of which lay Porto Pisano, the port of the city. The Pisan fleet represented the whole power of the city, and carried members of every family of mark and most of the officers of state. The Genoese, desiring to draw their enemy out to battle and to make the action decisive, arranged their fleet in two lines abreast. According to Agostino Giustiniani, the first was composed of fifty-eight galleys, and eight panfili—a class of light galley of eastern origin named after the province of Pamphylia. Oberto Doria, the Genoese admiral, was stationed in the centre and in advance of his line. To the right were the galleys of the Spinola family, among those of four of the eight companies into which Genoa was divided: Castello, Piazzalunga, Macagnana and San Lorenzo. To the left were the galleys of the Doria family and the companies Porta, Soziglia, Porta Nuova and Il Borgo. The second line of twenty galleys under the command of Benedetto Zaccaria was placed so far behind the first that the Pisans could not see whether it was made up of war-vessels or of small craft meant to act as tenders to the others. It was near enough to strike in and decide the battle when the action had begun.[13]

The Pisans, commanded by the Podestà Morosini and his lieutenants Ugolino della Gherardesca and Andreotto Saraceno, came out in a single body. It is said[by whom?] that while the Archbishop was blessing the fleet, the silver cross of his archiepiscopal staff fell off, but that the omen was disregarded by the irreverence of the Pisans, who declared that if they had the wind they could do without divine help. The Pisan fleet advanced in line abreast to meet the first line of the Genoese, fighting according to the medieval custom of ramming and boarding. The victory was decided for Genoa by the squadron of Zaccaria, which fell on the flank of the Pisans. Their fleet was nearly annihilated, the Podestà was captured and Ugolino fled with a few vessels.[13]

Aftermath
Pisa was also attacked by Florence and Lucca, and it could never recover from the disaster. Two years later, Genoa took Porto Pisano, the city’s access to the sea, and filled up the harbour. Pisa lost its role as a major Mediterranean naval power and a regional power of Tuscany, being overshadowed and finally conquered in 1406 by Florence. Count Ugolino was afterwards starved to death with several of his sons and grandsons, an event recounted in the 32nd canto of Dante’s Inferno.[13] One famous captive of the battle was Rustichello da Pisa, who co-wrote Marco Polo’s account of his travels, Il Milione.

 
 
 
 


1619 – Barbara Strozzi, Italian composer and singer-songwriter (d. 1677)
Barbara Strozzi (also called Barbara Valle; baptised 6 August 1619 – 11 November 1677) was an Italian singer and composer. Her Baroque compositions were published in her lifetime.

Biography
Giulio Strozzi, a poet and librettist,[1] recognised Barbara as his adopted daughter. She was most likely the illegitimate daughter of Strozzi and Isabella Garzoni, his long-time servant and heir. She was baptised in the church of Santa Sofia in the Cannaregio district (sestiere) of Venice.

Giulio encouraged his daughter’s musical talent, even creating an academy in which Barbara’s performances could be validated and displayed publicly. He seemed to be interested in exhibiting her considerable vocal talents to a wider audience.[2] However, her singing was not her only talent. She was also compositionally gifted, and her father arranged for her to study with composer Francesco Cavalli.

It is conceivable that Strozzi may have been a courtesan, although she may have merely been the target of jealous slander by her male contemporaries.[2] She appears to have led a quiet, if not slightly unusual life; there is evidence that at least three of her four children were fathered by the same man, Giovanni Paolo Vidman (also spelled Widmann). He was a patron of the arts and supporter of early opera. After Vidman’s death it is likely that Strozzi supported herself by means of her investments and by her compositions. He did not, apparently, leave anything to her or her children in his will.[3]

Strozzi died in Padua in 1677 aged 58. She is believed to have been buried at Eremitani.[4] When she died without leaving a will, her son Giulio Pietro claiming her inheritance in full.[5]

Music
Strozzi was said to be “the most prolific composer – man or woman – of printed secular vocal music in Venice in the Middle of the century.”[6] Her output is also unique in that it only contains secular vocal music, with the exception of one volume of sacred songs.[7] She was renowned for her poetic ability as well as her compositional talent. Her lyrics were often poetic and well-articulated.[3]

Nearly three-quarters of her printed works were written for soprano, but she also published works for other voices.[8] Her compositions are firmly rooted in the seconda pratica tradition. Strozzi’s music evokes the spirit of Cavalli, heir of Monteverdi. However, her style is more lyrical, and more dependent on sheer vocal sound.[9] Many of the texts for her early pieces were written by her father Giulio. Later texts were written by her father’s colleagues, and for many compositions she may have written her own texts.

Publications
Il primo libro di madrigali, per 2–5 voci e basso continuo, op. 1 (1644)
Cantate, ariette e duetti, per 2 voci e basso continuo, op. 2 (1651)
Cantate e ariette, per 1–3 voci e basso continuo, op. 3 (1654)
Sacri musicali affetti, libro I, op. 5 (1655)
Quis dabit mihi, mottetto per 3 voci (1656)
Ariette a voce sola, op. 6 (1657)
Diporti di Euterpe ovvero Cantate e ariette a voce sola, op. 7 (1659)
Arie a voce sola, op. 8 (1664)

More on wiki:

 
 
 
 


How Information Overload Robs Us of Our Creativity: What the Scientific Research Shows
 
 
 
 
By Kate Conger: Exclusive: Here’s The Full 10-Page Anti-Diversity Screed Circulating Internally at Google [Updated]
 
 
 
 
Is there more to this story?
Whitney Kimball: British Model Released By Kidnapper Because Motherhood Made Her “Unfit” for Sex Slavery
 
 
 
 
By Julie Muncy: Watch this Hypnotic Video From Laika Studios About Their Creative Process


 
 
 
 
The Face of the New American Bison Rancher By Deena Shanker and Eugene Reznik Photographs by Morgan Rachel Levy for Bloomberg
 
 
 
 
Stepping onto my soapbox: Mindful Rage, Productive Rage. I do not care who you voted for, it is none of my business. This article concerns how to channel rage or righteous indignation into something that actually makes a positive change. Stepping off my soapbox~
By Isaac Chotiner: Mindful Rage

Do you think you’ve gotten a better sense of why people like Trump?

Three of my four siblings voted for Trump. On the other hand, I’ve pretty much avoided talking to them about it, so I don’t claim that I’ve gotten a lot of insight there. I do think, there is the natural tendency to want to demonize the people on the other side of the fight. It is natural and easy to say, “They are racist, they are stupid” and so on, and I just think it’s more complicated than that. There are some true racists, but I think you’re not serving your own cause when you succumb to the tendency to demonize people in that way, because I think if you’re going to undermine Trump’s support, you’re going to need to understand what the source of that support is.
 
 
 
 
Murals in your area?
By Molly Glentzer: Are Houston’s mini-murals beauty or blight?
 
 
 
 
By Andrew P. Collins: Here’s Proof That Baja Racing Is A Terrifying Vortex Of Adrenaline And Tragedy


 
 
 
 

By Patrick Redford: Check Out LaDainian Tomlinson’s Moving Hall Of Fame Induction Speech
 
 
 
 
Comments? I feel bad for the team members who did not participate in being unprofessional. That said, they are a team and their behavior also reflects on the coach.
By Chris Thompson: Little League Softball Team Bounced From Championship Game For Flipping The Bird
 
 
 
 
By wold630: Cake Decorating 101
 
 
 
 
By wilgubeast: 9 Unusual Uses for Toothpaste
 
 
 
 

10$ – 15min – Pan Head for Action Cam
by Skyfinder


By Skyfinder: 10$ – 15min – Pan Head for Action Cam
 
 
 
 

LED Embroidery
by audreyobscura


by audreyobscura: LED Embroidery
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

By Shep McAllister: This $79 Wood-Burning Camp Stove Recharges Your Phone With Fire. Yeah, Really. [Exclusive]
 
 
By Shep McAllister: Sunday’s Best Deals: Mentos Gum, Ticket to Ride, USB Camp Stove, and More


 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

FYI August 05, 2017


135 – Roman armies enter Betar, brutally slaughtering thousands and effectively ending the bar Kokhba revolt.
Betar fortress (Hebrew: בֵּיתַּר‎) was an ancient, terraced farming village in the Judean highlands.[1][2][3] The Betar fortress was the last standing Jewish fortress in the Bar Kochba revolt of the 2nd century CE, destroyed by the Roman army of Emperor Hadrian in the year 135.

The site of historic Betar (also spelled Beitar or Bethar), next to the modern Palestinian village of Battir, southwest of Jerusalem, is known as Khirbet al-Yahud in Arabic (meaning “ruin of the Jews”). Today, the Israeli settlement and city Beitar Illit is also located nearby.

Fall of Betar
According to Jewish tradition, the fortress was breached and destroyed on the fast of Tisha B’av, the ninth day of the lunar month Av, a day of mourning for the destruction of the First and the Second Jewish Temple. The city was the stronghold of Bar Kokhba, the leader of the Jewish Revolt under Hadrian. Hadrian sent against the city several of his Roman legions to capture the city. According to historical records, the city was besieged for three and a half years before it finally fell, and its defenders (including children who were found in the city) were put to death. The horrendous scene after the city’s capture could be best described as a massacre.[4] A stone inscription bearing Latin characters and discovered near the city shows that the Fifth Macedonian Legion and the Eleventh Claudian Legion took part in the siege.[5] The destruction of Betar in 135 put an end to the last great Jewish revolt against Rome, and effectively quashed any Jewish hopes for self-governance in that period. Accounts of the event in Talmudic and Midrashic writings thus reflect and amplify its importance in the Jewish psyche and oral tradition in the subsequent period. The best known is from the Babylonian Talmud, Gittin 57a-b:

“Through the shaft of a litter Bethar was destroyed.” It was the custom when a boy was born to plant a cedar tree and when a girl was born to plant a pine tree, and when they married, the tree was cut down and a canopy made of the branches. One day the daughter of the Emperor was passing when the shaft of her litter broke, so they lopped some branches off a cedar tree and brought it to her. The Jews thereupon fell upon them and beat them. They reported to the Emperor that the Jews were rebelling, and he marched against them.

[In explanation of the verse] “He hath cut off in fierce anger all the horn of Israel.” R. Zera said in the name of R. Abbahu who quoted R. Johanan: These are the eighty thousand battle trumpets which assembled in the city of Bethar, when it was taken and men, women and children were slain in it until their blood ran into the Great Sea [=Mediterranean]. Do you think this was near? It was a whole mil away.

It has been taught: R. Eleazar the Great said: There are two streams in the valley of Yadaim, one running in one direction and one in another, and the Sages estimated that [at that time] they ran with two parts water to one of blood.

In a Baraitha it has been taught: ‘For seven years [after the massacre at Beitar] the gentiles fertilized their vineyards with the blood of Israel without using manure.’

…Rab Judah reported Samuel as saying in the name of Rabban Simeon b. Gamaliel; What is signified by the verse (Lamentations 3:51), “Mine eye affecteth my soul, because of all the daughters of my city?” There were four hundred synagogues in the city of Bethar, and in every one were four hundred teachers of children, and each one had under him four hundred pupils, and when the enemy entered there they pierced them with their staves, and when the enemy prevailed and captured them, they wrapped them in their scrolls and burnt them with fire.

The Jerusalem Talmud relates that the number of slain was so enormous, that the Romans “went on killing until their horses were submerged in blood to their nostrils,”[6] and that the flow of blood overturned large stones in its course, and that when the flow of blood travelled along a riverine brook at a distance of 40 biblical miles to the Mediterranean sea, the red hue from the blood of the slain could still be seen in the sea at a distance of 4 biblical miles. Such hyperbolic speech was used only to emphasize the horrendous scene after the capture of the city, and the ensuing massacre of its inhabitants.[citation needed] The same account reports that the corpses were collected and used to make a hedge around the vineyard belonging to Hadrian, and which hedge stretched many long biblical miles and was as high as a man’s stature.

Rabbi Yohanan has related the following account of the massacre:[7] “The brains of three-hundred children were found upon one stone, along with three-hundred baskets of what remained of phylacteries (Hebrew: tefillin‎‎) were found in Betar, each and every one of which had the capacity to hold three measures (Hebrew: three seahs, or what is equivalent to about 28 liters‎‎). If you should come to take [all of them] into account, you would find that they amounted to three-hundred measures.” Rabban [Shimon] Gamliel said: “Five-hundred schools were in Betar, while the smallest of them wasn’t less than three-hundred children. They used to say, ‘If the enemy should ever come upon us, with these metal pointers [used in pointing at the letters of sacred writ] we’ll go forth and stab them.’ But since iniquities had caused [their fall], the enemy came in and wrapped up each and every child in his own book and burnt them together, and no one remained except me.”

Hadrian had prohibited their burial, and so all the bodies remained above ground. Miraculously, they did not decompose.[8] Many years later Hadrian’s successor, Antoninus (Pius), allowed the dead to be afforded a decent burial.

 
 
 
 

1872 – Oswaldo Cruz, Brazilian physician, bacteriologist, and epidemiologist, founded the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (d. 1917)
Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, better known as Oswaldo Cruz (Portuguese pronunciation: [oʒˈvawdu ˈkɾuʃ]; August 5, 1872 in São Luís do Paraitinga, São Paulo province, Brazil – February 11, 1917 in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro state), was a Brazilian physician, pioneer bacteriologist, epidemiologist and public health officer and the founder of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute.[1]

He occupied the fifth chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1912 until his death in 1917.

Early years
Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz was born on August 5, 1872 in São Luis do Paraitinga, a small city in São Paulo Province, to the physician Bento Gonçalvez Cruz and Amália Bulhões Cruz. As a child, he moved to Rio de Janeiro with his family. At the age of 15 he started to study at the Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro and in 1892 he graduated as medical doctor with a thesis on water as vehicle for the propagation of microbes. Inspired by the great work of Louis Pasteur, who had developed the germ theory of disease, four years later he went to Paris to specialize in bacteriology at the Pasteur Institute, which gathered the great names of this branch of science of that time. He was financed by his father-in-law, a wealthy Portuguese merchant.

Career
Work in Brazil

Cruz found the seaport of Santos ravaged by an epidemic of bubonic plague that threatened to reach Rio de Janeiro and engaged himself immediately in the combat of this disease. The mayor of Rio de Janeiro authorized the construction of a plant for manufacturing the serum against the disease which had been developed at the Pasteur Institute by Alexandre Yersin and coworkers. He asked the institution for a scientist who could bring to Brazil this know-how. The Pasteur Institute responded that such a person was already available in Brazil: Dr. Oswaldo Cruz.

On May 25, 1900, the Federal Serum Therapy Institute destined to the production of sera and vaccines against the bubonic plague was created with Baron Pedro Afonso as director general and the young bacteriologist Oswaldo Cruz as technical director. The new institute was established in the old farm of Manguinhos at the western shores of Guanabara Bay. In 1902, Cruz accepted the office of director general of the institute and soon expanded the scope of its activities, now no longer restricted to the production of sera but also dedicated to basic and applied research and to the building of human resources. In the following year, Cruz was appointed director general of Public Health, a position corresponding to today’s Brazilian Minister of Health.

Using the Federal Serum Therapy Institute as technical-scientific base, he embarked in quick succession of important sanitation campaigns. His first challenge was a series of yellow fever endemics, which had earned Rio de Janeiro the sinister reputation of ‘Foreigners’ Grave’. Between 1897 and 1906, 4,000 European immigrants had died there from the disease. Cruz pursued the new technique of eradicating mosquitoes and their breeding grounds, fumigating houses, and isolation of the ill. There was opposition to the campaign by many, including physicians, the military, and the poor, but the campaign was successful. Cruz was initially successful in the sanitary campaign against the bubonic plague, to which end he used obligatory notification of cases, isolation of sick people, treatment with the sera produced at Manguinhos and extermination of the rats populating the city.

Smallpox vaccination controversy
He was not successful in implementing a widespread vaccination against smallpox, due to popular resistance to it.[2] In 1904, a smallpox epidemic was threatening the capital. In the first five months of the year, more than 1,800 people had been hospitalized. A law imposing smallpox vaccination of children had existed since 1837 but had never been put into practice. Therefore, on June 9, 1904, following a proposal by Oswaldo Cruz, the government presented a bill to the Congress requesting the reestablishment of obligatory smallpox vaccination. The extremely rigid and severe provisions of this instrument terrified the people. Popular opposition against Cruz increased sharply and opposition newspapers started a violent campaign against this and the federal government in general. Members of the parliament and labor unions protested. An anti-vaccination league was organized.

On November 10, the Vaccine Revolt exploded in Rio. Violent confrontations with the police ensued, with strikes, barricades, and shootings in the streets, as the population rose in protest against the government. On November 14, the Military Academy adhered to the revolt, but the cadets where dispersed after an intense shooting. The government declared a state of siege. On November 16, the uprising was controlled and the obligatory vaccination was suspended.

In 1908, a violent smallpox epidemic made the people rush en masse to the vaccination units. Some 9,000 people died.[3] Cruz was vindicated and his merit recognized.

Later work
Among the international scientific community, his prestige was already uncontested. In 1907, on occasion of the 14th International Congress on Hygiene and Demography in Berlin, Cruz was awarded with the gold medal in recognition of the sanitation of Rio de Janeiro. In 1909, he retired from the position as director general for Public Health, dedicating himself exclusively to the Manguinhos Institute, which has been named after him. From the institute he organized important scientific expeditions, which allowed a better knowledge about the health and life conditions in the interior of the country and contributed to the colonization of regions. Cruz eradicated urban yellow fever in the state of Pará. His sanitation campaign in the state of Amazonas allowed concluding the construction of the Madeira-Mamoré railroad, which was interrupted due to the great number of deaths from malaria and yellow fever among the workers.

In 1913, Cruz was elected a member of the Brazilian Academy of Arts and Letters. In 1915, due to health problems, he resigned from the directorship of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute and moved to Petrópolis, a small city in the mountains near Rio. On August 18, 1916, he was elected mayor of that city and outlined an extensive urbanization project he would not see implemented.

Death and Legacy
In the morning of February 11, 1917, at 44 years of age, he died of kidney failure.

As a consequence of the short, fruitful life of Dr. Oswaldo Cruz, an extremely important scientific and health institution was born, which marked the beginning of experimental medicine in Brazil in many areas. To this day it exerts a strong influence on Brazilian science, technology and public health.

 
 
 
 


What is your understanding of transgender? I think of girls, women who dressed as men to avoid rape, escape from occupied lands etc. during war times so were they temporarily transgender? (Sarcasm) Seriously, I do feel bad for folks who have gender issues. Boys who are the “runt” of the family, girls who are a behemoth–how does one keep them from feeling like they do not belong?
By MessyNessy: Transgender Soldiers of the American Civil War
 
 
 
 
How, who, why did anyone think a civilian off the shelf item should be used on the battlefield?
By Tom McKay: US Army to Troops: Immediately Stop Using Off-the-Shelf DJI Drones, Especially on the Battlefield
 
 
 
 
By Andrew P. Collins: This Is Not A Drill: Mazda Is Officially Restoring Original Miatas
 
 
 
 
By Leah Finnegan: Buy a Longer iPhone Cord
he average battery life of an iPhone 6, according to trustedreviews.com, is two days, although it is not specified what that means. The average battery life of my iPhone 6s is about four to five hours, and when I went to the Genius Bar to inquire about this, the Genius told me that I shouldn’t use the Kindle app as much. Fu@@ you, Genius!
 
 
 
 
By Jean M. Twenge: Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?
 
 
 
 
Charles Pulliam-Moore: Swamp Thing #34 Might Be the Most Erotic, Sex-Positive Comic Book of All Time
 
 
 
 
By MessyNessy: Pigeons of War and their Double Decker Buses
 
 
 
 
By Alan Dejecacion: Jakarta Street Photography
 
 
 
 
Ha! Not for kids.


 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
NSFW

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

By Amanda C, Hometalk Team: Grab a Wine Glass for These 14 Gorgeous Ideas