Category: FYI


FYI July 29, 2019

On This Day

1818 – French physicist Augustin Fresnel submits his prizewinning “Memoir on the Diffraction of Light”, precisely accounting for the limited extent to which light spreads into shadows, and thereby demolishing the oldest objection to the wave theory of light.
Augustin-Jean Fresnel (/ˈfreɪn-, ˈfrɛn.ɛl, -əl/ FRAYN-, FREN-el, -⁠əl or /freɪˈnɛl/ fray-NEL;[1][2] French: [oɡystɛ̃ʒɑ̃ fʁɛnɛl]; 10 May 1788 – 14 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton’s corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s [3] until the end of the 19th century. He is perhaps better known for inventing the catadioptric (reflective/refractive) Fresnel lens and for pioneering the use of “stepped” lenses to extend the visibility of lighthouses, saving countless lives at sea. The simpler dioptric (purely refractive) stepped lens, first proposed by Count Buffon [4] and independently reinvented by Fresnel, is used in screen magnifiers and in condenser lenses for overhead projectors.

By expressing Huygens’ principle of secondary waves and Young’s principle of interference in quantitative terms, and supposing that simple colors consist of sinusoidal waves, Fresnel gave the first satisfactory explanation of diffraction by straight edges, including the first satisfactory wave-based explanation of rectilinear propagation.[5] Part of his argument was a proof that the addition of sinusoidal functions of the same frequency but different phases is analogous to the addition of forces with different directions. By further supposing that light waves are purely transverse, Fresnel explained the nature of polarization, the mechanism of chromatic polarization, and the transmission and reflection coefficients at the interface between two transparent isotropic media. Then, by generalizing the direction-speed-polarization relation for calcite, he accounted for the directions and polarizations of the refracted rays in doubly-refractive crystals of the biaxial class (those for which Huygens’ secondary wavefronts are not axisymmetric). The period between the first publication of his pure-transverse-wave hypothesis and the submission of his first correct solution to the biaxial problem was less than a year.

Later, he coined the terms linear polarization, circular polarization, and elliptical polarization, explained how optical rotation could be understood as a difference in propagation speeds for the two directions of circular polarization, and (by allowing the reflection coefficient to be complex) accounted for the change in polarization due to total internal reflection, as exploited in the Fresnel rhomb. Defenders of the established corpuscular theory could not match his quantitative explanations of so many phenomena on so few assumptions.

Fresnel had a lifelong battle with tuberculosis, to which he succumbed at the age of 39. Although he did not become a public celebrity in his lifetime, he lived just long enough to receive due recognition from his peers, including (on his deathbed) the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society of London, and his name is ubiquitous in the modern terminology of optics and waves. After the wave theory of light was subsumed by Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in the 1860s, some attention was diverted from the magnitude of Fresnel’s contribution. In the period between Fresnel’s unification of physical optics and Maxwell’s wider unification, a contemporary authority, Humphrey Lloyd, described Fresnel’s transverse-wave theory as “the noblest fabric which has ever adorned the domain of physical science, Newton’s system of the universe alone excepted.” [6]



Born On This Day

1896 – Maria L. de Hernández, Mexican-American rights activist (d. 1986)
María Rebecca Latigo de Hernández (July 29, 1896 – January 8, 1986) was a Mexican-American rights activist.[1] She was born in San Pedro Garza García, Mexico. During the 1930s, she spoke publicly and demonstrated on behalf of Mexican Americans about their education in the United States.[2] She and her husband, Pedro Hernandez Barrera, founded Orden Caballeros de America on January 10, 1929.[3] She organized the Asociación Protectora de Madres in 1933. In 1970 she was active in the Raza Unida Party.[1]

Early life
María Rebecca Latigo de Hernández was born in 1896 in Garza García near Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico.[4] Her father was a professor. As a young adult, she taught at an elementary school whilst she lived in Monterrey, Mexico.[1]

The Hernández family owned and ran a grocery store and bakery. She fought and wrote against the segregation, racial oppression, and poor education that the Mexican American children were receiving.

In 1929, the Hernández family helped to organize and found the Order of the Knights of America, or the Orden Caballeros de America.[1] The Order of Knights of America was a committee dedicated to political and civil activists in order to help Mexican Americans as well as Mexican immigrants. They helped with matters including educational and social, but the organization was largely focused on educational matters. The main audience targeted by their organization was Mexican American business owners. However, they also set a goal to help both male and female school aged children.

In 1932 María Rebecca Latigo de Hernández was the first Mexican female announcer on the radio.[1] In 1933 she helped open an association to help expecting mothers, which was known as Asociación Protectora de Madres.

In 1934 María, along with her husband and children, helped to manage an organization which helped to create safe places, and better the education for the West Side Mexican Communities. It was named La Liga de Defensa Pro-Escolar. In connection to her radio career, she spoke to promote Council 16 of the League of United Latin American Citizens on a program called the “Voz de las Americas”. The league became well managed in December 1934. She supported the efforts of the league in 1940,and then again in 1947. During the years with the league, she helped to encourage equality for all Mexican Americans, no matter where they were from or where they were living.

In 1938 she began working with the pecan-shellers’ strike, with a cause for women workers’ rights. The strike had begun as a way for women to obtain safer working conditions as well as increased salaries. In 1939 she was included in a group of women, who were able to visit then Mexican President, Lázaro Cárdenas. The women went to communicate the goodwill between Mexicans from Mexico and Mexican Americans in the United States.

In 1945 “México y Los Cuatro Poderes Que Dirigen al Pueblo” (En: Mexico and the Four Powers that Lead the People) was published. In this essay, she said that domestic sphere founded society. It also stated that mothers were the creators of nations. Close to the time that her essay was published, she was also involved in organizing Club Liberal Pro-Cultura de la Mujer.

In 1968 she was a regular guest on San Antonio television, informing the public about education and social progress. In 1969, María Rebecca Latigo de Hernández was appointed the position of Treasurer of the order’s board of directors, as well as the President of Circulo Social. In 1970 she grew her political activities by joining the Raza Unida Party. She served as a key-note speaker at the Raza Unida’s Statewide Conference, located in Austin, Texas.

Personal life
Hernández was married in 1915 at the age of 19 to Pedro Hernández Barrera. They were married in Hebbronville, Texas. They moved to San Antonio, in 1918, where they settled down, and their family eventually grew to include 10 children.

She died of pneumonia on January 8, 1986. She is buried in the plot of the Orden Caballeros de América outside of Elmendorf, Texas.

She was featured as the subject of Google Doodle on July 29, 2018.[5]



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FYI July 28, 2019

On This Day

1960 – The German Volkswagen Act came into force.
The Volkswagen Act is a set of German federal laws enacted in 1960, regulating the privatization of Volkswagenwerk GmbH into Volkswagen AG.[1] In order to maintain government control in the privately owned company, it stipulated that the votings on major shareholder meeting resolutions require 4/5th(80%) agreement.[2] This part of the law was deemed to violate the “free movement of capital” principle of European company law by EU members.[3] After a series of challenges by EU from 2007 to 2013, the German parliament finally amended the part in 2013 to EU court satisfaction.[4]

The full title of the law is “Gesetz über die Überführung der Anteilsrechte an der Volkswagenwerk Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung in private Hand”, usually abbreviated to “VW-Gesetz”. It was enacted on 28 July 1960, when Volkswagenwerk GmbH was privatized. The state of Lower Saxony held a voting share of 20.2 percent, which gave it the ability to veto major decisions and prevent takeovers by other shareholders, regardless of the extent of the ownership. It also allowed the government of Lower Saxony to appoint two members to Volkswagen’s board.

Challenges and the EU court ruling
In October 2007, the European Court of Justice ruled that the VW law was illegal in EU[5] because it was protectionist. At that time, Porsche held 30.9% of VW shares and there had been speculation that Porsche would be interested in taking over VW if the law did not stand in its way. The court also prevented the government appointing Volkswagen board members.[6]

In 2008, the German government then rewrote the Volkswagen law, attempting to sidestep the ECJ judgment; removing restrictions on share ownership but still requiring an 80% majority for important decisions, so Lower Saxony would still be able to block major business decisions and takeovers.[7] European regulators took the German government to court again[8][9] and requested a fine of €31,114 per day backdated to when the law was declared illegal in 2007, plus larger ongoing fines from the date of a second court judgment. In March 2012, the German government insisted that it would defend the Volkswagen Law.[10]

In October 2013, the EU Court of Justice in Luxembourg ruled that the redraft of the Volkswagen law “complied in full” with EU rules, bringing “the matter to a close,” as Chantal Hughes, spokeswoman for EU Internal Markets Commissioner Michel Barnier said.[11]

During the above developments, Porsche, which traditionally had close relationships with Volkswagen, increased its holding of Volkswagen AG shares as follows (please see Porsche_SE#EU and the Volkswagen Law for details):

October 2005: 18.53%[12]

Nov. 2006: 27.4%[13]

March 2007: 30.9%[13]

September 2008: 35.79%

January 2009: 50.76%[14]

Porsche had many difficulties financing the large investment, and agreed in August 2009 to sell its automobile manufacturing business to Volkswagen AG,[15] while retaining the majority ownership in Volkswagen. Porsche SE officially became the controlling owner of Volkswagen AG when Volkswagen Law was amended to abolish the 20% owner veto rights in 2013, with 50.76% ownership.[11] Please see the Porsche article for details.


Born On This Day

1909 – Aenne Burda, German publisher (d. 2005)
Aenne Burda (28 July 1909 – 3 November 2005), born Anna Magdalene Lemminger, was a German publisher of the Burda Group, a media group based in Offenburg and Munich, Germany. She was one of the symbols of the German economic miracle.[1]

Aenne Burda was born in Offenburg, German Empire. She chose her name after the popular song Ännchen von Tharau. She was daughter of a train driver. She left convent high school at 17 and became a cashier at the Offenburg electricity company. In 1930 she met printer and publisher Franz Burda, son of Franz Burda, the founder of the Burda printing company. The couple married a year later, on 9 July 1931.[2] They had three sons, Franz (1932), Frieder (1936) and Hubert (1940). She was the mother-in-law of actress Maria Furtwängler.

Burda founded two charitable foundations, supporting young academics and seniors in her hometown of Offenburg respectively.[3]

Aenne Burda died in her native Offenburg, Germany, at the age of 96, from natural causes.

Magazine publishing

Aenne and her husband helped to expand the family business into women’s magazines. In 1949 Aenne Burda founded a fashion magazine printing and publishing company in her home town Offenburg. The same year she started publishing magazine Favorit, which was later renamed to Burda Moden. The first issue of Burda Moden magazine was published in 1950 with a circulation of 100,000. It became popular in the market after 1952, when it began to include sheets of paper with patterns for clothes. In 1987 Burda Moden became the first Western magazine published in Soviet Union. Burda Fashion is currently published in 90 countries in 16 different languages.[1][4][5]

In 1977 she launched Burda CARINA magazine, a fashion and lifestyle magazine targeting a younger female audience.

“My aim is to put together practical fashions at an affordable price that can be worn by the largest possible number of women.”[6]
“I have learned to grow old with a young heart, thus retaining my enjoyment of life, my joie de vivre.”[7]

1974 Great Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
1979 Offenburg’s Ring of Honour for her role in the city’s economic development
1984 Bavarian Order of Merit
1985 Baden-Württemberg Order of Merit
1989 Jakob Fugger Medal by the Bavarian Publishers Association (the first time this was awarded to a woman)
1989 Aenne Burda is made an honorary citizen of her hometown Offenburg
1990 Karl Valentin Order of Merit
1994 Golden Order of Merit from the province of Salzburg, Austria
2001 Awarded the German Federal Republic’s highest Order of Merit with Star for her exceptional achievements as a business woman



Fox News: Russi Taylor, longtime voice of Minnie Mouse, dies at 75

Russi Taylor (May 4, 1944 – July 26, 2019) was an American voice actress who voiced many characters throughout her career. She most notably provided the voices of Minnie Mouse from 1986 and The Simpsons character Martin Prince from 1989 until her death.


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Why you should care
Because Nera White, a demon on court but an ingenue off it, deserves to be a household name.

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By Valentina Di Donato, Barbie Latza Nadeau and Sarah Dean, CNN: A US teen suspected in the killing of a police officer was blindfolded by police in Rome
Italy’s far-right Interior Minister Matteo Salvini commented on the blindfold photo Sunday, saying in a statement: “To those complaining about the blindfolding of the arrested, remember that the only victim to cry for is the man, the son, the husband who is 35 years old, a Carabinieri officer, a servant of the homeland who died in service at the hands of the people who, if guilty, deserve only life imprisonment.”
The day before, Salvini had called for life-long prison sentences for the accused teens, despite them not having been put on trial.
“Hoping that the murderers of our poor policeman will never get out of prison, I remind the do-gooders that in the United States whoever kills risks the death penalty. I’m not saying we should go that far, but life in prison (obviously working), this, yes!” Salvini wrote in a message on Twitter on Saturday.
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FYI July 27, 2019

On This Day

1775 – Founding of the U.S. Army Medical Department: The Second Continental Congress passes legislation establishing “an hospital for an army consisting of 20,000 men.”
The Army Medical Department of the U.S. Army (AMEDD), formerly the Army Medical Service (AMS), encompasses the Army’s six medical Special Branches (or “Corps”). It was established as the “Army Hospital” in July 1775 to coordinate the medical care required by the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. The AMEDD is led by the Surgeon General of the U.S. Army, a lieutenant general.

The AMEDD is the U.S. Army’s healthcare organization (as opposed to an Army Command), and is present in the Active Army, the U.S. Army Reserve, and the Army National Guard components. It is headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas, which hosts the AMEDD Center and School (AMEDDC&S). Large numbers of AMEDD senior leaders can also be found in the Washington D.C. area, divided between the Pentagon and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC).

The Academy of Health Sciences, within the AMEDDC&S, provides training to the officers and enlisted service members of the AMEDD. As a result of BRAC 2005, enlisted medical training was transferred to the new Medical Education and Training Campus, consolidating the majority of military-enlisted medical training in Fort Sam Houston.[1][2]

The current Surgeon General of the U.S. Army and U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) commander is LTG Nadja West.



Born On This Day

1853 – Elizabeth Plankinton, American philanthropist (d. 1923)
Elizabeth Ann[4] or Anne[5] Plankinton (July 27, 1853 – 1923) was an American philanthropist in the early 20th century, the daughter of Milwaukee businessman John Plankinton. She supported local artists and artisans. One of her notable gifts was the 1885 statue of George Washington that was ultimately placed in Milwaukee’s Monument Square. The people of Milwaukee called Plankinton the “municipal patroness” because of her generosity and she was also known as “Miss Lizzie”.




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By Amir Vera, Josh Girsky and Tatyana Bellamy-Walker, CNN: Twin 1-year-olds died after being left in a hot car for 8 hours. Their father has been charged, New York police say
The children’s 39-year-old father, Juan Rodriguez, has been charged with two counts of manslaughter and two counts of criminal negligent homicide, NYPD said.
While the twins were in the car, the father was at work at a nearby VA hospital, officials said.

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David Sherry @Creative Caffeine – Meet Jay
CC – Intro.

One thing that I want to do more of here is introduce you to people, friends, and internet acquaintances.

I used to publish Q&A interviews.

For example, here is one with James Altucher, and one with Ed Latimore.

Today I want to tell you about my friend Jay Clouse – who just launched a new course for Freelancers – on the nuts and bolts of doing business.

Quick bio: Jay helped build a startup, sold it, worked in Product Management at a Venture backed company, and then left to start his own Accelerator Program for Freelancers called Unreal. He also is the LinkedIn Learning Instructor for Product Management (previously,



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FYI July 26, 2019

On This Day

1918 – Emmy Noether’s paper, which became known as Noether’s theorem was presented at Göttingen, Germany, from which conservation laws are deduced for symmetries of angular momentum, linear momentum, and energy.
Noether’s (first)[1] theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law. The theorem was proven by mathematician Emmy Noether in 1915 and published in 1918,[2] after a special case was proven by E. Cosserat & F. Cosserat in 1909.[3] The action of a physical system is the integral over time of a Lagrangian function (which may or may not be an integral over space of a Lagrangian density function), from which the system’s behavior can be determined by the principle of least action. This theorem only applies to continuous and smooth symmetries over physical space.

Noether’s theorem is used in theoretical physics and the calculus of variations. A generalization of the formulations on constants of motion in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics (developed in 1788 and 1833, respectively), it does not apply to systems that cannot be modeled with a Lagrangian alone (e.g., systems with a Rayleigh dissipation function). In particular, dissipative systems with continuous symmetries need not have a corresponding conservation law.

Her first theorem states that every different symmetry of a physical thing has a conservation law. For example, if you hit two marbles together on the table, it would be the same as hitting them together on the floor; location doesn’t matter as long as they’re hit together in the same way. Here, the conserved quantity is momentum.



Born On This Day

1906 – Irena Iłłakowicz, German-Polish lieutenant (d. 1943)
Irena Morzycka-Iłłakowicz (also as Iłłakowiczowa, July 26, 1906 – October 4, 1943) was a Polish second Lieutenant of the National Armed Forces and intelligence agent. The daughter of Bolesław Morzycki and Władysława Zakrzewska and the sister of Jerzy, she was also a polyglot who spoke seven languages: Polish, French, English, Persian, Finnish, German and Russian.

She was born in Berlin. After 1917, when the October Revolution began, she moved with her family to Finland. After returning to Second Polish Republic (which had regained independence in the aftermath of the First World War) she attended a school led by the Sisters of the Holy Heart of Jesus in Zbylitowska Góra. Afterwards she studied humanities at Grenoble University in France. In Paris she married Azis Zangenah – son of the prince of Iran. For a period they lived together in a palace in Persia. Irena was a person accustomed to frequent meetings with family and friends. Persia, a long way from home, became arduous for her. After two years, with permission from her husband, she secretly left and went to Teheran. Polish diplomats in Teheran made it possible for her return to Poland. After a period in Poland, she again went to Paris where she met Jerzy Olgierd Iłłakowicz. They married on 23 October 1934 in Warsaw. On 25 June 1936 she bore their only child – daughter Ligia.

In October 1939, after both the German invasion of Poland on 1 September and Soviet invasion of Poland on 17 September, Irena Iłłakowiczowa joined the Polish resistance movement; particularly she co-operated with Organizacja Wojskowa Związek Jaszczurczy. During the Nazi Occupation of Poland she assumed the name Barbara Zawisza. Irena and her husband Jerzy lived at different addresses in order to avoided being arrested by the Gestapo. She started service as an Intelligence agent in the intelligence unit “Zachód” (“West”). These assignments were to conduct military, economic and information reconnaissance. Department II of Organizacja Wojskowa Związek Jaszczurczy, in agreement with Department of Związek Walki Zbrojnej – Armia Krajowa, controlled sub-section “Zachód”. Speaking German fluently, Irena went to Berlin, where the contact point of branch of sub-section “Zachód” was located.

Between 1941 and 1942, her section was destroyed by the Germans. The outcome of this action were the numerous arrests of underground activists. Irena was arrested by the Gestapo on 7 October 1942. They placed her at Pawiak. She underwent harsh interrogations but revealed nothing. Other colleagues, knowing her role in intelligence, sent her a vial of cyanide, but she didn’t use it. Her husband arranged for her to be freed from prison. A bribed guard put her in the group of non-political prisoners to be transported to the Majdanek camp. While there, a group of NSZ fighters from Pomerania freed her from the camp. Dressed in Gestapo uniforms, they came to the camp and presented a falsified document saying that Irena was to be brought to Warsaw for more interrogation. This event was documented in a Delegatura Rządu report.

After a short stay in the Lublin area, Irena found herself in Klarysek-Janówek. Later she came back to Warsaw and stayed with Dr. Miłodroska at Filtrowa street. She started working on the Soviet intelligence network in Poland. Her husband was to be sent to London as the representative of TNRP (command of the National Armed Forces). He wanted to take her with him, but the command decided against it. She was to be sent with Tadeusz Salski (“Jan”). Nine days before the trip, on the night of 4 October 1943, Irena was summoned to a meeting on an important issue. She suspected a provocation, but thinking it too important, went to the meeting. In case she did not return, she asked Dr. Miłodroska to notify her contact.

Irena was murdered in unknown circumstances. Jerzy, her husband, started searching for her and found her body in the infirmary at Oczki street. Her body was found in Pole Mokotowskie. Irena’s murderers remain unknown. In the days before her death she was involved in intelligence activities against a radio contact point in Otwock which actively supported Soviet parachutists sent to Poland. Accusations were directed at the NKVD or the PPR.

Irena was buried at Powązki under the name of Barbara Zawisza. Because the Gestapo often sent agents to family funerals (and other ceremonies), her husband participated in the ceremony dressed as a gravedigger and her mother as cemetery helper. In 1948 her mother placed a plaque with Irena’s true name on her grave.

On 20 May 1944, by order of the commander of the National Armed Forces, Irena was promoted to second Lieutenant. In 1995 she was posthumously decorated with the Krzyż Narodowego Czynu Zbrojnego (nr 1-95-59).



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Bryan Edgar Magee (12 April 1930 – 26 July 2019)[1] was a British philosopher, broadcaster, politician, author, and poet, best known as a popularizer of philosophy.

Early life
Born of working-class parents in Hoxton,[2] Magee was close to his father but had a difficult relationship with his abusive and overbearing mother. An evacuee during World War II, he was educated at Christ’s Hospital school on a London County Council scholarship. During this formative period, he developed a keen interest in socialist politics, while during the school holidays he enjoyed listening to political orators at Speakers’ Corner, Hyde Park, London as well as regular visits to the theatre and concerts.

During his National Service he served in the British Army and in the Intelligence Corps[2] seeking possible spies among the refugees crossing the border between Yugoslavia and Austria. After demobilisation he won a scholarship to Keble College, Oxford where he studied History as an undergraduate and then Philosophy, Politics and Economics in one year.[3] His friends at Oxford included Robin Day, William Rees-Mogg, Jeremy Thorpe and Michael Heseltine. While at university, Magee was elected president of the Oxford Union. He spent a year studying philosophy at Yale University on a post-graduate fellowship.[4] He was an honorary fellow at Keble College, Oxford.[5]

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FYI July 25, 2019

On This Day

1609 – The English ship Sea Venture, en route to Virginia, is deliberately driven ashore during a storm at Bermuda to prevent its sinking; the survivors go on to found a new colony there.
Sea Venture was a seventeenth-century English sailing ship, part of the Third Supply mission to the Jamestown Colony, that was wrecked in Bermuda in 1609. She was the 300 ton purpose-built flagship of the London Company and a highly unusual vessel for her day, given that she was the first single timbered, merchantman built in England, and also the first dedicated emigration ship. Sea Venture’s wreck is widely thought to have been the inspiration for Shakespeare’s play The Tempest.



Born On This Day

1806 – Maria Weston Chapman, American abolitionist (d. 1885)
Maria Weston Chapman (July 25, 1806 – July 12, 1885)[1] was an American abolitionist. She was elected to the executive committee of the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1839 and from 1839 until 1842, she served as editor of the anti-slavery journal The Non-Resistant.

Early life
Maria Weston was born in 1806 in Weymouth, Massachusetts to Captain Warren Richard Weston and Anne (née Bates) Weston. Eventually she had seven younger siblings–five sisters and two brothers. Though the Westons were not wealthy, they were well connected through her uncle’s patronage. She spent several years of her youth living with family in England, where she received a robust education.[2]

Weston returned to Boston in 1828 to serve as principal of a newly-founded, socially-progressive girls’ high school. She left the field of education two years later to marry.[2]


Maria and her husband Henry were both “Garrisonian” abolitionists, meaning that they believed in an “immediate” and uncompromising end to slavery, brought about by “moral suasion” or non-resistance. They rejected all political and institutional coercion—including churches, political parties and the federal government—as agencies for ending slavery. They did, however, support moral coercion that encompassed “come-outerism” and disunion, both of which opposed association with slaveholders. Gerald Sorin writes, “In [Maria’s] nonresistance principles and in her ‘come-outerism,’ she was rigidly dogmatic and self-righteous, believing that ‘when one is perfectly right, one neither asks nor needs sympathy.'”




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“We expect the highest standard of conduct from our officers, and particularly from our command staff,” Ojeda said in a statement obtained by FOX5 Las Vegas. “Effective immediately, Assistant Chief Ryan has resigned from the City. We thank Clint for his 22 years of service with the Police Department and wish him well in the future.”
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FYI July 24, 2019

On This Day

1929 – The Kellogg–Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect (it is first signed in Paris on August 27, 1928, by most leading world powers).
The Kellogg–Briand Pact (or Pact of Paris, officially General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy[1]) is a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve “disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them”.[2] Parties failing to abide by this promise “should be denied of the benefits furnished by [the] treaty”. It was signed by Germany, France, and the United States on 27 August 1928, and by most other states soon after. Sponsored by France and the U.S., the Pact renounced the use of war and calls for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Similar provisions were incorporated into the Charter of the United Nations and other treaties and it became a stepping-stone to a more activist American policy.[3] It is named after its authors, United States Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand. The pact was concluded outside the League of Nations and remains in effect.[4]

As a practical matter, the Kellogg–Briand Pact did not live up to all of its aims, but has arguably had some success.[5] It did not end war, nor stop the rise of militarism, and was unable to prevent the Second World War.[6] The Pact has been ridiculed for its moralism and legalism and lack of influence on foreign policy. Moreover, it effectively erased the legal distinction between war and peace because the signatories began to wage wars without declaring them.[7]

The pact’s central provisions renouncing the use of war, and promoting peaceful settlement of disputes and the use of collective force to prevent aggression, were incorporated into the United Nations Charter and other treaties. Although civil wars continued, wars between established states have been rare since 1945, with a few exceptions in the Middle East.[3] One legal consequence is that it is unlawful to annex territory by force, although other forms of annexation have not been prevented. More broadly, some authors claim there is now a strong presumption against the legality of using, or threatening, military force against another country.[8] The pact also served as the legal basis for the concept of a crime against peace, for which the Nuremberg Tribunal and Tokyo Tribunal tried and executed the top leaders responsible for starting World War II.[9]

Many historians and political scientists see the pact as mostly irrelevant and ineffective.[10]



Born On This Day

1899 – Chief Dan George, Canadian actor (d. 1981)
Chief Dan George, OC (July 24, 1899 – September 23, 1981) was a chief of the Tsleil-Waututh Nation, a Coast Salish band whose Indian reserve is located on Burrard Inlet in the southeast area of the District of North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. He was also an actor, musician, poet and author; his best-known written work was “My Heart Soars”.[1] As an actor, he is best remembered for portraying Old Lodge Skins opposite Dustin Hoffman in Little Big Man (1970), for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor; also for his role in The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976), as Lone Watie, opposite Clint Eastwood.




Rutger Oelsen Hauer (Dutch: [ˈrɵtxər ˈulsə(n) ˈɦʌuər]; 23 January 1944 – 19 July 2019)[1] was a Dutch actor, writer, and environmentalist. He acted in both Dutch and English-language TV series and films.

His career began in 1969 with the title role in the Dutch television series Floris. His film credits include Flesh+Blood, Blind Fury, Blade Runner, The Hitcher, Escape from Sobibor (for which he won a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor), Nighthawks, Wedlock, Sin City, Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, Ladyhawke, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, The Osterman Weekend, The Blood of Heroes, Batman Begins, Hobo with a Shotgun, and The Rite.[1]

Hauer founded the Rutger Hauer Starfish Association, an AIDS awareness organization.


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By Mathangi Subramanian, Ms. Magazine: Writing Women Back Into Existence
According to a study published by the Indian government in 2018, India’s population is missing about 63 million women. The reasons for this statistical gender imbalance probably include sex selective abortion, which is illegal in India, but still happens; the systematic denial of nutrition and care to female babies; and female infanticide. The report also estimates that India is home to about 21 million unwanted girls, or girls whose families see them as burdens, and who are therefore vulnerable to malnutrition, exploitative working conditions and human trafficking.

The problem of missing girls and women isn’t confined to India alone. In China, there were 70 million more men in the population in 2018 than women. In Pakistan, the sex ratio in 2011 was 111 men for every 100 women. And in 2016, according to a recent study by the Urban Indian Health Institute, over 5,000 Indigenous women and girls were reported missing or murdered in the United States alone.
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FYI July 23, 2019

On This Day

1972 – The United States launches Landsat 1, the first Earth-resources satellite.
Landsat 1 (LS-1), originally named “Earth Resources Technology Satellite” with label “1” or “A” sometimes attached (abbreviated “ERTS”, “ERTS-1” or “ERTS-A”)[3], was the first satellite of the United States’ Landsat program. It was a modified version of the Nimbus 4 meteorological satellite and was launched on July 23, 1972 by a Delta 900 rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.[4] The near-polar orbiting spacecraft served as a stabilized, Earth-oriented platform for obtaining information on agricultural and forestry resources, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water resources, geography, cartography, environmental pollution, oceanography and marine resources, and meteorological phenomena.



Born On This Day

1900 – Julia Davis Adams, American author and journalist (d. 1993)
Julia Davis Adams (July 23, 1900 – January 30, 1993)[1][2] was an American writer best known for her young adult books, historical and biographical novels and dramas.

Adams was born in Clarksburg, West Virginia to lawyer and statesman John W. Davis and Julia Leavell McDonald Davis. She attended Wellesley College, and graduated from Barnard College in 1922. She was also an active social worker and a journalist.[3]

Davis wrote two Murray Hill mystery novels published as by F. Draco:

Devil’s Church (Rinehart, 1951), LCCN 51-10854
Cruise with Death (Rinehart, 1952), LCCN 52-7157



BBC News: Chris Kraft: Key Apollo 11 director dies days after anniversary

Christopher Columbus Kraft Jr. (February 28, 1924 – July 22, 2019) was an American aerospace engineer and NASA engineer and manager who was instrumental in establishing the agency’s Mission Control operation. Following his graduation from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1944, Kraft was hired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), the predecessor organization to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He worked for over a decade in aeronautical research before being asked in 1958 to join the Space Task Group, a small team entrusted with the responsibility of putting America’s first man in space. Assigned to the flight operations division, Kraft became NASA’s first flight director. He was on duty during such historic missions as America’s first crewed spaceflight, first crewed orbital flight, and first spacewalk.

At the beginning of the Apollo program, Kraft retired as a flight director to concentrate on management and mission planning. In 1972, he became director of the Manned Spacecraft Center (later Johnson Space Center), following in the footsteps of his mentor Robert R. Gilruth. He held the position until his 1982 retirement from NASA. During his retirement, Kraft consulted for numerous companies including IBM and Rockwell International, and he published an autobiography entitled Flight: My Life in Mission Control.

More than any other person, Kraft was responsible for shaping the organization and culture of NASA’s Mission Control. As his protégé Glynn Lunney commented, “the Control Center today … is a reflection of Chris Kraft.”[1] In 2011, the Mission Control Center building was named after him. When Kraft received the National Space Trophy from the Rotary Club in 1999, the organization described him as “a driving force in the U.S. human space flight program from its beginnings to the Space Shuttle era, a man whose accomplishments have become legendary.”[2]


By Eric Levenson, CNN: Robert Morgenthau, longtime Manhattan DA and ‘Law & Order’ inspiration, dies at 99

Robert Morris Morgenthau (/ˈmɔːrɡənθɔː/ MORG-ən-thaw; July 31, 1919 – July 21, 2019) was an American lawyer. From 1975 until his retirement in 2009, he was the District Attorney for New York County (the borough of Manhattan), having previously served as United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York throughout much of the 1960s on the appointment of John F. Kennedy. At retirement, Morgenthau was the longest-serving district attorney in the history of the State of New York, although William V. Grady of Dutchess County surpassed this record at the midway point of his ninth term on January 1, 2018.


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FYI July 22, 2019

On This Day

1796 – Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio “Cleveland” after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.
Moses Cleaveland (January 29, 1754 – November 16, 1806) was a lawyer, politician, soldier and surveyor, from Connecticut who founded the U.S. city of Cleveland, Ohio, while surveying the Western Reserve in 1796.

Early life

Cleaveland was born in Canterbury, Windham County, Connecticut. He studied law at Yale University, graduating in 1777. That same year, with the American Revolutionary War in progress, he was commissioned as an ensign in the 2nd Connecticut Regiment of the Continental Army. In 1779 he was promoted to captain of a company of “sappers and miners” (combat engineers) in the newly formed Corps of Engineers.[1]:14 He resigned from the army on June 7, 1781 and started a legal practice in Canterbury.

As a Freemason he was initiated in a military lodge and then he became W. Master of Moriah Lodge, Connecticut.

Militia career
Cleaveland was known as a very energetic person with high ability. In 1788, he was a member of the Connecticut convention that ratified the United States Constitution. He was elected to the Connecticut General Assembly several times and in 1796 was commissioned brigadier general of militia. He was a shareholder in the Connecticut Land Company, which had purchased for $1,200,000 from the state government of Connecticut the land in northeastern Ohio reserved to Connecticut by Congress, known at its first settlement as New Connecticut, and in later times as the Western Reserve.[1]:9

Cleaveland was approached by the directors of the company in May 1796 and asked to lead the survey of the tract and the location of purchases. He was also responsible for the negotiations with the Indians living on the land. In June 1796, he set out from Schenectady, New York. His party included 50 people, including six surveyors, a physician, a chaplain, a boatman, 37 employees, a few emigrants and two women, who accompanied their husbands. Some journeyed by land with the horses and cattle, while the main body went in boats up the Mohawk, down the Oswego, along the shore of Lake Ontario, and up Niagara River, carrying their boats over the long portage of seven miles at the falls.[1]:10

Personal life

On 2 March 1794, Cleaveland married Esther Champion, by whom he had four children.[2]

Founding of Cleveland

At Buffalo, a delegation of Mohawk and Seneca Indians opposed their entrance into the Western Reserve, claiming it as their territory, but waived their rights on the receipt of goods valued at $1,200. The expedition then coasted along the shore of Lake Erie, and landed, on July 4, 1796, at the mouth of Conneaut Creek, which they named Port Independence. Nearby Indians were upset at the encroachment on their land, but were appeased with gifts of beads and whiskey, and allowed the surveys to proceed.[1]:11 General Cleaveland, with a surveying party, coasted along the shore and on July 22, 1796, landed at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. He ascended the bank, and, beholding a beautiful plain covered with a luxuriant forest-growth, divined that the spot where he stood, with the river on the west and Lake Erie on the north, was a favorable site for a city.[1]:12

He accordingly had it surveyed into town lots, and the employees named the place Cleaveland, in honor of their chief. There were but four settlers the first year, and, on account of the insalubrity of the locality, the growth was at first slow, reaching 150 inhabitants only in 1820.[1]:12 Moses Cleaveland went home to Connecticut after the 1796 expedition and never returned to Ohio or the city that bears his name.[citation needed] He died in Canterbury, Connecticut,[1]:13 where he is also buried. Today, a statue of him stands on Public Square in Cleveland. The statue makes occasional appearances in popular media referencing Cleveland, including the movies Major League and Draft Day.

The place called “Cleaveland” eventually became known as “Cleveland”. One explanation as to why the spelling changed is that, in 1830, when the first newspaper, the Cleveland Advertiser, was established, the editor discovered that the head-line was too long for the form, and accordingly left out the letter “a” in the first syllable of “Cleaveland”, which spelling was at once adopted by the public.[1]:13[3] An alternative explanation is that Cleaveland’s surveying party misspelled the name of the future town on their original map.[4]


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Born On This Day

1881 – Augusta Fox Bronner, American psychologist, specialist in juvenile psychology (d. 1966)
Augusta Fox Bronner (1881–1966)[1][2] was an American psychologist, best known for her work in juvenile psychology. She co-directed the first child guidance clinic, and her research shaped psychological theories about the causes behind child delinquency, emphasizing the need to focus on social and environmental factors over inherited traits.

Early life
Bronner was born July 22, 1881, in Louisville, Kentucky[1][3][4] to Gustave Bronner and Hanna Fox Bronner.[5] The family was Jewish,[2] and Augusta Fox Bronner’s grandparents on both sides of the family were originally from Germany.[2] She had two siblings, an older brother and a younger sister.[5]

After living in Cincinnati for several years, Bronner’s family returned to Louisville, where Bronner graduated with her high school diploma in 1898.[5][1]

Bronner’s mother and grandmother both encouraged her to study and build a career.[5] Bronner had aspired to be a teacher since youth, and after high school she pursued an educator’s certification at the Louisville Normal School.[5] She dropped out briefly, due to eye problems, and spent a year travelling in Europe with her aunt[1] before returning to the Normal School and graduating in 1901.[5]

After enrolling in the Columbia University Teachers College, Bronner completed her bachelor’s degree (B.S.[5]) in 1906, soon followed by her master’s degree (A.M.[5]) in 1909.[1] During her studies, she worked part-time grading papers for psychologist Edward L. Thorndike.[5] She returned to Louisville briefly, teaching at the local Louisville Girls’ High School – her old school[5] – until her father’s death in 1911.[1] Bonner then began her doctoral studies at the Teachers’ College, working with Thorndike.[1]

In 1914, Bronner completed her doctoral degree and published her dissertation, entitled A Comparative Study of the Intelligence of Delinquent Girls.[2][1] Bronner’s research showed that there was no correlation between delinquency and mental disability, undermining the common notion of the time that criminal behaviour was passed down through biological factors.[2]

In 1913, while taking a summer course at Harvard University, Bronner met Chicago neurologist and professor William Healy.[1][2] Healy was equally interested in the study of child delinquency,[5] and subsequently hired Bronner to work as a psychologist at his Chicago Juvenile Psychopathic Institute.[2] In 1914, the institute was renamed the Psychopathic Clinic of the Juvenile Court, and Bronner soon became the assistant director.[1] Bronner and Healy proceeded to shape the study and treatment of delinquent youth, contributing to the scientific understanding that most juvenile crime stemmed from “mental repressions, social conflicts, and family relations”, not hereditary factors.[2] Among other research, Bronner identified that delinquency often arose as a result of placing children with learning disabilities or special abilities in the wrong kinds of educational environments.[1]

In 1917, Bronner and Healy took up new positions at the Judge Baker Foundation of Boston (later the Judge Baker Children’s Center[6]), a new publicly funded child guidance clinic attached to the Boston juvenile court.[1] Bronner handled most of the psychological examinations of youth, as well as interviews with girls and the youngest children.[5] In 1927, Bronner and Healy wrote the influential Manual of Individual Mental Tests and Testing, a comprehensive guide to assessing a patient’s mental state.[6][5] Although Healy was originally given the full position of director, with Bronner acting as assistant director, Bronner eventually became co-director of the Foundation in 1930.[1][5] The Judge Baker Foundation soon became a model for other child guidance clinics across the country, with its co-directors developing important psychiatric practices such as the “team” method, in which psychologists worked together with social workers and physicians to treat a patient.[5]

On November 19, 1930, Bronner and Healy were invited by President Herbert Hoover to attend the White House Conference on Child Health and Protection.[6]

During the 1930s, Bronner also worked briefly in New Haven, Connecticut, as Director of the short-lived Research Institute of Human Relations at Yale University.[1] She was president of the American Orthopsychiatric Association in 1932.[5]

After her dissertation, Bronner published The psychology of special abilities and disabilities in 1917.[1] It was reprinted multiple times, helping to boost the vocational testing movement.[5] Her 1916 article “Attitude as It Affects Performances of Tests” was well-cited by others in subsequent research, exploring how certain factors could affect test results.[5]

As her personal and professional relationship with William Healy grew, Bronner retreated from publishing her individual work, preferring to co-write with Healy.[5] In collaboration with Healy, Bronner published multiple books on juvenile psychology, including Reconstructing behavior in youth: A study of problem children in foster families (1929), Treatment and what happened afterward (1939), and What makes a child delinquent? (1948).[1]

Personal life and retirement
In September 1932,[5] after Healy’s wife died, he and Bronner finally married.[1] According to biographer John C. Burnham, marriage changed very little about their professional relationship, its only effects being the easier facilitation of their working together on evenings and weekends and “complicating administration of the clinic” whenever the couple went on vacation together.[5]

A shortage of staff during World War II prolonged Bronner and Healy’s work at the Judge Baker Foundation, despite retirement plans.[5] After the couple finally retired in 1946, Bronner destroyed most of her own personal research and unpublished papers, preferring to keep the public’s focus on her husband’s academic work.[2] Bronner and Healy spent their retirement in Clearwater, Florida.[4]

Bronner died in Clearwater on December 11, 1966.[5]



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FYI July 21, 2019

On This Day

1959 – Elijah Jerry “Pumpsie” Green becomes the first African-American to play for the Boston Red Sox, the last team to integrate. He came in as a pinch runner for Vic Wertz and stayed in as shortstop in a 2–1 loss to the Chicago White Sox.
Elijah Jerry “Pumpsie” Green (October 27, 1933 – July 17, 2019) was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) infielder who played with the Boston Red Sox (1959–62) and New York Mets (1963). A switch-hitter who threw right-handed, he was listed as 6 ft (1.83 m) tall and 175 lb (79 kg).

Green had the distinction of being the first black player to play for the Red Sox, the last pre-expansion major-league club to integrate. In his Boston tenure, he was used mostly as a pinch runner or day-off replacement for infielders Pete Runnels and Don Buddin. Green made his debut on July 21, 1959, pinch-running in a 2–1 loss against the Chicago White Sox.



Born On This Day

1896 – Sophie Bledsoe Aberle, Native American anthropologist, physician and nutritionist (d. 1996)
Sophie Bledsoe Aberle (née Herrick; July 21, 1896 – October 1996) was an American anthropologist, physician and nutritionist known for her work with Pueblo people. She was one of two women first appointed to the National Science Board.

Early life and education
Sophie Bledsoe Herrick was born in 1896 to Albert and Clara S. Herrick in Schenectady, New York. Her paternal grandmother and namesake was the writer Sophia Bledsoe Herrick. Sophie was educated at home and had a brief marriage at age 21 that gave her the surname of Aberle.[1][2]

Aberle started to attend University of California in Berkeley but switched to Stanford University, earning a bachelor’s degree in 1923,[2] a master’s degree in 1925, and a Ph.D. in genetics in 1927. She then attended medical school, earning an M.D. from Yale University in 1930. While a student, she worked as an assistant histologist, embryologist, and neurologist, and as an anthropology instructor.[3][4]

Career and research
Though she began her career with a 4-year stint as an instructor at Yale, Aberle spent most of her career working in Native American areas. She was employed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs from 1935 to 1944, then took a position with National Research Council until 1949, and from 1949 to 1954 at the University of New Mexico.[4][5] In 1948, her first major book was published, which placed Aberle as a strong proponent of Pueblo land rights.[4]

She and Gerty Cori were the first women appointed to the National Science Board by President Harry Truman in 1951.[6] Aberle remained a member until 1957. She worked for the Bernalillo County Indian Hospital as its chief nutritionist until 1966 when she returned to the University of New Mexico as a professor of psychiatry, a position she maintained until her 1970 retirement.[4]

Professional service
Aberle spent much of her career working on committees for land allocation and health. She was a member of the upper Rio Grande drainage basin committee, the health committee of the All Indian Pueblo Council, the New Mexico Nutrition Committee, the White House Conference on Children in Democracy, the Committee of Maternal and Infant Mortality, Planned Parenthood, and was the chair of the board of directors for the Southwest Field Training School for Federal Service and the Commission on Rights, Liberties, and Responsibilities of American Indians.[3][4]

Professional memberships
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Anthropological Association
American Medical Association

The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico, Their Land, Economy and Civil Organization
The Indian: America’s Unfinished Business



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“When your adrenaline is pumping and you think your mom is dying, you’ll do anything you can.”

To test this theory, I immediately left a message for my daughter, informing her that I was stuck in a burning building.

“You ok?” she texted back two hours later. “You should tweet at the fire department if you’re in danger.”

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FYI July 20, 2019

On This Day

1960 – Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) elects Sirimavo Bandaranaike Prime Minister, the world’s first elected female head of government.
Sirima Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike (Sinhala: සිරිමා රත්වත්තේ ඩයස් බණ්ඩාරනායක, Tamil: சிறிமா ரத்வத்தே டயஸ் பண்டாரநாயக்கே; 17 April 1916 – 10 October 2000), commonly known as Sirimavo Bandaranaike,[note 1] was a Sri Lankan stateswoman. She became the world’s first non-hereditary female head of government in modern history, when she was elected Prime Minister of Sri Lanka in 1960. She served three terms: 1960–1965, 1970–1977 and 1994–2000.

Born into an aristocratic Kandyan family, Bandaranaike was educated in Catholic, English-medium schools, but remained a Buddhist and spoke Sinhala as well as English. On graduating from secondary school, she worked for various social programmes before marrying and raising a family. Playing hostess to her husband S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, who was involved in politics and later became Prime Minister, she gained his trust as an informal advisor. Her social work focused on improving the lives of women and girls in rural areas of Sri Lanka. Following her husband’s assassination in 1959, Sirimavo Bandaranaike entered politics and in 1960 became the first woman elected Prime Minister of a country.

Bandaranaike attempted to reform the former British Colony of Ceylon into a socialist republic by nationalising organisations in the banking, education, industry, media and trade sectors. Changing the administrative language from English to Sinhala, she exacerbated discontent among the native Tamil population, and with the estate Tamils, who had become stateless under the Citizenship Act of 1948. During Bandaranaike’s first two terms as Prime Minister, the country was plagued by high inflation and taxes, a dependence on food imports to feed the populace, high unemployment, and polarisation between the Sinhalese and Tamil populations because of her Sinhalese nationalist policies. Surviving an attempted coup d’état in 1962, as well as a 1971 insurrection of radical youths, in 1972 she oversaw the drafting of a new constitution and the formation of the Sri Lankan republic. In 1975, Bandaranaike created what would eventually become the Sri Lankan Ministry of Women and Child Affairs, also appointing the first woman to serve in the Sri Lankan Cabinet. Bandaranaike’s tenure was marked by inadequate economic development at the national level. She played a large role abroad as a negotiator and a leader among the Non-Aligned Nations.

Ousted from power in the 1977 elections, Bandaranaike was stripped of her civil rights in 1980 for abuses of power during her tenure and barred from government for seven years. Her successors initially improved the domestic economy, but failed to address social issues, and led the country into a protracted civil war. When she returned to party leadership in 1986, Bandaranaike opposed allowing the Indian Peace Keeping Force to intervene in the civil war, believing it violated Sri Lankan sovereignty. Failing to win the office of President in 1988, she served as Leader of the Opposition in the legislature from 1989 to 1994. When her daughter won the presidential election that year, Bandaranaike was appointed to her third term as Prime Minister and served until her retirement in 2000, two months prior to her death.



Born On This Day

1918 – Cindy Walker, American singer-songwriter and dancer (d. 2006)
Cindy Walker (July 20, 1918 – March 23, 2006) was an American songwriter, as well as a country music singer and dancer. As a songwriter Walker was responsible for a large number of popular and enduring songs recorded by many different artists.

She adopted a craftsman-like approach to her songwriting, often tailoring particular songs to specific recording artists. She produced a large body of songs that have been described as “direct, honest and unpretentious”.[1] She had Top 10 hits spread over five decades.[2]

Walker was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1997 and inducted into the Texas Heritage Songwriters Hall of Fame in March 2011.

Early life

Cindy Walker was born on July 20, 1918 on her grandparents’ farm near Mart, Texas (near Mexia, east of Waco), the daughter of a cotton-broker. Her maternal-grandfather F.L. Eiland was a noted composer of hymns and her mother was a fine pianist. From childhood Cindy Walker was fond of poetry and wrote habitually.


As a teenager, inspired by newspaper accounts of the dust storms on the American prairies in the mid-1930s, Walker wrote the song, “Dusty Skies” (later recorded by Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys.[3] In 1936, her “Casa de Mañana” was performed by the Paul Whiteman Orchestra (as part of the Texas Centennial celebrations).[1] By the end of the decade Cindy Walker was singing and dancing in Texas stage shows.[4]

Move to Los Angeles
In 1940, Walker, at the age of 22, accompanied her parents on a business trip to Los Angeles. As they were driving down Sunset Boulevard she asked her father to stop the car near the Bing Crosby Enterprises building. Walker later recalled: “I had decided that if I ever got to Hollywood, I was going to try to show Bing Crosby a song I had written for him called ‘Lone Star Trail'”. Her father said “You’re crazy, girl”, but nonetheless stopped the car.[5] Walker went inside the building to pitch her song and emerged shortly afterward to ask her mother to play the piano for her. Bing Crosby’s brother Larry Crosby had agreed to listen to the song; Walker sang “Lone Star Trail” to him, accompanied by her mother. Larry Crosby was impressed and aware that his brother was looking for a new Western song to record. The next day Cindy played guitar and sang “Lone Star Trail” for Bing Crosby at Paramount Studios (where he was making a movie). Crosby arranged for her to record a demo with Dave Kapp of Decca Records, who was also impressed and offered her a recording contract.[1][3] “Lone Star Trail” was recorded and became a top-ten hit for Bing Crosby.[6]

Performances and recordings
Walker remained in Los Angeles for 13 years. In 1940 she appeared as a singer in the Gene Autry Western Ride, Tenderfoot, Ride. The Decca recording contract led to Walker recording several songs with Texas Jim Lewis and His Lone Star Cowboys, including “Seven Beers with the Wrong Man” in 1941, which was also filmed as an early “Soundie” (a precursor of music videos).[6] In 1944 Walker recorded a song (not her own) which became a top ten hit, “When My Blue Moon Turns to Gold Again”.[4]

Focus on songwriting
Walker successfully pitched her songs to Bob Wills and began to regularly contribute compositions for recordings and the movies that Wills made in the 1940s.[7] The collaboration was extremely fruitful: Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys eventually recorded over 50 of Cindy Walker’s songs, including “Cherokee Maiden” (1941), “Dusty Skies” (1941), “Miss Molly” (1942), “Sugar Moon” (co-written with Bob Wills; 1947) and “Bubbles in My Beer” (1948).[1] Bob Wills and his band performed Walker’s first top-ten country hit, “You’re From Texas” (1944).[8]

Among her other 1940s hits were “Triflin’ Gal” (top-10 records for both Al Dexter and Walter Shrum, 1945);[9]:104, 314 “Warm Red Wine” (Ernest Tubb, 1949),[9]:355 and “Take Me in Your Arms and Hold Me” (Eddy Arnold, 1950).[9]:30 Some sources have erroneously attributed Johnny Bond’s 1948 “Oklahoma Waltz” to her;[10] probably they confused it with her own 1947 composition of that name, co-written with and recorded by Spade Cooley.[11][12]

During the 1950s Walker continued her success as a writer of popular songs. In 1952 Hank Snow had a hit with her “The Gold Rush is Over” and in 1955 Webb Pierce had success with “I Don’t Care”.[1]

Another Walker song was “Blue Canadian Rockies” recorded by Gene Autry (which featured in Autry’s 1952 movie of the same name). The song was revived in 1968 by The Byrds on their influential country-rock album Sweetheart of the Rodeo. In 1955 Eddy Arnold pitched Walker the theme and the song-title for “You Don’t Know Me” when they met during a WSM deejay convention in Nashville. Walker then wrote the song based on Arnold’s idea. It has been described as “a beautifully symmetrical and poignant portrait of a love not to be”.[1]

“You Don’t Know Me” has been recorded by numerous artists over the years, most successfully by Jerry Vale (1956); Lenny Welch (1960); Ray Charles (1962); and Elvis Presley (1967). “Anna Marie”, was a hit for Jim Reeves in 1957 and the beginning of another productive artist-writer association which culminated in “This is It” (1965) and “Distant Drums” (a posthumous hit for Reeves).[1] “Distant Drums” remained at No.1 on the British charts for five weeks in 1966.

Reeves recorded many of Walker’s compositions, she often wrote specifically for him and offered him the right of first refusal of her tracks. “Distant Drums” was originally recorded by Reeves as a demo, simply because he loved the song. Chet Atkins felt the time was not right for an international release. This demo, like many for Reeves, was unearthed upon his death and along with Atkins and Mary Reeves, Walker oversaw the production of the overdub which was to be released in 1966, and became a huge international hit.[citation needed]

In 1961 Eddy Arnold had a minor hit with Walker’s “Jim, I Wore a Tie Today”, a moving song about the death of a cowboy. Cindy Walker wrote the song “Dream Baby (How Long Must I Dream) “, which was recorded by Roy Orbison (who also recorded a version of “Distant Drums”). She originally had little confidence in “Dream Baby”, but Orbison’s recording was a hit in both the US and Britain in 1962, and was a hit again in 1971 for Glen Campbell and in 1983 for Lacy J. Dalton.[1] In 1964 Fred Foster of Monument Records “tempted her back into the studio to record an album, Words and Music by Cindy Walker.[13] Walker’s song “In the Misty Moonlight” was a hit for both Jerry Wallace (1964) and Dean Martin (1967) as well as being recorded by Jim Reeves. “Heaven Says Hello” (recorded by Sonny James) and “You Are My Treasure” (Jack Greene) were hits in 1968, both written by Walker.[1]
Honors, awards and tributes

In 1970 Walker became a charter member of the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame.[3] In 1981 Mickey Gilley’s version of “You Don’t Know Me” was a hit in the country charts. A year later Walker had her last major hit with Ricky Skaggs’ reworking of “I Don’t Care”.[1]

It has been estimated that more than 500 of Walker’s songs have been recorded[3] and that her songs made the Top 40 charts (country or pop) more than 400 times.[8] In September 1997 Walker was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame (together another songwriter, Harlan Howard). During her acceptance speech, Walker recited some verse she had written for the occasion:

In the 1980s, my mother bought me a dress for a BMI affair and she said “when they put you in the Hall of Fame, that’s the dress I want you to wear.” And I said “Oh Mama, the Hall of Fame? Why that will never be.” And the years went by, but my mother’s words remained in my memory. And I know tonight she’d be happy, though she’s gone now to her rest. But I think of all that she did for me, and tonight I’m wearing this dress.[14]

Her speech was followed by a standing ovation and Walker left the stage in tears after softly blowing a kiss. During the proceedings renowned songwriter (and fellow Hall of Fame inductee) Harlan Howard described Walker as “the greatest living songwriter of country music”.[15]

In 1998, Walker was inducted into the Texas Country Music Hall of Fame. In 2001 the Country Music Television network honored the 40 Greatest Women in Country Music. The women were selected for their contribution to the genre by a survey of hundreds of American artists and music historians and Walker was ranked No. 32.

In March 2006, Willie Nelson released You Don’t Know Me: The Songs of Cindy Walker, an album featuring 13 of Walker’s well-known songs.

Personal life
In her personal life, Walker shunned the limelight. It was often reported that she never married, though in an interview with The New York Times shortly before her death, Walker stated she once had “a very short-lived marriage”. After her stint in Los Angeles she returned to Texas in 1954, living in Mexia in a modest three-bedroom house with her widowed mother, Oree.[citation needed]

Walker’s custom was rise at dawn each day to write songs. She typed her lyrics on a pink-trimmed manual typewriter and Oree Walker helped work out melodies for her daughter’s words. Each year Walker and her mother would operate from an apartment in Nashville for five months or so in order to market the songs.[8] Oree Walker died in 1991. In a 2004 interview Walker stated: “I miss Mama every day”.[3]

Walker died at age 87 near her home — at the Parkview Regional Hospital in Mexia, Texas, on March 23, 2006. She died nine days after Willie Nelson’s tribute album was released. She had been ill for several weeks prior to her death.[15] She was buried in the Mexia City Cemetery. Her family had a custom-designed sculpture created for her gravestone to honor the songwriter and her work. The memorial sculpture is a large pink-granite guitar (in her signature color).[16]

Charting singles
Year Single Peak positions
US Country
1944 “When My Blue Moon Turns to Gold Again”

See also
Biography portal

Mr. Texas (film 1951)



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