Category: FYI


FYI May 06, 2019

On This Day

1527 – Spanish and German troops sack Rome; many scholars consider this the end of the Renaissance.[1]
The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out in Rome (then part of the Papal States) by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles and the League of Cognac (1526–1529)—the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.


Born On This Day

1405 – George Kastrioti, better known as Skanderbeg, Albanian national hero (d. 1468)
George Castriot (Albanian: Gjergj Kastrioti; 6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), known as Skanderbeg (Albanian: Skënderbej or Skënderbeu from Ottoman Turkish: اسکندر بگ‎, translit. İskender Beğ), was an Albanian nobleman and military commander who led a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire in what is today Albania and North Macedonia.

A member of the noble Castriot family, he was sent to the Ottoman court as part of the Devshirme, where he was educated and entered the service of the Ottoman sultan for the next twenty years. He rose through the ranks, culminating in the appointment as sanjakbey (governor) of the Sanjak of Dibra in 1440. In 1443, he deserted the Ottomans during the Battle of Niš and became the ruler of Krujë, Svetigrad, and Modrič. In 1444, he was appointed the chief commander of the short-lived League of Lezhë that consolidated nobility throughout what is today Northern Albania. Thus, for the first time Albania was united under a single leader.[1] Skanderbeg’s rebellion was not a general uprising of Albanians, because he did not gain support in the Venetian-controlled north or in the Ottoman-controlled south. His followers included, apart from Albanians, also Slavs, Vlachs, and Greeks.[2] Despite this military valor he was not able to do more than to hold his own possessions within the very small area in nowadays northern Albania where almost all of his victories against the Ottomans took place.[3] His rebellion was a national rebellion.[4] The resistance led by him brought Albanians of different regions and dialects together in a common cause, helping define the ethnic identity of the Albanians.[5][full citation needed] Skanderbeg’s military skills presented a major obstacle to Ottoman expansion, and he was considered by many in western Europe to be a model of Christian resistance against Muslims.[4] For 25 years, from 1443 to 1468, Skanderbeg’s 10,000 man army marched through Ottoman territory winning against consistently larger and better supplied Ottoman forces,[6] for which he was admired.[7]

Skanderbeg always signed himself in Latin: Dominus Albaniae (“Lord of Albania”), and claimed no other titles but that in documents.[8] In 1451, he recognized de jure the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Naples over Albania through the Treaty of Gaeta, to ensure a protective alliance, although he remained a de facto independent ruler.[9] In 1460–61, he participated in Italy’s civil wars in support of Ferdinand I of Naples. In 1463, he became the chief commander of the crusading forces of Pope Pius II, but the Pope died while the armies were still gathering. Together with Venetians he fought against the Ottomans during the Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479) until his death in January 1468. He ranks high in that military history, as the most persistent opponent of the Ottoman Empire in its heyday who was also ever-victorious.[10]




By Yaron Steinbuch: Steward died helping passengers escape burning Russian plane
He lost his life after refusing to leave anyone aboard behind before fleeing himself, the news outlet reported.

Moiseyev, a military veteran, completed a correspondence course in civil aviation before becoming a flight attendant 15 months ago, according to the report.
By Amanda Woods: How hero flight attendant saved passengers in fiery Russian plane crash
A heroic flight attendant on the plane that burst into flames during a dramatic emergency landing in Moscow grabbed passengers “by the collar” and pushed them out of the aircraft to safety, according to a new report.
By ggphillips: What Basic Hand Tools And Supplies Do I Need To Start A Garden?
By Anna Marevska Blog Profiles: Motherhood Blogs
Rodney Robinson 2019 National Teacher of the Year: Why you should thank a teacher this week, and always
By Joshua Benton: NPR debuts a new Morning Edition theme, and the fact that people care shows the continued power of old-fashioned, non-Internet radio
By Christine Schmidt: “Is he a local boy?” Is Report for America building trust within the communities it serves?
By Andrey Atuchin, Virginia Tech via AP: Meet the T. rex cousin who you could literally look down on
The rural Blog: Farmers increasingly stressed, dealing with mental health issues, according to new poll; More than 19 million in U.S., especially near military bases, have dangerous chemicals in drinking water; see local data and more ->
Pavel Kosenko: Baskunchak Lake
A few iPhone’s pictures from Baskunchak Lake. Russia, Astrakhan region, Baskunchak Lake. May 2019. All photos are processed with Dehancer application. It’s realistic film simulation works with any photo as a correction filter (preset) applied in one click and can be modified by user.
By MessyNessy 13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. CCCLI): High School Kids made a stage prodution of Aliens. (And it’s online); Berezniki: The Russian City Swallowed By Sinkholes; Every Building on Every Block: A Time Capsule of 1930s New York; A 1950s Drive-in Movie Theatre from the air; Reims Cathedral once had an Ancient Maze; A French 17th century chapel for sale outside Paris and more ->
The Passive Voice: To the One I Love the Best; The Open Library; Asian American Classic Novels Given New Life by Penguin Classics and more ->


By Hometalk Highlights: 10 Unique Ways To Plant Your Herb Garden No need to plant your beloved herbs in boring planters after these ideas!




By TheFrayedApron: Sweet Corn Cream Pie
By The Lefty Maker: Classic Lard Cookies (Maslenki)
By DanPro: Beef and Bourbon Pie



FYI May 05, 2019

On This Day

1260 – Kublai Khan becomes ruler of the Mongol Empire.
Kublai (/ˈkuːblaɪ/; Mongolian: Хубилай, Hubilai; Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position). He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.

Kublai was the fourth son of Tolui (his second son with Sorghaghtani Beki) and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He succeeded his older brother Möngke as Khagan in 1260, but had to defeat his younger brother Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War lasting until 1264. This episode marked the beginning of disunity in the empire.[1] Kublai’s real power was limited to China and Mongolia, though as Khagan he still had influence in the Ilkhanate and, to a significantly lesser degree, in the Golden Horde.[2][3][4] If one counts the Mongol Empire at that time as a whole, his realm reached from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea, from Siberia to what is now Afghanistan.[5]

In 1271, Kublai established the Yuan dynasty, which ruled over present-day Mongolia, China, Korea, and some adjacent areas, and assumed the role of Emperor of China. By 1279, the Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty was completed and Kublai became the first non-Han emperor to conquer all of China.

The imperial portrait of Kublai was part of an album of the portraits of Yuan emperors and empresses, now in the collection of the National Palace Museum in Taipei. White, the color of the royal costume of Kublai, was the imperial color of the Yuan Dynasty.[6]


Born On This Day

1922 – Irene Gut Opdyke, Polish nurse and humanitarian (d. 2003)
Irene Gut Opdyke (born Irena Gut, 5 May 1922 – 17 May 2003) was a Polish nurse who gained international recognition for aiding Polish Jews persecuted by Nazi Germany during World War II. She was honored as the Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem for risking her life to save twelve Jews from certain death.

Irena Gut was born into a Catholic family with five daughters in Kozienice, Poland, during the interwar period. The family moved to Radom, where she enrolled at the nursing school before the Nazi-Soviet invasion of 1939. At the age of 20, Gut witnessed a German soldier kill an infant in 1942.[1] This event transformed her life. During the German occupation, Gut was hired by Wehrmacht Major Eduard Rügemer to work in a kitchen of a hotel that frequently served Nazi officials. [2] Inspired by her religious faith, Gut secretly took food from the hotel and delivered it to the Tarnopol Ghetto.[3]

Gut smuggled Jews out of the ghetto into the surrounding forest and delivered food for them there. Meanwhile, Rügemer asked Gut to work as a housekeeper in his requisitioned villa. She hid 12 Jews in the cellar.[4] They would come out and help her clean the house when he was not around. Rügemer found out about the Jews she was hiding. At risk to all their lives, Rügemer kept Gut’s secret, and she became his mistress.[5] Rügemer fled with the Germans in 1944 ahead of the Russian advance. Gut and several Jews also fled west from Soviet occupied Poland to Allied-occupied Germany. She was put in a Displaced Persons camp, where she met William Opdyke, a United Nations worker from New York City. She immigrated to the United States and married Opdyke shortly thereafter. They raised a family together.[3]

After years of silence regarding her wartime experience, in 1975 Opdyke was convinced to speak after hearing a neo-Nazi claim that the Holocaust never occurred.[6] Opdyke began a public speaking career which culminated in her memoir In My Hands: Memoirs of a Holocaust Rescuer.[6] In 1982, Irena Opdyke née Gut was recognized and honored by Yad Vashem as one of the Polish Righteous Among the Nations.[7]

Papal blessing
On 9 June 1995, Irene Gut Opdyke was honored with a papal blessing from Pope John Paul II at a joint service of Jews and Catholics held at Shir Ha-Ma’alot synagogue in Irvine, California, along with an invitation from Pope John Paul II for her to have an audience with him. The papal blessing and audience with the Pope had been obtained for her by congregant Alan Boinus with the help of Monsignor Joseph Karp of the Polish Catholic Church in Yorba Linda, California. The papal blessing was the first recognition by the Roman Catholic Church of her efforts during the Holocaust. Irene Gut Opdyke said, “This is the greatest gift I can receive for whatever I did in my life.”[8]

ABC Primetime Live trip to Israel
In July 1997, Irene Opdyke traveled to Israel with her manager, Alan Boinus, and his wife, publicist Rosalie Boinus, on a television story arranged by the Boinuses for ABC Primetime Live, which aired on 10 June 1998, re-uniting Opdyke with Hermann Morks, one of the twelve Jews whose lives she saved.[9][10]

On the trip, Alan Boinus arranged for private meetings with Opdyke at the Knesset with former President and Prime Minister of Israel Shimon Peres and Speaker of the Knesset Dan Tichon. Boinus also arranged for other meetings in Israel for Opdyke with Mordecai Paldiel, Director of the Department of the Righteous Among the Nations at Yad Vashem, and with Holocaust survivor Roman Haller, the baby Opdyke saved during the war by convincing his parents, Ida and Lazar Haller (two of the twelve Jews Opdyke was hiding in Rügemer’s cellar), that Ida should carry the child to term after she became pregnant while hiding in the cellar. After the war, the Hallers took in Rügemer as their house guest for saving their lives. Rügemer became “Zeide” (grandfather) to Roman Haller. Roman Haller served as director of the German office of the Claims Conference, which represents world Jewry in negotiating restitution for the victims of Nazi persecution.[11]

Opdyke’s memoir, In My Hands: Memories of a Holocaust Rescuer (Alfred A. Knopf; later ISBN 0385720327), was arranged by her then-manager Alan Boinus and published in 1999 through Random House, with co-author Jennifer Armstrong. Alan Boinus and his wife, Rosalie Boinus, among others, are thanked by Opdyke in the acknowledgements.[12]

Irene Gut Opdyke Holocaust Rescuer Foundation

The Irene Gut Opdyke Holocaust Rescuer Foundation was founded in 1997 by Alan Boinus and Rosalie Boinus in honor of Irene Opdyke to offer awards, grants, and scholarships to young people inspired by the heroic acts of Irene Gut Opdyke when she was young, so they may likewise stand up to racism, bigotry, and hate.[13] It has since been disbanded.

Motion picture controversy
In 1998, Opdyke’s story was the subject of a legal action and cross-complaint when she sought to regain the motion picture rights to her life story, which she had previously assigned in an option agreement. Copyright attorney Carole Handler represented Opdyke and worked with the parties to reach an agreement. The case was dismissed with prejudice.[14]

A play based on the book In My Hands, Irena’s Vow, opened on Broadway on 29 March 2009 to mixed reviews.[15] It was written by Dan Gordon and starred Tovah Feldshuh as Irena Gut.[16] It had earlier premiered off-Broadway at the Baruch Performing Arts Center in New York City. After failing to find an audience, the play closed on 28 June 2009.[16][17]

In 2012, Katy Carr, a British songwriter with Polish roots, released a song inspired by Opdyke titled “Mała Little Flower”[18] on her album Paszport. On 26 September 2012, Trojka Radio in Poland nominated it song of the week.[19]

See also

List of individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust
List of Polish Holocaust resisters
Witold Pilecki, who volunteered to Auschwitz to gather intelligence on the camp from the inside
Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust



By Elizabeth Dias and Sam Roberts: Rachel Held Evans, Voice of the Wandering Evangelical, Dies at 37

By Kelly Tyko USA Today: Where teachers can get free food and discounts for Teacher Appreciation Week May 6-10
By Kelly Tyko USA Today: National Nurses Week brings free food and discounts to nation’s most-trusted profession
By Amber Bouman, @dameright: Ask Engadget: Which smart doorbell should I buy? If you’re looking to increase the tech friendliness of an older home, start with an easy installation.
By Andrew Tarantola, @terrortola: Hitting the Books: Ever wonder how audio sampling works? All about dat Hertz.
Maria Popova’s Brain Pickings: The Universe in Verse: Regina Spektor Reads “Theories of Everything” by Astronomer, Poet, and Tragic Genius Rebecca Elson; Oliver Sacks on Libraries and more ->
Maria Popova’s Brain Pickings from the archives: Why Haters Hate: Kierkegaard Explains the Psychology of Bullying and Online Trolling in 1847




Sarah Rodriguez: 51 Zucchini Recipes That Are Simply Delicious



Quotes May 05, 2019

The spiritual life does not remove us from the world but leads us deeper into it.
Henri J.M. Nouwen
You have to grow from the inside out. None can teach you, none can make you spiritual. There is no other teacher but your own soul.
Swami Vivekananda
Step out of the circle of time and into the circle of love.
Happiness cannot be traveled to, owned, earned, worn or consumed. Happiness is the spiritual experience of living every minute with love, grace, and gratitude.
Denis Waitley
We are not human beings having a spiritual experience. We are spiritual beings having a human experience.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
Surrender is the most difficult thing in the world while you are doing it and the easiest when it is done.
Bhai Sahib
It is not the end of the physical body that should worry us. Rather, our concern must be to live while we’re alive – to release our inner selves from the spiritual death that comes with living behind a facade designed to conform to external definitions of who and what we are.
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
Music is the mediator between the spiritual and the sensual life.
Ludwig van Beethoven
Physical strength can never permanently withstand the impact of spiritual force.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
One of the most spiritual things you can do is embrace your humanity. Connect with those around you today. Say, “I love you”, “I’m sorry”, “I appreciate you”, “I’m proud of you”…whatever you’re feeling. Send random texts, write a cute note, embrace your truth and share it…cause a smile today for someone else…and give plenty of hugs.
Steve Maraboli
You and your purpose in life are the same thing. Your purpose is to be you.
George Alexiou
As soon as you look at the world through an ideology you are finished. No reality fits an ideology. Life is beyond that. … That is why people are always searching for a meaning to life… Meaning is only found when you go beyond meaning. Life only makes sense when you perceive it as mystery and it makes no sense to the conceptualizing mind.
Anthony de Mello
If you obsess over whether you are making the right decision, you are basically assuming that the universe will reward you for one thing and punish you for another.

The universe has no fixed agenda. Once you make any decision, it works around that decision. There is no right or wrong, only a series of possibilities that shift with each thought, feeling, and action that you experience.

If this sounds too mystical, refer again to the body. Every significant vital sign- body temperature, heart rate, oxygen consumption, hormone level, brain activity, and so on- alters the moment you decide to do anything… decisions are signals telling your body, mind, and environment to move in a certain direction.
Deepak Chopra
I would rather feel compassion than know the meaning of it.
St. Thomas Aquinas
You are one thing only. You are a Divine Being. An all-powerful Creator. You are a Deity in jeans and a t-shirt, and within you dwells the infinite wisdom of the ages and the sacred creative force of All that is, will be and ever was.
Anthon St. Maarten
It took me forty years on earth
To reach this sure conclusion:
There is no Heaven but clarity,
No Hell except confusion.
Jan Struther

FYI May 04, 2019

On This Day

1436 – Assassination of the Swedish rebel (later national hero) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson
Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson (1390s – 4 May 1436) was a Swedish rebel leader and later statesmen. He was the leader of the Engelbrekt rebellion in 1434 against Eric of Pomerania, king of the Kalmar Union.[1]


Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson was a mine owner and a nobleman from the Bergslag of Norberg in the historic Swedish province of Dalarna. His family originally came from Germany, having migrated to Sweden in the 1360s.[2] The family coat of arms shows three half-lilies formed into a triangle.

Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson was dissatisfied by the numerous offenses of the Danish local bailiffs and heavy taxation. In 1434 he started a rebellion with the support of mine workers and peasants from his home area. Engelbrekt set against the king’s bailiff in Västerås, Jösse Eriksson, who was blamed for the distress that mining men suffered under his rule. The rebellion grew into a massive force sweeping the country.

In 1435 Engelbrekt was appointed Rikshövitsman, Commander in chief, at a Riksdag in Arboga that is often considered the first Riksdag in Sweden. However, he was not able to withstand the Swedish nobility, who wanted to exploit the rebellion. He was somewhat forced into the background. The nobility and clergy decided to support Karl Knutsson Bonde, who in 1436 supplanted Engelbrekt as Rikshövitsman.[3]

On 4 May 1436 Engelbrekt was assassinated at Engelbrektsholmen, an islet in Lake Hjälmaren, by the aristocrat Måns Bengtsson, who lived in the nearby Göksholm Castle. Engelbrekt was buried in Örebro church. Måns Bengtsson was a Swedish knight and chief judge in the traditional Swedish province of Närke. He was a member of the family Natt och Dag, a family from Östergötland which belongs to the Swedish noble class.[4][5]

Over the next few decades Engelbrekt became a national hero, depicted as a public protector and an opponent of the Kalmar Union. His rebellion came to be seen as the start of the Swedish national awakening, which would triumph in the following century with the victory of King Gustav Vasa (reigned 1523–1560). Engelbrekt himself had no such ideas, which must have been anachronistic at the time; however his rebellion gave peasants a voice in Swedish politics which they never lost afterwards. The Engelbrekt rebellion caused the unity of the Kalmar Union to erode, leading to the expulsion of Danish forces from Sweden. Although later Danish kings regained influence over Sweden, the rebellion had set a precedent for Swedish claims to sovereignty.

A bronze statue of Engelbrekt by Swedish sculptor Carl Gustaf Qvarnström (1810–1867) was unveiled in Örebro in 1865. Statues of Engelbrekt also stand in Stockholm, Arboga and Falun. No known contemporary image of Engelbrekt survives.

Engelbrekt became the subject of Engelbrekt (1928), an opera by the Swedish composer Natanael Berg (1879–1957).[6] Engelbrekts församling (parish) and church in the Church of Sweden Diocese of Stockholm take their name from the hero.

See also

Engelbrekt Church

Born On This Day

1916 – Jane Jacobs, American-Canadian journalist, author, and activist (d. 2006)
Jane Jacobs OC OOnt (née Butzner; May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-Canadian journalist, author, and activist who influenced urban studies, sociology, and economics. Her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) argued that urban renewal did not respect the needs of city-dwellers. It also introduced the sociological concepts “eyes on the street” and “social capital”.[1][2]

Jacobs organized grassroots efforts to protect neighborhoods from “slum clearance”, in particular Robert Moses’ plans to overhaul her own Greenwich Village neighborhood. She was instrumental in the eventual cancellation of the Lower Manhattan Expressway, which would have passed directly through SoHo and Little Italy. She was arrested in 1968 for inciting a crowd at a public hearing on that project. After moving to Toronto in 1968, she joined the opposition to the Spadina Expressway and the associated network of expressways in Toronto planned, and under construction.

As a mother and a writer who criticized experts in the male-dominated field of urban planning, Jacobs endured scorn from established figures. She was described as a housewife first.[3] She did not have a college degree or any formal training in urban planning, and her lack of credentials was seized upon as grounds for criticism.




BBC News: Justine Damond: US city of Minneapolis pays family $20m
Narratively Weekly: A surfing filmmaker who discovered that thrill-seeking runs in her family; An excited new dad on a seemingly impossible mission to find the perfect name for his kid; The arms trafficking expert on a mission to save the world’s rhinos; The 68-year-old hiker mapping thousands of forgotten Cherokee trails and more ->
Paranormal Romantics: Ways to Boost Your Mental Health & Wellness
The Passive Voice: I Didn’t Consider Audiobooks Really Reading; First, You Have to Write the Damned Thing. More ->
Barn Finds: READER AD: The First 1970 Camelot Cruiser!
Ernie at Tedium: Wiki Fail
By Seth Ferranti: A Stuntman Turned Director Makes the First Latino Superhero Movie
Lit Hub Weekly April 29 – May 3, 2019
By Briana Bierschbach: This Woman Fought To End Minnesota’s ‘Marital Rape’ Exception, And Won
By Gwen Thompson: For 50 Years, Quint Davis Has Never Let New Orleans’ Jazz Fest ‘Go Down’
Open Culture: How to Make a Medieval Manuscript: An Introduction in 7 Videos; 2,500+ MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) Getting Started in May: Enroll Today; 53 Years of Nuclear Testing in 14 Minutes: A Time Lapse Film by Japanese Artist Isao Hashimoto; When American Financiers and Business Leaders Plotted to Overthrow Franklin D. Roosevelt and Install a Fascist Government in the U.S. (1933); Behold the Ingenious Musical Marble Machine and more ->




My Recipe Treasures: Slow Cooker Enchiladas; Snicker Doodles; Watergate Salad; Oven Denver Omelet and more ->
Coleen’s Recipes: PIZZA CHICKEN
A Taste of Alaska: Cheeseburger Casserole



FYI May 03, 2019

On This Day

1481 – The largest of three earthquakes strikes the island of Rhodes and causes an estimated 30,000 casualties.
The 1481 Rhodes earthquake occurred at 3:00 in the morning on 3 May. It triggered a small tsunami, which caused local flooding. There were an estimated 30,000 casualties. It was the largest of a series of earthquakes that affected Rhodes, starting on 15 March 1481, continuing until January 1482.

Tectonic setting

The island of Rhodes lies on part of the boundary between the Aegean Sea and African plates. The tectonic setting is complex, with a Neogene history that includes periods of thrusting, extension and strike slip. It sits in what is known as the Hellenic arc and is a modern-day Grecian city.[1] Greece and specifically the Hellenic arc is in an area that is highly vulnerable to seismic activity, and historically always has been, dating back to the 226 BC Rhodes earthquake.[2] This is because the region sits on many fault lines, including the Turkish-Greek plate boundary. Currently the island of Rhodes is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation (17° ±5° in the last 800,000 years) associated with the south Aegean sinistral strike-slip fault system.[3] The island had also been tilted to the northwest during the Pleistocene, an uplift attributed to a reverse fault lying just to the east of Rhodes.

Sources refer to destruction in Rhodes Town; the Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes was sufficiently damaged to require immediate rebuilding (Rhodes was at the time under siege by the Turks).[4] The damage caused by the earthquakes led to a wave of rebuilding after 1481.[5] Damage from the tsunami was said to be greater than from the earthquake. The tsunami caused a large ship to break free from its moorings. It (or another ship) later sank with loss of all its crew after running onto a reef.[6]


The tsunami appears to have been relatively minor, estimated at a maximum 1.8 m. However, it was observed on the Levantine coasts and a tsunami sediment layer found at Dalaman, on the southwest coast of Turkey. Although the studies on sediment transport from tsunamis are limited, it is probable that the tsunami can be dated 1473 ±46. The sediment found and studied appears to be consistent with the aforementioned tsunami.[7][8]

There was a major foreshock on 15 March of that year. Following the mainshock on 3 May, earthquakes (presumably aftershocks) continued until January 1482, with large aftershocks on 5 May, 12 May, 3 October and 18 December. The estimated magnitude for the mainshock is 7.1 on the surface wave magnitude scale.[6]


Born On This Day

1695 – Henri Pitot, French physicist and engineer, invented the Pitot tube (d. 1771)
Henri Pitot (May 3, 1695 – December 27, 1771) was a French hydraulic engineer and the inventor of the pitot tube.

In a pitot tube, the height of the fluid column is proportional to the square of the velocity of the fluid at the depth of the inlet to the pitot tube. This relationship was discovered by Henri Pitot in 1732, when he was assigned the task of measuring the flow in the river Seine.

He rose to fame with the design of the Aqueduc de Saint-Clément near Montpellier (the construction lasted thirteen years), and the extension of Pont du Gard in Nîmes. In 1724, he became a member of the French Academy of Sciences, and in 1740 a fellow of the Royal Society.

The Pitot theorem of plane geometry is named after him.

Rue Henri Pitot in Carcassonne is named after him.


By Daniel Kreps: Harrison Ford, ‘Star Wars’ Pay Tribute to Chewbacca Actor Peter Mayhew “We were partners in film and friends in life for over 30 years and I loved him,” Han Solo portrayer said of Millennium Falcon co-pilot
Peter William Mayhew (19 May 1944 – 30 April 2019) was an English-American actor, best known for portraying Chewbacca in the Star Wars film series. He played the character in all of his live-action appearances from the 1977 original to 2015’s The Force Awakens before his retirement from the role.


By Patrick Howell O’Neill: One of the Largest Dark Net Markets ‘of All Time’ Falls to Police
By Andrew Liszweski: Imagine Getting Pulled Over By This Tablet on a Stick
Atlas Obscura: Meet the Mechanical Engineer Whose Signature Is Instagram Famous in Manitoba; To Cope With a Wartime Banana Ban, British Home Cooks Made ‘Mock Bananas’; A Hopping Hotline Brings the Amish and Mennonites Together and more ->
By Washington Post: Here’s why Instagram is going to hide your ‘likes’
By Catherine Wendlandt: Health podcasting: How to turn your in-depth health story into an audio narrative or series

By Laura Hazard Owen: Wired is a little more than a year into having a paywall. Here’s what it’s learned.
By Dave Mosher: ‘No image will surpass this’: Hubble telescope astronomers created a stunning picture of the deep universe with 16 years’ worth of photos
The Rural Blog: Today is World Press Freedom Day, which is a good time to ask: What would happen if journalists were not watching?; Quick hits: Impossible Burger goes big; online gaming without broadband; S.D. ag town tries to be a mural mecca; EPA says glyphosate (Roundup) doesn’t cause cancer; ag editor pokes wry fun at the agency over the announcement and more ->
The Passive Voice: Industry Reacts to B&T Exiting the Retail Wholesale Business; Creative Writing Graduates Will Never Make a Living as Novelists and more ->


By Margaret Powell Tutorial Team Lebanon, OH: Make Your Own Hose Guards
By Chas’ Crazy Creations: Keep Pests Out Of Your Garden
By Hometalk Hits: 18 Fun Ways To Add Glitter To Your Home Decor A little sparkle goes a long way
Instructables Author Spotlight: Nikus
By JPMarth: SUV Trunk Shelf
By QLanaLuo: Outdoor Adirondack Rocking Chair – Solid Wood Painted




By Whitney Fabre: Bourbon & Bacon Smoked Apple Pie
By McFatty_McFatty: Homemade Chocolate Hazelnut Ice Cream
By Simon_Cloutier: DIY Maple Syrup
By GiosiC: Stonehenge Pastiera PIE 3D
By MaddieJ3: French Fries
By paperplateandplane: Avocado Frozen Yogurt Bars (Keto-friendly)



FYI May 01 & 02, 2019

On This Day

880 – The Nea Ekklesia is inaugurated in Constantinople, setting the model for all later cross-in-square Orthodox churches.
The Nea Ekklēsia (Greek: Νέα Ἐκκλησία, “New Church”) was a church built by Byzantine Emperor Basil I the Macedonian in Constantinople between 876 and 880. It was the first monumental church built in the Byzantine capital after the Hagia Sophia in the 6th century, and marks the beginning of the middle period of Byzantine architecture. It continued in use until the Palaiologan period. Used as a gunpowder magazine by the Ottomans, the building was destroyed in 1490 after being struck by lightning. In English usage, the church is usually referred to as “The Nea”.



1885 – Cree and Assiniboine warriors win the Battle of Cut Knife, their largest victory over Canadian forces during the North-West Rebellion.
The Battle of Cut Knife, fought on May 2, 1885, occurred when a flying column of mounted police, militia, and Canadian army regular army units attacked a Cree and Assiniboine teepee settlement near Battleford, Saskatchewan. First Nations fighters forced the Canadian forces to retreat, with losses on both sides.


Born On This Day

1751 – Judith Sargent Murray, American poet and playwright (d. 1820)
Judith Sargent Murray (May 1, 1751 – June 9, 1820) was an early American advocate for women’s rights, an essay writer, playwright, poet, and letter writer. She was one of the first American proponents of the idea of the equality of the sexes—that women, like men, had the capability of intellectual accomplishment and should be able to achieve economic independence. Among many other influential pieces, her landmark essay “On the Equality of the Sexes” paved the way for new thoughts and ideas proposed by other feminist writers of the century.


1843 – Elijah McCoy, Canadian-American engineer (d. 1929)
Elijah J. McCoy (May 2, 1844 [2] – October 10, 1929) was a Canadian-born African-American inventor and engineer who was notable for his 57 U.S. patents, most having to do with the lubrication of steam engines. Born free in Canada, he came to the United States as a young child when his family returned in 1847, becoming a U.S. resident and citizen.

Early life
Elijah J. McCoy was born free in 1844 in Colchester, Ontario, Canada to George and Mildred (Goins) McCoy. They were fugitive slaves who had escaped from Kentucky to Canada via helpers through the Underground Railroad. George and Mildred arrived in Colchester Township, Essex, Ontario Canada in 1837 via Detroit. Elijah McCoy had eleven siblings. Ten of the children were born in Canada from Alferd (1839) to William (1859). Based on 1860 Tax Assessment Rolls, land deeds of sale, and the 1870 USA Census it can be determined the George McCoy family moved to Ypsilanti, Washtenaw, Michigan in 1859-60.

Elijah McCoy was educated in black schools of Colchester Township due to the 1850 Common Schools act which segregated the Upper Canadian schools in 1850. At age 15, in 1859, Elijah McCoy was sent to Edinburgh, Scotland for an apprenticeship and study. After some years, he was certified in Scotland as a mechanical engineer. After his return, he rejoined his family. By this time, the George McCoy family had established themselves on the farm of John and Maryann Starkweather in Ypsilanti. George used his skills of a tobacconist to establish a tobacco and cigar business.

When Elijah McCoy arrived in Michigan, he could find work only as a fireman and oiler at the Michigan Central Railroad. In a home-based machine shop in Ypsilanti, Michigan McCoy also did more highly skilled work, such as developing improvements and inventions. He invented an automatic lubricator for oiling the Steam engines of locomotives and ships, patenting it in 1872 as “Improvement in Lubricators for Steam-Engines” (U.S. Patent 129,843).

Similar automatic oilers had been patented previously; one is the displacement lubricator, which had already attained widespread use and whose technological descendants continued to be widely used into the 20th century. Lubricators were a boon for railroads, as they enabled trains to run faster and more profitably with less need to stop for lubrication and maintenance.[3]

McCoy continued to refine his devices and design new ones; 50 of his patents dealt with lubricating systems. After the turn of the century, he attracted notice among his black contemporaries. Booker T. Washington in Story of the Negro (1909) recognized him as having produced more patents than any other black inventor up to that time. This creativity gave McCoy an honored status in the black community that has persisted to this day. He continued to invent until late in life, obtaining as many as 57 patents. Most of these were related to lubrication, but others also included a folding ironing board and a lawn sprinkler. Lacking the capital with which to manufacture his lubricators in large numbers, he usually assigned his patent rights to his employers or sold them to investors. Lubricators with the McCoy name were not manufactured until 1920, near the end of his career. He formed the Elijah McCoy Manufacturing Company to produce his works.[3]

Historians have not agreed on the importance of McCoy’s contribution to the field of lubrication. He is credited in some biographical sketches with revolutionizing the railroad or machine industries with his devices. Early twentieth-century lubrication literature barely mentions him; for example, his name is absent from E. L. Ahrons’ Lubrication of Locomotives (1922), which does identify several other early pioneers and companies of the field.

Regarding the phrase “The real McCoy”
Main article: The real McCoy

This popular expression, typically meaning the real thing, has been associated with Elijah McCoy’s oil-drip cup invention. One theory is that railroad engineers looking to avoid inferior copies would request it by name,[4] and inquire if a locomotive was fitted with “the real McCoy system”.[5][6] This theory is mentioned in Elijah McCoy’s biography at the National Inventors Hall of Fame.[7] It can be traced to the December 1966 issue of Ebony in an advertisement for Old Taylor bourbon whiskey: “But the most famous legacy McCoy left his country was his name.”[8] A 1985 pamphlet printed by the Empak Publishing Company also notes the phrase’s origin but does not elaborate.[9] Other possibilities for its origin have been proposed[3] and while it has undoubtedly been applied as an epithet to many other McCoys, its association with Elijah has become iconic[10] and remains topical.[11][12]

The expression, “The real McCoy”, was first published in Canada in 1881, but the expression, “The Real McKay”, can be traced to Scottish advertising in 1856. In James S. Bond’s The Rise and Fall of the “Union Club”: or, Boy Life in Canada, a character says, “By jingo! yes; so it will be. It’s the ‘real McCoy,’ as Jim Hicks says. Nobody but a devil can find us there.”[13]

Marriage and family

McCoy married Ann Elizabeth Stewart in 1868; she died four years later.

He married for the second time in 1873 to Mary Eleanor Delaney. The couple moved to Detroit when McCoy found work there. Mary McCoy (b. – d. 1922) helped found the Phillis Wheatley Home for Aged Colored Men in 1898.[14]

Elijah McCoy died in the Eloise Infirmary in Nankin Township, now Westland, Michigan, on October 10, 1929, at the age of 85, after suffering injuries from a car accident seven years earlier in which his wife Mary died.

He is buried in Detroit Memorial Park East in Warren, Michigan.[15]

In popular culture
1966, an ad for Old Taylor bourbon cited Elijah McCoy with a photo and the expression “the real McCoy”, ending with the tag line, “But the most famous legacy McCoy left his country was his name.”[16]
2006, Canadian playwright Andrew Moodie’s The Real McCoy portrayed McCoy’s life, the challenges he faced as an African American, and the development of his inventions. It was first produced in Toronto[6] and has also been produced in the United States, for example in Saint Louis, Missouri, in 2011, where it was performed by the Black Rep Theatre.
In her novel Noughts and Crosses, Malorie Blackman describes a racial dystopia in which the roles of black and white people are reversed; Elijah McCoy is among the black scientists, inventors, and pioneers mentioned in a history class that Blackman “never learned about in school”.[17]

1974, the state of Michigan put an historical marker (P25170) at the McCoys’ former home at 5720 Lincoln Avenue,[18] and at his gravesite.[19]
1975, Detroit celebrated Elijah McCoy Day by placing a historic marker at the site of his home. The city also named a nearby street for him.[20]
1994, Michigan installed a historical marker (S0642) at his first workshop in Ypsilanti, Michigan.[18]
2001, McCoy was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in Alexandria, Virginia.[7]
2012, the Elijah J. McCoy Midwest Regional U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the first USPTO satellite office) was opened in Detroit, Michigan.[21][22][23][A]



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Great comments!
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They willingly exchanged the painting in return for their lives. The German government later reimbursed them. Where is their case? Interesting that the Nazi’s were willing to accept the painting and let them go free…. I suspect there is more to this case.
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The post-World War II German government, thinking the work was lost, paid her $13,000 in reparations in 1958.
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FYI April 30, 2019

On This Day

1863 – A 65-man French Foreign Legion infantry patrol fights a force of nearly 2,000 Mexican soldiers to nearly the last man in Hacienda Camarón, Mexico.
The Battle of Camarón (French: Bataille de Camerone) which occurred over ten hours[1]:21 on 30 April 1863 between the French Foreign Legion and the Mexican army, is regarded as a defining moment in the Foreign Legion’s history. A small infantry patrol, led by Captain Jean Danjou and Lieutenants Clément Maudet and Jean Vilain, numbering just 65 men[1]:5 was attacked and besieged by a force that may have eventually reached 3,000 Mexican infantry and cavalry, and was forced to make a defensive stand at the nearby Hacienda Camarón, in Camarón de Tejeda, Veracruz, Mexico. The conduct of the Legion, who refused to surrender, led to a certain mystique — and the battle of Camarón became synonymous with bravery and a fight-to-the-death attitude.[2] In June 2017, the Warfare History Network declared this battle as one of the 17 greatest last stands in military history.[3]



Born On This Day

1866 – Mary Haviland Stilwell Kuesel, American pioneer dentist (d. 1936)
Mary Haviland Stilwell Kuesel sometimes spelled Stillwell-Kuesel (April 30, 1866 – June 22, 1936) was a pioneer American dentist.[1] She was the founder of the Women’s Dental Association of the United States.
Mary Haviland Stilwell was born April 30, 1866 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 1892, she founded the Women’s Dental Association of the U.S.[2][3] In 1902, she married Dr. George C. Kuesel,[4] a medical doctor.[5] They were associate members of the Fairmount Park Art Association.[6] She died June 22, 1936 in Philadelphia of coronary thrombosis.[4] Her correspondence is held in a collection by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.[7]



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FYI April 29, 2019

On This Day

1944 – World War II: British agent Nancy Wake, a leading figure in the French Resistance and the Gestapo’s most wanted person, parachutes back into France to be a liaison between London and the local maquis group.
Nancy Grace Augusta Wake, AC, GM (30 August 1912 – 7 August 2011) was a secret agent during the Second World War. Living in Marseilles with her French industrialist husband when the war broke out, Wake slowly became enmeshed with French efforts against the Germans, and worked to get people out of France. Later she became a leading figure in the maquis groups of the French Resistance and was one of the Allies’ most decorated servicewomen.

After the fall of France in 1940, she became a courier for the French Resistance and later joined the escape network of Captain Ian Garrow.[1] By 1943, Wake was the Gestapo’s most wanted person with a 5-million-franc price on her head. Therefore, it became necessary for her to leave France.

After reaching Britain, Wake joined the Special Operations Executive. On March 1, 1944,[2] she parachuted into occupied France near Auvergne, becoming a liaison between London and the local maquis group headed by Captain Henri Tardivat in the Forest of Tronçais. From April 1944 until the liberation of France, her 7,000+ maquisards fought the Germans in many different ways. At one point, being aware of this large group of Maquis, the Germans sent in 22,000 soldiers to wipe them out. However, due to Wake’s extraordinary organizing abilities, her Maquisards were able to defeat them causing 1,400 German deaths, while suffering only 100 among themselves.[3] [4] Wake’s Maquisards thus accounted for about 70 % of the about 2,000 Germans killed by the French resistance during the liberation of France, while their fatalities made up only 1 % of the about 8,000 French resistance fighters killed in action. A comparison with other contemporary engagements (e.g. the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944, in which the Allies suffered 10,000+ casualties including 4,414 confirmed dead vs. 4,000 – 9,000 casualties on the German side, or the Battle of Arnhem, in which there were 1,984 British vs. 1,300 – 1,725 German battle deaths) makes Wake’s achievement look even more outstanding. However, there are several sources about Nancy Wake in which this exploit is not mentioned.[5] [6] [7] [8]



Born On This Day

1858 – Georgia Hopley, American journalist, temperance advocate, and the first woman prohibition agent (d. 1944)
Georgianna Eliza Hopley (1858–1944) was an American journalist, political figure, and temperance advocate. A member of a prominent Ohio publishing family, she was the first woman reporter in Columbus, and editor of several publications. She served as a correspondent and representative at the 1900 Paris Exposition and the 1901 Pan-American Exposition. She was active in state and national politics, serving as vice-president of the Woman’s Republican Club of Ohio and directing publicity for Warren G. Harding’s presidential campaign.

In 1922 Hopley became the first woman prohibition agent of the United States Bureau of Prohibition, where she was involved in education and publicity. She resigned among criticism of the costs of her publicity and the scope of her duties.



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FYI April 28, 2019

On This Day

1253 – Nichiren, a Japanese Buddhist monk, propounds Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō for the very first time and declares it to be the essence of Buddhism, in effect founding Nichiren Buddhism.
Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō (南無妙法蓮華經) (also pronounced Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō)[1] (English: Devotion to the Mystic Law of the Lotus Sutra or Glory to the Sutra of the Lotus of the Supreme Law)[2][3] is the central mantra chanted within all forms of Nichiren Buddhism.

The words Myōhō Renge Kyō refer to the Japanese title of the Lotus Sūtra. The mantra is referred to as daimoku (題目)[4] or, in honorific form, o-daimoku (お題目) meaning title and was first revealed by the Japanese Buddhist priest Nichiren on the 28th day of the fourth lunar month of 1253 at Seichō-ji (also called Kiyosumi-dera) in present-day city of Kamogawa, Chiba prefecture, Japan.[5][6]

The practice of prolonged chanting is referred to as shōdai (唱題) while the purpose of chanting daimoku is to reduce sufferings by eradicating negative karma along with reducing karmic punishments both from previous and present lifetimes,[7] with the goal to attain perfect and complete awakening.[8]



Born On This Day

1854 – Hertha Marks Ayrton, Polish-British engineer, mathematician, and physicist. (d. 1923)
Phoebe Sarah Hertha Ayrton (28 April 1854 – 26 August 1923[1]) was a British engineer, mathematician, physicist and inventor, and suffragette. Known in adult life as Hertha Ayrton, born Phoebe Sarah Marks, she was awarded the Hughes Medal by the Royal Society for her work on electric arcs and ripples in sand and water.

Early life and education
Hertha Ayrton was born Phoebe Sarah Marks in Portsea, Hampshire, England, on 28 April 1854. She was the third child of a Polish Jewish watchmaker named Levi Marks, an immigrant from Tsarist Poland; and Alice Theresa Moss, a seamstress, the daughter of Joseph Moss, a glass merchant of Portsea.[2][3] Her father died in 1861, leaving Sarah’s mother with seven children and an eighth expected. Sarah then took up some of the responsibility for caring for the younger children.

At the age of nine, Sarah was invited by her aunts, who ran a school in northwest London, to live with her cousins and be educated with them.[1] She was known to her peers and teachers as a fiery, occasionally crude personality.[4] Her cousins introduced Ayrton to science and mathematics. By age 16, she was working as a governess.[5]

At Girton, Ayrton studied mathematics and was coached by physicist Richard Glazebrook. George Eliot supported Ayrton’s application to Girton College. During her time at Cambridge, Ayrton constructed a sphygmomanometer (blood pressure meter), led the choral society, founded the Girton fire brigade, and, together with Charlotte Scott, formed a mathematical club.[1] In 1880, Ayrton passed the Mathematical Tripos, but Cambridge did not grant her an academic degree because, at the time, Cambridge gave only certificates and not full degrees to women. Ayrton passed an external examination at the University of London, which awarded her a Bachelor of Science degree in 1881.[6][7]

Mathematics and electrical engineering work

Upon her return to London, Ayrton earned money by teaching and embroidery, ran a club for working girls, and cared for her invalid sister.[1] She also put her mathematical skills to practical use – she taught at Notting Hill and Ealing High School, and was also active in devising and solving mathematical problems, many of which were published in “Mathematical Questions and Their Solutions” from the Educational Times. In 1884 Ayrton patented[8] a line-divider, an engineering drawing instrument for dividing a line into any number of equal parts and for enlarging and reducing figures.[2][1] The line-divider was her first major invention and, while its primary use was likely for artists for enlarging and diminishing, it was also useful to architects and engineers. Ayrton’s patent application was financially supported by Louisa Goldsmid and feminist Barbara Bodichon, who together advanced her enough money to take out patents; the invention was shown at the Exhibition of Women’s Industries and received much press attention. Ayrton’s 1884 patent was the first of many – from 1884 until her death, Hertha registered 26 patents: five on mathematical dividers, 13 on arc lamps and electrodes, the rest on the propulsion of air.

In 1884 Ayrton began attending evening classes on electricity at Finsbury Technical College, delivered by Professor William Edward Ayrton, a pioneer in electrical engineering and physics education and a fellow of the Royal Society. On 6 May 1885 she married her former teacher, and thereafter assisted him with experiments in physics and electricity.[1] She also began her own investigation into the characteristics of the electric arc.[3]

In the late nineteenth century, electric arc lighting was in wide use for public lighting. The tendency of electric arcs to flicker and hiss was a major problem. In 1895, Hertha Ayrton wrote a series of articles for the Electrician, explaining that these phenomena were the result of oxygen coming into contact with the carbon rods used to create the arc. In 1899, she was the first woman ever to read her own paper before the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE).[1] Her paper was entitled “The Hissing of the Electric Arc”. Shortly thereafter, Ayrton was elected the first female member of the IEE; the next woman to be admitted to the IEE was in 1958.[1] She petitioned to present a paper before the Royal Society but was not allowed because of her sex and “The Mechanism of the Electric Arc” was read by John Perry in her stead in 1901.[4] Ayrton was also the first woman to win a prize from the Society, the Hughes Medal, awarded to her in 1906 in honour of her research on the motion of ripples in sand and water and her work on the electric arc.[3] By the late nineteenth century, Ayrton’s work in the field of electrical engineering was recognised more widely, domestically and internationally. At the International Congress of Women held in London in 1899, she presided over the physical science section. Ayrton also spoke at the International Electrical Congress in Paris in 1900.[2] Her success there led the British Association for the Advancement of Science to allow women to serve on general and sectional committees.

In 1902, Ayrton published The Electric Arc, a summary of her research and work on the electric arc, with origins in her earlier articles from the Electrician published between 1895 and 1896. With this publication, her contribution to the field of electrical engineering began to be cemented. However, initially at least, Ayrton was not well received by the more prestigious and traditional scientific societies such as the Royal Society. In the aftermath of the publication of The Electric Arc, Ayrton was proposed as a Fellow of the Royal Society by renowned electrical engineer John Perry in 1902. Her application was turned down by the Council of the Royal Society, who decreed that married women were not eligible to be Fellows.[9] However, in 1904, she became the first woman to read a paper before the Royal Society when she was allowed to read her paper “The Origin and Growth of Ripple Marks” and this was later published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society.[4][7][10] In 1906, she was awarded the Royal Society’s prestigious Hughes Medal “for her experimental investigations on the electric arc, and also on sand ripples.”[7] She was the fifth recipient of this prize, awarded annually since 1902, in recognition of an original discovery in the physical sciences, particularly electricity and magnetism or their applications, and as of 2018, one of only two women so honoured,[7] the other being Michele Dougherty in 2008.[11]

Support for women’s suffrage
As a teenager, Ayrton became deeply involved in the women’s suffrage movement, joining the WSPU in 1907 after attending a celebration with released prisoners. In 1909 Ayrton opened the second day of the Knightsbridge “Women’s Exhibition and Sale of Work in the Colours” which included new model bicycles painted in purple, white and green and raised from 50 stalls and tea etc. £5,664 for the movement.[12] Ayrton was with the delegation that went with Mrs Emily Pankhurst to see the Prime Minister and met his private secretary instead on 18th November 1910 (Black Friday). Ayrton permitted Christabel Pankhurst to transfer sums to her bank account to avoid confiscation in 1912, and hosted Mrs Pankhurst in times of recovery from imprisonment and force feeding. One attempt to re-arrest Mrs Pankhurst on 29th April 1913 to continue her sentence, was driven back by suffragettes picketing outside, but Mrs Pankhurst was eventually re-arrested outside Ayrton’s home on her way to the funeral of Emily Davison (who was killed after running in front of the King’s horse at the Derby)[12]. It was through suffrage activism, she met suffragist and co-founder of Cambridge’s Girton College, Barbara Bodichon.[13] Bodichon helped make it financially possible to attend Girton, and would go on to financially support Ayrton throughout her education and career including by bequeathing her estate to Ayrton.[14]

Later life and research

Ayrton delivered seven papers before the Royal Society between 1901 and 1926, the last posthumously. [15][16][17][18][19][20][21] She also presented the results of her research before audiences at the British Association and the Physical Society. Ayrton’s interest in vortices in water and air inspired the Ayrton fan, or flapper, used in the trenches in the First World War to dispel poison and foul gas. Ayrton fought for its acceptance which took a year from her offering it to the War Office to being used in the forces in 1916,[12] and organised its production, over 100,000 being used on the Western Front.[1][22]

Ayrton helped found the International Federation of University Women in 1919 and the National Union of Scientific Workers in 1920. She died of blood poisoning (resulting from an insect bite) on 26 August 1923 at New Cottage, North Lancing, Sussex.[1]

Personal life
Hertha Ayrton was agnostic. In her teens she adopted the name “Hertha” after the eponymous heroine of a poem by Algernon Charles Swinburne that criticised organised religion.[23]

In 1885, Ayrton married the widower William Edward Ayrton, a physicist and electrical engineer who was supportive of her scientific endeavours. Ayrton honoured Barbara Bodichon by naming her first child, a daughter born in 1886, Barbara Bodichon Ayrton (1886–1950). The daughter was called “Barbie”, and she later became a member of parliament for the Labour Party.[4] Her daughter’s son was the artist, Michael Ayrton.
Ayrton’s house at 41 Norfolk Square in Paddington received an English Heritage blue plaque in 2007.

Two years after her death in 1923, Ayrton’s lifelong friend Ottilie Hancock endowed the Hertha Ayrton Research Fellowship at Girton College.[7] This fellowship continues today.[24]
A blue plaque unveiled in 2007 commemorates Ayrton at 41 Norfolk Square in Paddington.[25]
In 2009, the Panasonic Trust inaugurated the Hertha Marks Ayrton Fellowship to mark the trust’s 25th anniversary. Its purpose is to promote the further education of under-represented groups in the engineering profession by supporting a suitably qualified engineer to study a full-time master’s degree course specifically related to sustainable development or some other environmental technology.[26]
In 2010, a panel of female Fellows of the Royal Society and science historians selected Ayrton as voted one of the ten most influential British women in the history of science.[27]
In 2015, the British Society for the History of Science created the Ayrton Prize for web projects and digital engagement in history of science. It awarded the inaugural prize to Voices of Science, a project of the British Library.[28]
On 28 April 2016, Google commemorated Ayrton’s 162nd birthday with a Google Doodle on its homepage.[29]
In 2016 the Council of the University of Cambridge approved the use of Ayrton’s name to mark a physical feature of the North West Cambridge Development.[30]
In 2017 Sheffield Hallam University named their new STEM centre after Ayrton.[31]
In February 2018, a Blue Plaque was unveiled in Ayrton’s honour on Queen Street, Portsmouth.[32][33][34] The city also boasts a street named after her on The Hard, in postcode PO1 3DS.[35][32]



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Becker told me he had instead joined Gun Owners of America, the advocacy organization that seemed to him to be more focused on protecting the Second Amendment. He said he sent them $20, and received his membership package in a no-frills white envelope. He had to write his own membership number on his membership card—something he didn’t begrudge. “They’re not wasting money,” he said.

As for the NRA, he said: “They lost their way—period.” He added: “They’re f*cked.”
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FYI April 27, 2019

On This Day

1865 – The steamboat Sultana is destroyed by boiler explosions and fire near Memphis, Tennessee, killing over 1,100, mostly Union prisoners of war returning North.
Sultana was a Mississippi River side-wheel steamboat, which exploded on April 27, 1865, in the worst maritime disaster in United States history.

Constructed of wood in 1863 by the John Litherbury Boatyard [1] in Cincinnati, she was intended for the lower Mississippi cotton trade. The steamer registered 1,719 tons[2] and normally carried a crew of 85. For two years, she ran a regular route between St. Louis and New Orleans, and was frequently commissioned to carry troops.

Although only designed with a capacity of only 376 passengers, she was carrying 2,137 when three of the boat’s four boilers exploded and she burned to the waterline and sank near Memphis, Tennessee, killing 1,168. [3] The disaster was overshadowed in the press by events surrounding the end of the American Civil War, including the killing of President Lincoln’s assassin John Wilkes Booth just the day before, and no one was ever held accountable for the tragedy.



Born On This Day

1882 – Jessie Redmon Fauset, American author and poet (d. 1961)
Jessie Redmon Fauset (April 27, 1882 – April 30, 1961) was an African-American editor, poet, essayist, novelist, and educator. Her literary work helped sculpt African-American literature in the 1920s as she focused on portraying a true image of African-American life and history.[1] Her black fictional characters were working professionals which was an inconceivable concept to American society during this time[2] Her story lines related to themes of racial discrimination, “passing”, and feminism. From 1919 to 1926, Fauset’s position as literary editor of The Crisis, a NAACP magazine, allowed her to contribute to the Harlem Renaissance by promoting literary work that related to the social movements of this era. Through her work as a literary editor and reviewer, she discouraged black writers from lessening the racial qualities of the characters in their work, and encouraged them to write honestly and openly about the African-American race.[1] She wanted a realistic and positive representation of the African-American community in literature that had never before been as prominently displayed. Before and after working on The Crisis, she worked for decades as a French teacher in public schools in Washington, DC, and New York City. She published four novels during the 1920s and 1930s, exploring the lives of the black middle class. She also was the editor and co-author of the African-American children’s magazine The Brownies’ Book.[3] She is known for discovering and mentoring other African-American writers, including Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer, Countee Cullen, and Claude McKay.



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