Category: FYI


FYI August 25, 2017

1537 – The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, is formed.
The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII and is considered one of the oldest military organisations in the world.[3] Today it is a registered charity whose purpose is to attend to the “better defence of the realm”, this purpose is primarily achieved by the support of the HAC Regiment and a detachment of Special Constabulary to the City of London Police. The word “artillery” in “Honourable Artillery Company” does not have the current meaning that is generally associated with it, but dates from a time when in the English language that word meant any projectile, including for example arrows shot from a bow. The equivalent form of words in modern English would be either “Honourable Infantry Company”[4] or “Honourable Military Company.”

In the 17th century its members played a significant part in the formation of both the Royal Marines and the Grenadier Guards whilst more recently regiments, battalions and batteries of the Company fought with distinction in both World Wars and its current Regiment, which forms part of the Army Reserve, is the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior[5] in the Army Reserve.[note 2] Members of the Regiment and Specials are drawn, for the most part, from young men and women working in and around the City and Greater London. Those leaving the active units may become Veteran Members and remain within the fraternity of the Company.

The HAC can trace its history back as far as 1087,[6] but it received a Royal Charter from Henry VIII on 25 August 1537, when Letters Patent were received by the Overseers of the Fraternity or Guild of St George authorising them to establish a perpetual corporation for the defence of the realm to be known as the Fraternity or Guild of Artillery of Longbows, Crossbows and Handgonnes. This body was known by a variety of names until 1656, when it was first referred to as the Artillery Company. It was first referred to as the Honourable Artillery Company in 1685 and officially received the name from Queen Victoria in 1860. However, the Archers’ Company of the Honourable Artillery Company was retained into the late 19th century, though as a private club. Founded in 1781 by Sir Ashton Lever, it met at Archers’ Hall, Inner Circle, Regent’s Park, London. The Archers’ Company remained a part of the regiment operated from 1784 to the late 1790s, along with Matross, Grenadier (established on 11 August 1686)[7] and Light Infantry companies/divisions, with a Rifle or Jaeger Company introduced around 1803.[8]

The regiment has the rare distinction of having fought on the side of both Parliament and the Royalists during the English Civil War 1642 to 1649.

From its formation, the company trained at a site it had occupied at the Old Artillery Ground in Spitalfields and at The Merchant Taylors’ Company Hall.[9] In 1622, the company built its first Armoury House at the site of the Old Artillery Gardens.

In 1638, Sir Maurice Abbot granted the company use of lands at its current site south of Bunhill Fields Burial Ground on City Road, which in 1649 consisted of twelve acres enclosed by a brick wall and pale.[9] In 1657, it sold its old Armoury House in Spitalfield to Master Gunner Richard Woolaston for £300.[10]

In 1656 the Grenadier Guards were formed from gentlemen of the Honourable Artillery Company who had taken the then heir to the throne, Prince Charles (later Charles II), to Europe for his safety during the English Civil War.[11]

In 28 October 1664 in the New Artillery Gardens the body of men that would become the Royal Marines was first formed with an initial strength of 1,200 infantrymen recruited from the Trained Bands of London as part of the mobilisation for the Second Anglo-Dutch War. James (later King James VII & II), the Duke of York and Albany, Lord High Admiral and brother of King Charles II, was Captain-General of the Honourable Artillery Company, the unit that trained the Trained Bands.[12][13]

Until 1780, captains of the HAC trained the officers of the London Trained Bands.

The Company served in Broadgate during the Gordon Riots of 1780 and in gratitude for its role in restoring order to the City, the Corporation of London presented “two brass field-pieces”, which led to the creation of an HAC Artillery Division. (These guns are on display in the entrance hall of Armoury House.)

In 1860, control of the Company moved from the Home Office to the War Office and in 1889, a Royal Warrant gave the Secretary of State for War control of the Company’s military affairs. In 1883, Queen Victoria decreed that the HAC took precedence next after the Regular Forces and therefore before the Militia and Yeomanry in consideration of its antiquity.[14][15]

More on wiki:


1916 – Frederick Chapman Robbins, American pediatrician and virologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003)
Frederick Chapman Robbins (August 25, 1916 – August 4, 2003) was an American pediatrician and virologist.

He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1954 along with John Franklin Enders and Thomas Huckle Weller, making Robbins the only Nobel laureate born in Alabama. The award was for his breakthrough work in isolation and growth of the polio virus, paving the way for vaccines developed by Jonas Salk, Albert Sabin, etc. He attended school at the University of Missouri and Harvard University.

In 1952, he was appointed as professor of pediatrics at Case Western Reserve University.[1] Robbins was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1962.[2] From 1966 onwards, Robbins was dean of the School of Medicine at Case Western.[3] He led the medical school until 1980, when he assumed the presidency of the National Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Medicine. Five years later, in 1985, Robbins returned to Case Western Reserve as dean emeritus and distinguished University professor Emeritus.[4] He continued to be a fixture at the medical school until his death in 2003. The medical school’s “Frederick C. Robbins Society” is named in his honor.

Robbins received the Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences of the American Philosophical Society in 1999.[5] He was an atheist.[6]



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By Jason Raven Facebook post showing act of kindness at Walmart goes viral
Guy goes outside to film lightning storm
By Samantha Michaels: A Federal Judge Put Hundreds of Immigrants Behind Bars While Her Husband Invested in Private Prisons
In January, Reade was honored for her decade of service as the top federal judge in Iowa’s Northern District at a ceremony at the federal courthouse in Cedar Rapids. She remains on the bench and has a lifetime tenure.
By Elise Foley: Dreamer Living In Kentucky Detained For A Week Due To Error By Immigration Officers
By Ashley Lutz: Amazon Prime members will get special discounts at Whole Foods
By Ben Paynter: These Clever Ads Remind You That The Constitution Still Doesn’t Guarantee Women Equal Rights
August 26 is Women’s Equality Day, which traditionally celebrates the 1920 ratification of the 19th Amendment that granted women the right to vote. This year, a handful of irreverent ads will begin circulating on social media, paying homage to that achievement, but pointing out that the battle for gender equality has strangely stopped short.


By Eillie Anzilotti: Can Connecting Rent To Income, Not Market Rates, Change The Affordability Of Cities?
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By Sean Captain: YouTube Has Finally Started Hiding Extremist Videos, Even If It Won’t Delete Them All

By Ben Paynter: A Fix For Food Waste And Hunger: Big Batches Of Soup
Each soup is frozen before being redistributed by the app-enabled volunteer fleet, often with a homemade salad mix and salvaged baked goods, through local schools, libraries, recreation centers, or faith organizations.
By Elizabeth Segran: Found: The Best Women’s Work-Life Bags Under $100


Design Students, Play These Games To Brush Up On Your Skills
By Barry Petchesky: My Five Favorite Moments From The Yankees-Tigers Brawl

By Alanis King: Why 2,000 Chicago Mechanics Are At War With Car Dealers




FYI August 24, 2017

1690 – Job Charnock of the East India Company establishes a factory in Calcutta, an event formerly considered the founding of the city (in 2003 the Calcutta High Court ruled that the city has no birthday).

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company,[1] was an English and later British joint-stock company,[2] which was formed to pursue trade with the “East Indies” (or Maritime Southeast Asia in present-day terms) but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of the Indian subcontinent.

Originally chartered as the “Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies”, the company rose to account for half of the world’s trade, particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea and opium. The company also ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India.[3]

The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies. Wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the company’s shares.[4] Initially the government owned no shares and had only indirect control.

During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the French East India Company (Compagnie française des Indes orientales) during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s. The Battle of Plassey and Battle of Buxar, in which the British, led by Robert Clive, defeated the Indian powers, left the company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India. In the following decades it gradually increased the extent of the territories under its control, ruling the whole Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys.

By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about 260,000—twice the size of the British army.[5] The company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions.[6] Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 and lasted until 1858, when, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown’s assuming direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj.

Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances. It was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by then rendered it vestigial, powerless, and obsolete. The official government machinery of British India had assumed its governmental functions and absorbed its armies.

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1556 – Sophia Brahe, Danish horticulturalist and astronomer (d. 1643)
Sophia or Sophie Brahe or after marriage Sophie Thott Lange (22 September 1556 or 24 August 1559[1] – 1643), was a Danish horticulturalist with knowledge of astronomy, chemistry, and medicine. She assisted her brother Tycho Brahe with his astronomical observations.


She was born in Knudstrup, as the youngest of ten children, to Otte Brahe rigsråd, or advisor to the King of Denmark; and Beate Bille Brahe, leader of the royal household for Queen Sophie. Famous astronomer Tycho Brahe, 10 years her senior, was Sophie’s oldest brother. When she was 17, she started assisting her brother with his astronomical observations in 1573, and helped him with the work that became the basis for modern planetary orbit predictions. She frequently visited his observatory Uranienborg, on the then-Danish island of Hveen.[2] Tycho wrote that he had trained her in horticulture and chemistry, but he told her not to study astronomy. He expressed with pride that she learned astronomy on her own, studying books in German, and having Latin books translated with her own money so that she could also study them (Tjørnum). Brother and sister were united by their work in science, and by their family’s opposition to science as an appropriate activity for members of the aristocracy. Tycho referred with admiration to her ‘animus invictus’, her “determined mind” (Det Kongelige Bibliotek).

She married Otto Thott in 1576, an older man than her: he was 33. She had one child with him before he died on 23 March 1588.[3][4] Their son was Tage Thott, born in 1580. Upon her husband’s death, Sophie Thott managed his property in Eriksholm (today Trolleholm Castle[5]), running the estate to keep it profitable until her son came of age. During this time, she also became a horticulturalist, in addition to her studies in chemistry and medicine. The gardens she created in Ericksholm were said to be exceptional. Sophie was particularly interested in studying chemistry and medicine according to Paracelsus,[4] in which small doses of poison might serve as strong medicines. She also helped her brother with producing horoscopes, continuing with that until 1597 (Det Kongelige Biblioteck).

On 21 July 1587, King Frederick II of Denmark signed a document transferring to Sophia Brahe title of Årup farm in what is now Sweden (Svensson, et al.).

During the times she visited at Uranienborg, Sophia Thott met Erik Lange, a nobleman who studied alchemy. In 1590, Sophie took 13 visits to Uranienborg, and they became engaged in that year. Lange used up most of his fortune with alchemy experiments, so their marriage was delayed some years while he avoided his debtors and traveled to Germany to try to find patrons for his work. Tycho Brahe wrote the poem “Urania Titani” during the couple’s separation, expressed as a letter from his sister Sophia to her fiance in 1594.

In 1599, she visited Lange in Hamburg, but they did not marry until 1602 in Eckernförde. They lived in this town for a while in extreme poverty. Sophie wrote a long letter to her sister Margrethe Brahe, describing having to wear stockings with holes in them for her wedding. Lange’s wedding clothes had to be returned to the pawn shop after the wedding, because the couple could not afford to keep them. She expressed anger with her family for not accepting her science studies, and for depriving her of money owed to her. By 1608, Erik Lange was living in Prague, and he died there in 1613 (Det Kongelige Bibliotek).

Sophie Brahe personally financed the restoration of the local church, Ivetofta kyrka. She planned to be buried there, and the lid for her unused sarcophagus remains in the church’s armory (Svensson, et al.). But, by 1616 she had moved permanently to Zealand and settled in Helsingør. She spent her last years writing up the genealogy of Danish noble families, publishing the first major version in 1626 (there were later additions). Her work is still considered a major source for early history of Danish nobility(Det Kongelige Bibliotek). She died in Helsingør in the year 1643,[6] and was buried in Kristianstad, in Trefaldighets kyrka, with the Thott family (Tjørnum).

In 1626 Sophie had completed a 900-page manuscript on the genealogies of 60 Danish noble families, which is held by Lund University.[6]

In 1691 Pieter van der Hulst painted a portrait of an old woman named Live Larsdatter; he wrote a note claiming she was born in 1575, and was 116 years old. Sparse sources claimed that Larsdatter worked for Tycho in Denmark, and later for Sophie, who taught her medicine. Larsdatter was variously said to have lived to 123 or 124 years and to have become known for her “miracle plaster”.[7]


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Do you use Dropbox? I did but it caused havoc with other programs so went back to using Apple Time Machine and my 5tb external hard drive.
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By Gary Price: Research Tools: eLife Introduces ReFigure, an Open-Source Browser Extension For Science Curate Scientific Findings Across Publisher Websites and Repositories
Today, we are introducing ReFigure, a new science curation and publication tool supported by the eLife Innovation Initiative.

ReFigure is a chrome extension and website that allows researchers to connect new and previously reported findings across publisher websites and repositories.

It is currently in beta and being developed in the open on GitHub.

ReFigure was born from an idea that research outputs should be incremental, immediately connected to published findings and not confined to the websites of individual journals. For instance, there should be a way to rapidly curate a collection of related figures across publications based on similar experimental hypotheses, making it easier to identify whether the findings were reproducible. We also wanted to highlight new insights by connecting our own research findings, whether reproduced, negative or incremental new findings, to relevant, previously published research.




FYI August 23, 2017

1904 – The automobile tire chain is patented.
Snow chains, or tire chains, are devices fitted to the tires of vehicles to provide maximum traction when driving through snow and ice.

Snow chains attach to the drive wheels of a vehicle or special systems deploy chains which swing under the tires automatically. Although named after steel chain, snow chains may be made of other materials and in a variety of patterns and strengths. Chains are usually sold in pairs and often must be purchased to match a particular tire size (tire diameter and tread width), although some designs can be adjusted to fit various sizes of tire. Driving with chains reduces fuel efficiency, and can reduce the allowable speed of the automobile to approximately 50 km/h (30 mph), but increase traction and braking on snowy or icy surfaces. Some regions require chains to be used under some weather conditions, but other areas prohibit the use of chains, as they can deteriorate road surfaces.

Snow chains were invented in 1904 by Harry D. Weed in Canastota, New York. Weed received U.S. Patent Number 768495 for his “Grip-Tread for Pneumatic Tires” on August 23, 1904.[3] Weed’s great-grandson, James Weed, said that Harry got the idea of creating chains for tires when he saw drivers wrap rope, or even vines, around their tires to increase traction on muddy or snowy roads, which were very common at the turn of the 20th century (although at this time, most people in rural Northern regions wouldn’t bother driving automobiles in the winter at all, since roads were usually rolled for use with horse-drawn sleighs, rather than plowed, so automobiles were generally not winter vehicles, for a variety of reasons; this was true until the 1930s or 40s in some areas. Only in urban areas was it feasible to remove snow from streets.). He sought to make a traction device that was more durable and would work with snow as well as mud.[4]

In July 1935, the Canadian Auguste Trudeau obtained a patent for his tread and anti-skidding chain.[5]

In snowy conditions, transportation authorities may require that snow chains or other traction aids be installed on vehicles, or at least supplied for them. This can apply to all vehicles, or only those without other traction aids, such as four-wheel drive or special tires. Local requirements may be enforced at checkpoints or by other type of inspection. Snow chains should be installed on one or more drive axles of the vehicle, with requirements varying for dual-tire or multi-driven-axle vehicles that range from ‘one pair of tires on a driven axle’ to ‘all tires on all driven axles’, possibly also one or both steering (front) wheels, requiring snow chains whenever required by signage or conditions.

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1847 – Sarah Frances Whiting, American physicist and astronomer (d. 1927)
Sarah Frances Whiting (August 23, 1847 – September 12, 1927), American physicist and astronomer, was the instructor to several astronomers, including Annie Jump Cannon.

Whiting graduated from Ingham University in 1865.

Whiting was appointed by Wellesley College president Henry Fowle Durant, one year after the College’s 1875 opening, as its first professor of physics. She established its physics department and the undergraduate experimental physics lab at Wellesley, the second of its kind to be started in the country. At the request of Durant, she attended lectures at MIT given by Edward Charles Pickering.[1] He invited Whiting to observe some of the new techniques being applied to astronomy, such as spectroscopy. [2] In 1880, Whiting started teaching a course on Practical Astronomy at Wellesley.

In 1895, as told by biographer Annie Jump Cannon,

An especially exciting moment came when the Boston morning papers reported the discovery of the Rontgen or X-rays in 1895. The advanced students in physics of those days will always remember the zeal with which Miss Whiting immediately set up an old Crookes tube and the delight when she actually obtained some of the very first photographs taken in this country of coins within a purse and bones within the flesh.

Between 1896 and 1900, Whiting helped Wellesley College trustee Sarah Elizabeth Whitin to establish the Whitin Observatory, of which Whiting became the first director.

Tufts College bestowed an honorary doctorate on Whiting in 1905. She was also known for supporting prohibition.

Whiting retired from Wellesley in 1916 and was a Professor Emeritus until her death in 1927. She is buried in Machpelah Cemetery in Le Roy, New York, near her now-defunct alma mater.

Whiting wrote textbook Daytime and evening exercises in astronomy, for schools and colleges.[4]

She was also author of several articles in Popular Astronomy, including:

“Use of Graphs in Teaching Astronomy”,[5] “Use of Drawings in Orthographic Projection and of Globes in Teaching Astronomy”,[6] “Spectroscopic Work for Classes in Astronomy”,[7]”The Use of Photographs in Teaching Astronomy”,[8] “Partial Solar Eclipse, June 28, 1908”,[9] Solar Halos,[10] “A Pedagogical Suggestion for Teachers of Astronomy”,[11] “Priceless Accessions to Whitin Observatory Wellesley College”,[12] “The Tulse Hill observatory diaries (abstract)”,[13] and “The Tulse Hill observatory diaries”,[14] as well as the obituary for Margaret Lindsay Huggins, “Lady Huggins”.[15]

She described her experience as a “woman physicist” in the Wellesley College News article “The experiences of a woman physicist”[16]

1883 Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
1905 Honorary doctorate, Tufts College

1876-1912 Professor of Physics, Wellesley College
1900-1916 Director, Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College
1916-1927 Professor Emeritus, Wellesley College

AB Ingham University 1865


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From the comments:
It would be interesting to hear a follow-up discussion with your fellow GMG writer and Deadspin contributor Patrick Wyman. For those reading that are not aware of him, he has 2 excellent podcasts about Rome, Tides of History and The Fall of Rome.

Yeah, but the Romans loved Sugar of Lead, Lead(II) acetate:


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DialSafe Pro
Hess encourages all parents to download a free app called DialSafe Pro. It’s an app on your phone that allows kids to practice talking to a 911 operator; answering questions they would be asked during an emergency.

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Aliza Sherman:  Handy apps for social media visuals

Source: Handy apps for social media visuals

FYI August 22, 2017

1711 – Britain’s Quebec Expedition loses eight ships and almost nine hundred soldiers, sailors and women to rocks at Pointe-aux-Anglais.
The Quebec Expedition, or the Walker Expedition to Quebec, was a British attempt to attack Quebec in 1711 in Queen Anne’s War, the North American theatre of the War of Spanish Succession. It failed when seven transports and one storeship were wrecked and some 850 soldiers drowned in one of the worst naval disasters in British history.

The expedition was planned by the administration of Robert Harley, chief minister of the crown, and was based on plans originally proposed in 1708. Harley decided to mount the expedition as part of a major shift in British military policy, emphasizing strength at sea. The expedition’s leaders, Admiral Hovenden Walker and Brigadier-General John Hill, were chosen for their politics and connections to the crown, and its plans were kept secret even from the Admiralty. Despite the secrecy, French agents were able to discover British intentions and warn authorities in Quebec.

The expedition expected to be fully provisioned in Boston, the capital of colonial Massachusetts, but the city was unprepared when it arrived, and Massachusetts authorities had to scramble to provide even three months’ supplies. Admiral Walker also had difficulty acquiring experienced pilots and accurate charts for navigating the waters of the lower Saint Lawrence River. The expedition reached the Gulf of Saint Lawrence without incident, but foggy conditions, tricky currents, and strong winds combined to drive the fleet toward the north shore of the river near a place now called Pointe-aux-Anglais, where the ships were wrecked. Following the disaster, Walker abandoned the expedition’s objectives and returned to England. Although the expedition was a failure, Harley continued to implement his “blue water” policy.

More on wiki:

Pointe-aux-Anglais is a community in the city of Port-Cartier, Quebec, Canada, located halfway between Sept-Îles and Baie-Comeau (232 km), and some 80 kilometres (50 mi) from the town centre of Port-Cartier itself.

Main article: Quebec Expedition

In 1711, a large fleet commanded by Admiral Walker was sent from England to take Quebec. Due to fog on the St. Lawrence, eight ships grounded on the lle-aux-Oeuf reefs and went down with more than 900 men in one of the worst naval disasters in British history. The point of land just across from the reefs was named Pointe-aux-Anglais to commemorate the ill-fated expedition. It comprises the sectors of Pointe-aux-Anglais and Rivière-Pentecôte. An ecomuseum in Pointe-aux-Anglais explains how the English failed in their attempt to attack Quebec.[1]


1647 – Denis Papin, French physicist and mathematician, developed pressure cooking (d. 1712)
Denis Papin (22 August 1647 – c. 1713) was a French physicist, mathematician and inventor, best known for his pioneering invention of the steam digester, the forerunner of the pressure cooker and of the steam engine.[1]

Life in France
Born in Chitenay (Loir-et-Cher, Centre-Val de Loire Région), Papin attended a Jesuit school there, and from 1661 attended University at Angers, from which he graduated with a medical degree in 1669. In 1673, while working with Christiaan Huygens and Gottfried Leibniz in Paris, he became interested in using a vacuum to generate motive power.

First visit to London
Papin first visited London in 1675, and worked with Robert Boyle from 1676 to 1679, publishing an account of his work in Continuation of New Experiments (1680).[2] During this period, Papin invented the steam digester, a type of pressure cooker with a safety valve. He first addressed the Royal Society in 1679 on the subject of his digester, and remained mostly in London until about 1687, when he left to take up an academic post in Germany.

As a Huguenot, Papin found himself greatly affected by the increasing restrictions placed on Protestants by Louis XIV of France and by the King’s ultimate revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. In Germany he was able to live with fellow Huguenot exiles from France.

In 1689, Papin suggested that a force pump or bellows could maintain the pressure and fresh air inside a diving bell. (Engineer John Smeaton utilised this design in 1789.[3][4])

While in Marburg in 1690, having observed the mechanical power of atmospheric pressure on his ‘digester’, Papin built a model of a piston steam engine, the first of its kind.

Papin continued to work on steam engines for the next fifteen years. In 1695 he moved from Marburg to Kassel. In 1705 he developed a second steam engine with the help of Gottfried Leibniz, based on an invention by Thomas Savery, but this used steam pressure rather than atmospheric pressure. Details of the engine were published in 1707.

During his stay in Kassel in Hesse, in 1704, he constructed a ship powered by his steam engine, mechanically linked to paddles. This made him the first to construct a steam-powered boat (or vehicle of any kind). Later, at the iron foundry in Veckerhagen (now Reinhardshagen), he cast the world’s first steam cylinder.

Return to London
Papin returned to London in 1707, leaving his wife in Germany. Several of his papers were put before the Royal Society between 1707 and 1712 without acknowledging or paying him, about which he complained bitterly. Papin’s ideas included a description of his 1690 atmospheric steam engine, similar to that built and put into use by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, thought to be the year of Papin’s death.

The last surviving evidence of Papin’s whereabouts came in a letter he wrote dated 23 January 1712. At the time he was destitute (“I am in a sad case”) [Royal Society Archives, 1894, Vol. 7, 74], and it is believed he died that year and was buried in an unmarked pauper’s pit.

A record exists for the burial of a “Denys Papin” in an 18th-century Register of Marriages & Burials[5] which originally came from St Bride’s Church, Fleet Street, London, but which is now stored in the London Metropolitan Archives. The record states that Denys Papin was buried at St Bride’s on 26 August 1713 – just a few days after his 66th birthday – and that he was laid to rest in the Lower Ground, one of the two burial areas belonging to the church at the time.


Online demonstrations? What are they and what purpose do they serve? Could one also put their hand in a bucket of water, swish is around and accomplish the same (nothing) result?
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By Alex Reardon: Rethinking drag and drop





The Badlands StormLapse 4k – Porcupine, SD 8/14/17 from Chad Cowan on Vimeo.


FRACTAL – 4k StormLapse from Chad Cowan on Vimeo.





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UPDATE: USS John S. McCain Collides with Merchant Ship

USS John S. McCain (DDG 56) was involved in a collision with the merchant vessel Alnic MC, Aug. 21.

UPDATE: USS John S. McCain Collides with Merchant Ship

FYI August 21, 2017

1852 – Tlingit Indians destroy Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory.
Fort Selkirk is a former trading post on the Yukon River at the confluence of the Pelly River in Canada’s Yukon. For many years it was home to the Selkirk First Nation (Northern Tutchone).

Archaeological evidence shows that the site has been in use for at least 8,000 years. Robert Campbell established a Hudson’s Bay Company trading post nearby in 1848. In early 1852 he moved the post to its current location. Resenting the interference of the Hudson’s Bay Company with their traditional trade with interior Athabaskan First Nations, Chilkat Tlingit warriors attacked and looted the post that summer. It was rebuilt about 40 years later and became an important supply point along the Yukon River. It was essentially abandoned by the mid-1950s after the Klondike Highway bypassed it and Yukon River traffic died down.

At age 28, under the command of Inspector John Douglas Moodle, Francis Joseph Fitzgerald was the first to chart an overland route from Edmonton to Fort Selkirk, Yukon via northern British Columbia and the Pelly River (1897). The voyage took eleven months, having covered about 1,000 miles. As a result of this achievement, Fitzgerald was promoted corporal in 1899.[1]

Many of the buildings have been restored and the Fort Selkirk Historic Site is owned and managed jointly by the Selkirk First Nation and the Yukon Government’s Department of Tourism and Culture. There is no road access. Most visitors get there by boat, though there is an airstrip, Fort Selkirk Aerodrome, at the site.


1961 – Stephen Hillenburg, American marine biologist, cartoonist, and animator
Stephen McDannell Hillenburg[1] (born August 21, 1961) is an American cartoonist, animator, and former marine biologist. He is the creator of the television series SpongeBob SquarePants (1999–), which he has also directed, produced, and written. It has gone on the become one of the longest-running American television series as well as the highest-rated show ever to air on Nickelodeon.

Born in Lawton, Oklahoma and raised in Anaheim, California, Hillenburg became fascinated with the ocean as a child and also developed an interest in art. He started his professional career in 1984, instructing marine biology, at the Orange County Marine Institute, where he wrote The Intertidal Zone, an informative comic book about tide-pool animals, which he used to educate his students. In 1989, two years after leaving teaching, Hillenburg enrolled at the California Institute of the Arts to pursue a career in animation. He was later offered a job on the Nickelodeon animated television series Rocko’s Modern Life (1993–1996) after his success with short films The Green Beret and Wormholes (both 1992), which he made while studying animation.

In 1994, Hillenburg began developing The Intertidal Zone characters and concepts for what became SpongeBob SquarePants. The show premiered in 1999 and has been airing since then. He also directed The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie (2004), which he originally intended to be the series finale. However, Nickelodeon wanted to produce more episodes, so Hillenburg resigned as the showrunner. He went back to making short films, with Hollywood Blvd., USA (2013). In 2015, The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water premiered; the sequel to the 2004 film, it marked Hillenburg’s return to the show, after he co-wrote the story.

Besides his two Emmy Awards and six Annie Awards for SpongeBob SquarePants, Hillenburg has also received other recognition, such as an accolade from Heal the Bay for his efforts on elevating marine life awareness, and the Television Animation Award from the National Cartoonists Society. Despite this, he has been involved in public controversies, including one that was centered on speculation over the SpongeBob character’s intended sexual orientation, and a lawsuit that was filed against him. Hillenburg has been diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in 2017, but stated that he would still continue to work on his show.

Early life and education
Stephen Hillenburg was born on August 21, 1961, at Fort Sill,[2][3][4][5] a United States Army post in Lawton, Oklahoma, where his father, Kelly N. Hillenburg Jr. (July 16, 1936 – August 30, 2006),[6] was working for the U.S. military.[7] His mother, Nancy (née Dufour),[6] taught visually-impaired students.[2][3][4] When he was a year old,[7] the family moved to Orange County, California[2][4] where his father began a career as a draftsman and designer in the aerospace industry.[7] His younger brother, Bryan,[6] followed in their father’s footsteps, becoming a draftsman and designer.[4] Hillenburg has no recollection of life in Oklahoma,[7] having grown up in Anaheim, California.[7][8]

When an interviewer asked him to describe himself as a child, he replied that he was “probably well-meaning and naive like all kids.”[9][10] His passion for sea life can be traced to his childhood, when several films by French oceanographer Jacques Cousteau made a strong impression on him.[4][7][8] He has said that Cousteau “provided a view into that world”, which he did not know existed.[7] He liked to explore tide pools as a child, bringing home objects that “should have been left there and that ended up dying and smelling really bad.”[10] Also at a young age, Hillenburg developed his interest in art.[7][11] His first drawing was of an orange slice. An illustration that he drew in third grade depicting “a bunch of army men … kissing and hugging instead of fighting” marked the first praise that he received for his work after his teacher commended it.[7] “Of course, this is 1970 … She liked it because, I mean, obviously that was in the middle of [the Vietnam War]. She was, I would imagine, not a hundred percent for the war like a lot of people then. … I had no idea about the implications, really, because I just thought it was a funny idea. I remember that still, that moment when she said, ‘oh my gosh, look at that,'” Hillenburg elaborated.[7] It was then when he knew that he “had some [creative] skill”.[7] Hillenburg asserted that his artistry comes from his mother’s side, despite his father being a draftsman, noting that his maternal grandmother was “really, really gifted” and a “great painter”.[7] In the 1970s, someone took him to the International Tournée of Animation at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Hillenburg was “knocked out” by the foreign animated films that were screened at the festival, including Dutch animator Paul Driessen’s The Killing of an Egg (1977). “That was the film that I thought was uniquely strange and that lodged itself in my head early on,” he recounted.[12]

Hillenburg attended Savanna High School in Anaheim,[4][9][13] describing himself as a “band geek” who played the trumpet.[7] At age 15, he snorkeled for the first time;[3][4][9] Hillenburg took part in a “dive program”[7] at Woods Coves[9] in Laguna Beach, California,[3][4] as part of the Regional Occupational Program at Savanna.[7] This experience, as well as subsequent dives,[7] reinforced his interest in, and led to his decision to study, marine biology in college:[3][4][7][9][13] “The switch clicked and I decided I wanted to be a marine biologist, but I also liked being an artist.”[11] Some of his high-school teachers, who knew of his interest in art and fascination with the ocean, advised him otherwise,[7] saying: “You should just draw fish.”[7][14] However, the idea of drawing fish seemed boring to him and he was more riveted by “making weird, little paintings”.[7] During a few summers after finishing high school, he worked as a fry cook and lobster boiler[15] at a fast-food seafood restaurant[4] in Maine.[15] (This later inspired SpongeBob SquarePants’ occupation in the television series, which he would begin developing in 1994.[15])

Hillenburg went to Humboldt State University, in Arcata, California, as a marine-science major.[7] He also minored in art,[7] and claimed that “[he] blossomed as a painter in Humboldt.”[16] In 1984, he earned his bachelor’s degree in natural-resource planning and interpretation, with an emphasis in marine resources.[3][4][13][17] He intended to take a master’s degree, but said it would be in art:[7] “Initially I think I assumed that if I went to school for art I would never have any way of making a living, so I thought it might be smarter to keep art my passion and hobby and study something else. But by the time I got to the end of my undergrad work, I realized I should be in art.”[4]

“I’ve always been interested in art and making things, but I chose not to go to art school because I thought I needed to do something else. Art was a tough way to make a living. I’ve always done both. I just kind of figured that the marine biology would be a career and the art would be something I did for my own self-expression.”
— Stephen Hillenburg[9]

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The best things about the diversity of Hong Kong : THE F

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AD 14 – Agrippa Postumus, adopted son of the late Roman emperor Augustus, is executed by his guards while in exile under mysterious circumstances.
Agrippa Postumus (26 June 12 BC – 20 August AD 14), also referred to as Postumus Agrippa, was a son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. He was originally named Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus in honor of his father, who died shortly before Postumus’ birth. After the deaths of his older brothers, Lucius (d. AD 2) and Gaius Caesar (d. AD 4), Postumus was adopted by his maternal grandfather, the Roman emperor Augustus. In accordance with Roman naming conventions, Postumus’ name was changed to Marcus Julius Caesar Agrippa Postumus. At the time Augustus considered Postumus as a potential successor, but banished him from Rome in 9AD, for reasons that remain unknown. This, in effect, though not in law, cancelled his adoption and virtually assured Tiberius’ position as Augustus’ sole heir. Postumus was ultimately executed by his own guards shortly after Augustus’ death in AD 14.

Postumus was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the first imperial family of the Roman Empire. His maternal grandparents were Augustus and Scribonia, Augustus’ second wife. He was also a maternal uncle of the emperor Caligula, the son of Postumus’ sister Agrippina the Elder. Nero, the last Julio-Claudian emperor, was a great-nephew of Postumus on the side of his mother (Caligula’s sister), Agrippina the Younger.

Early life and personality

Agrippa Postumus was born on 26 June 12 BC during the early period of the Roman Empire. His father, the Roman general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, died in the same year shortly before the birth of Postumus. As a result, Agrippa’s posthumous son was given the name Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus. His mother was Julia the Elder, daughter of the first Roman emperor Augustus and his second wife Scribonia.[1] Postumus was the third son and last child of Agrippa and Julia; his older siblings were Gaius Caesar, Julia the Younger, Lucius Caesar, and Agrippina the Elder. His brothers, Gaius and Lucius, were both adopted by Augustus before Postumus was born. At first Augustus opted to not adopt Postumus so that Agrippa had at least one son to carry on his family name. However, the untimely deaths of Lucius (d. AD 2) and Gaius (d. AD 4) consequently led Augustus to finally adopt Postumus, as well as his stepson Tiberius by his third marriage to Livia Drusilla. Upon his adoption into the Julii Caesares, Postumus assumed the name Marcus Julius Caesar Agrippa Postumus. As with Gaius and Lucius, Augustus adopted Postumus and Tiberius as his heirs.

According to the historian Erich S. Gruen, various contemporary sources state that Postumus was a “vulgar young man, brutal and brutish, and of depraved character”.[2] The Roman historian Tacitus defended him, but his praise was slight: [He was] the young, physically tough, indeed brutish, Agrippa Postumus. Though devoid of every good quality, he had been involved in no scandal.[3]

No clear consensus has ever emerged as to why in 9 AD Augustus banished Postumus to the small island of Planasia (near Elba). Tacitus suggests that Augustus’ wife Livia always disliked and shunned Postumus, as he stood in the way of her son Tiberius succeeding to power after Augustus. A banishment (and eventual execution) for merely being rude and unpleasant, though, is a harsh sentence. Thus some modern historians theorise that Postumus may have become involved in a conspiracy against Augustus.[4] Alternatively, it is speculated that Postumus may have had learning difficulties. Postumus was held under intense security.[5]

Postumus’ sister Julia the Younger was banished around the same time (8 AD) and her husband, Lucius Aemilius Paullus was executed in a conspiracy against Augustus.[6] Also, a conspiracy to rescue Postumus and Julia was planned and was foiled.[6]

In any case, Postumus’ banishment did ensure Tiberius’ priority as the heir of Augustus. Tacitus reports a rumor that Augustus paid a highly covert visit to the island in 13 AD to apologise to his adopted son and to give him notice of plans to return him to Rome.[7] Augustus allegedly travelled to Planasia with a trusted friend, Paullus Fabius Maximus, and swore him to secrecy about the matter; Maximus then told his wife, Marcia, who mentioned it to Livia. Maximus was soon found dead, and Marcia subsequently claimed she was responsible for his death. Cassius Dio’s version [8] reports the island visit as fact, though the brief account is likely based on Tacitus’ account [9] and does not mention Fabius and Marcia. It is dubious whether this tale has any veracity.

Regardless of Augustus’ supposed visit, the emperor died the following year without having removed Postumus from Planasia and without including him in his will. Around Augustus’ death, Postumus was executed by his guards with some accounts contradicting whether it happened before or after. Accounts are also inconsistent on who ordered the death and these existed almost from the start, when Tiberius immediately and publicly disavowed the act upon being notified of it.[10] Some suggested that Augustus may have ordered the execution, while others place the blame on either Tiberius or Livia (with or possibly without Tiberius’s knowledge),[11] taking advantage of the confusing initial political situation upon Augustus’ death.[12]

Postumus was impersonated after his death by the former slave Clemens, who according to Cassius Dio, resembled him to a certain extent. Clemens gathered a significant band of followers to his cause, but was eventually captured and executed by Tiberius.

In fiction
Robert Graves’ work I, Claudius presents Postumus in a positive light, as a boyhood friend of Claudius. He suggests that, through Livia’s influence, Augustus grew to dislike him, and Graves creates a fictional incident in which Postumus is framed by Livia and her granddaughter Livilla for attempted rape of the latter. Postumus tells Claudius of Livia’s plans and advises him to play the fool. Graves also claims that Postumus escaped execution by impersonating the freed slave Clemens, spending time on the run, but eventually being captured and executed by Tiberius.

The television adaptation by Jack Pulman retained Postumus being framed for the assault on Livilla, and the visit later to Planasia by Augustus, but removed his fictional survival. He is killed by Sejanus on Planasia after Augustus’s death. The character is portrayed by John Castle.

Agrippa Postumus was portrayed by English actor Derek Newark in the 1968 ITV historical drama The Caesars. In this series Postumus was sentenced to death by Augustus, who decided to permanently remove his only remaining grandson as an obstacle to the succession of Tiberius.


1927 – Peter Oakley, English soldier and blogger (d. 2014)
Peter Oakley (20 August 1927 – 23 March 2014) was a pensioner from Bakewell, Derbyshire, England. He was better known by his pseudonym geriatric1927 on the video sharing website YouTube.[1]

Making his YouTube debut in August 2006 with Telling it all, a series of five-to-ten minute autobiographical videos, Oakley gained immediate popularity with a wide section of the YouTube community.[2] Amongst the autobiographical details revealed in his videos are that he served as a radar mechanic during World War II, that he had a lifelong love of motorcycles, and that he lived alone as a widower and pensioner.

His unforeseen rise has been widely reported by international media outlets and online news sources and blogs.[3] After resisting all media attention for a long time (including requests for interviews, photographs, and attempts to identify him), insisting that he only wished to converse with the YouTube community in an informal and personal way, Oakley finally gave his first interview, for the BBC’s The Money Programme, which was aired on BBC Two on 16 February 2007.

By mid-2006, Oakley was the most subscribed user on YouTube. His rise to the #1 position took place in just over a week. In the process, he displaced users who had been around since the site’s launch over a year before, including NBC-signed Brooke Brodack. In November that year he had 30,000 subscribers. By June 2012, Oakley had recorded over 350 videos.

Oakley was later diagnosed with cancer which was too far advanced for treatment. He posted his final video on 12 February 2014, and died a month later on the morning of 23 March 2014.[4]

Telling It All
After Oakley’s introductory video, “First Try”, which has been viewed over three million times, he began producing his successful autobiographical series, Telling It All. These pushed him into Internet celebrity almost overnight, gaining mention in various media, such as BBC News and GMTV, as well as prompting the creation of websites bearing his user name. In “Telling it all 7”, Oakley repudiated those sites, saying he was in no way affiliated with them and had no say or control over their content.

In the series, Oakley describes some of the major events and periods of his life, including

Growing up during World War II, and living as a young teen in Norwich,[5] which was bombed by the Luftwaffe.
His experience in the primary and secondary education system of England in the 1930s, and his fortunate (in his eyes) selection to have his education ‘extended’ past the age of 14, a privilege during the period reserved for children deemed to be intelligent.
His conscription into the British Army, and again his fortunate selection to be a radar technician, which occurred as a consequence of the aptitudes his superiors detected in him. This role kept him out of combat, for which he is grateful because he did not have to witness “the horrors of war”, but was nonetheless imperative for the war effort.
His return to civilian life and the job he had left behind.
A period of tertiary education in Leicester, England, where he met his future wife, and developed his passion for motorcycling.
His employment in Leicester as a public-health inspector.

In early 2010, entertainer Al Chantrey—a friend of Oakley’s and a fellow YouTube user—wrote and recorded a song for him which Oakley featured in several videos. The song, entitled ‘Telling It All'[6] (based on Oakley’s video series) talks about Oakley’s life. On 5 March 2014 Chantrey posted the song on his own channel on YouTube, accompanied by video footage of Peter as a tribute following the announcement of his illness.[7]

The videos all begin with what has become his catchphrase, “Hello, YouTubers”, or “Good evening, YouTubers”, and end with his thanking viewers for watching, and saying “Good-bye” in his soft voice.

Oakley was featured in a recent installment Yahoo! Current Buzz (which chronicles the top searches on the Internet), entitled “Retired and Wired”.[8]

Oakley’s YouTube success inspired other older people, particularly men with vast life experiences to share, to begin posting vlogs on it. Jonathan King credits him for starting his YouTube videos in 2006. A notable user influenced by Oakley was a World War II veteran, Martin H. Slobodkin (1920–2006), who, under the name MHarris1920, started to post his own blogs. Martin died in October 2006, and received an outpouring of tributes from other YouTube users after his wife, Teresa, posted a video announcing his death. His widow temporarily took over his blogs, but later closed this account. Another older person is Bernhard von Schwerin, who appears under the name bernie1927. He too was a World War II veteran, but on the German side. He was encouraged by Peter, and has talked about his youth and his many travels, and his emigration to the U.S. in 1951.

Oakley’s influence has not just inspired the older generation. Artist Annemarie Wright, 31, was so inspired by Oakley’s story that she dedicated a piece of artwork to him. The image is of Oakley to the lyrics of The Zimmers’ version of “My Generation”.

On 17 August 2006, Oakley uploaded an installment of his series, “Telling it all 7”, in which he made an important statement about how much attention he had received from the media over the previous days. Unlike earlier videos in the series, “Telling it all 7” was not an anecdote of his life, but focused solely on the media response he had gained. He mentioned that this is not what he sought or wanted. This video was leaked to the media because somebody reportedly intended to publish these videos—without permission from Oakley—for personal benefit. The upload included a clarification that any web sites using his username (geriatric1927) were in no way affiliated with him.[9] In “Telling it all 7”, he stated that he had received many messages from advertising companies, telephone companies, and newspaper companies that wanted to interview him. Oakley, however, was not interested, preferring to speak only to his fellow YouTubers, whom he considered his friends.

On 16 February 2007, Oakley made his first television appearance, on a special episode of the BBC’s The Money Programme called “Coming to Your Screen: DIY TV”. The program was taped in the autumn of 2006. He also featured in a radio interview for the BBC World Service.[10] In March 2007, Oakley announced that he was working on some television programmes about silver surfing.[11]

Oakley was part of a BBC documentary in which he was recruited as one of The Zimmers, a group of pensioners whom the documentary maker Tim Samuels brought together to sing The Who’s classic “My Generation” to highlight the plight of pensioners in modern Britain. The single was released in May 2007 to raise money for the charity Age Concern. As part of The Zimmers, Oakley recorded a version of the Alan Parsons Project’s song “Old and Wise”.[12] His work with the band took him to Washington, D.C. in September 2007, as a guest of the American Association of Retired Persons.

Oakley may have attended the 2008 World Economic Forum, in Davos, Switzerland, 23–27 January 2008, where the topic was “The Power of Collaborative Innovation”.[citation needed]

He appeared in a simulated vlog used as a TV advertisement for Telecom New Zealand starting in August 2008, talking about that company’s Internet protection suite.

Geriatric1927 on YouTube


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