Category: FYI

FYI

FYI November 02, 2017


1795 – The French Directory, a five-man revolutionary government, is created.
The Directory was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety, until it was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Coup of 18 Brumaire (8–9 November 1799) and replaced by the French Consulate. It gave its name to the final four years of the French Revolution.

The Directory was continually at war with foreign coalitions which at different times included Britain, Austria, Prussia, the Kingdom of Naples, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It annexed Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, while Bonaparte conquered a large part of Italy. The Directory established 196 short-lived sister republics modelled after France, in Italy, Switzerland and the Netherlands. The conquered cities and states were required to send to France huge amounts of money, as well as art treasures, which were used to fill the new Louvre museum in Paris. An army led by Bonaparte conquered Egypt and marched as far as Saint-Jean-d’Acre in Syria. The Directory defeated a resurgence of the War in the Vendée, the royalist-led civil war in the Vendée region, but failed in its venture to support the Irish Rebellion of 1798 and create an Irish Republic.

The French economy was in continual crisis during the Directory. At the beginning, the treasury was empty; the paper money, the Assignat, had fallen to a fraction of its value, and prices soared. The Directory stopped printing assignats and restored the value of the money, but this caused a new crisis; prices and wages fell, and economic activity slowed to a standstill.

In its first two years, the Directory concentrated on ending the excesses of the Jacobin Reign of Terror; mass executions stopped, and measures taken against exiled priests and royalists were relaxed. The Jacobin political club was closed and the government crushed an armed uprising planned by the Jacobins and an early socialist revolutionary, François-Noël Babeuf, known as “Gracchus Babeuf”. However, following the discovery of a royalist conspiracy including a prominent general, Pichegru, the Jacobins took charge of the new Councils and hardened the measures against the Church and émigrés. The Jacobins took two additional seats in the Directory, hopelessly dividing it.

In 1799, after several defeats, French victories in the Netherlands and Switzerland restored the French military position, but the Directory had lost the support of all the political factions. Bonaparte returned from Egypt in October, and was engaged by the Abbé Sieyès and others to carry out a parliamentary coup d’état on 8–9 November 1799. The coup abolished the Directory, and replaced it with the French Consulate led by Bonaparte.

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1815 – George Boole, English mathematician and philosopher (d. 1864)
George Boole (/ˈbuːl/; 2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was an English mathematician, educator, philosopher and logician. He worked in the fields of differential equations and algebraic logic, and is best known as the author of The Laws of Thought (1854) which contains Boolean algebra. Boolean logic is credited with laying the foundations for the information age.[3] Boole maintained that:

No general method for the solution of questions in the theory of probabilities can be established which does not explicitly recognise, not only the special numerical bases of the science, but also those universal laws of thought which are the basis of all reasoning, and which, whatever they may be as to their essence, are at least mathematical as to their form.[4]

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I’m not a diplomat, and I don’t have to bend to anybody to try to compromise to get some kind of legislation done. I know what I believe and I’ll say it. I just don’t, at this point, want to polarize people because we need numbers on the same page, whether it’s about Trump or in terms of climate change. We cannot polarize people now.
 
 
 
 
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While the folklore of vampires dates back far longer, with vampire-like monsters described in ancient tales in most of the world’s cultures, we can credit the wonderfully-lively Valvasor with having been the first to codify the vampire story, penned as fact, in a printed book. So this Halloween, maybe consider making Giure Grando, rather than Dracula, your muse.

 
 
 
 
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This incredible shot by Artur Stanisz demonstrates the value of patience in photography. After having nothing but clouds, snow, and darkness for days, Artur woke up to this fantastic scene in the middle of the night. No one ever said photography was easy, but, boy, the results sure can be worth it!


By Alex Schultz: Inspirational Photo of the Day Nov 01 2017
 
 
 
 
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Kristen Hare: You can make money off homecoming pics and 9 other simple ideas to borrow from local news | Poynter

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Your actions need to catch up to your responsibilities.
Senator Richard Burr (Republican, North Carolina)

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Dear Ally – Ally Carter  Questions on writing from teenagers needed

Please only send in a question if you are a teenager. (If you’re 12 or under or twenty or older, I’m sorry. This book will be specifically written for teens, so we’re just taking questions from them. Also, there are really weird, really scary laws that come with soliciting information from kids 12 and under and we’re just not able to do that this time around. I’m sorry.)

Dear Ally – Ally Carter

Face of Defense: Airman Discovers His Trainer Supervised His Father

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FYI November 01, 2017


1570 – The All Saints’ Flood devastates the Dutch coast.
The All Saints’ Flood (Allerheiligenvloed) of 1570 was a disaster which happened on November 1, on the Dutch coast. Affected cities include Egmond, Bergen op Zoom and Saeftinghe.

The Domeinraad council in Bergen op Zoom on 1 November 1570 recorded: “Commenting that those big storms of wind yesterday” were to the dike works of the south and north quarters “a warning given about very excessive high flood.”

A long period of storm pushed the water to unprecedented heights, still higher than those at the flood disaster of 1953. It broke innumerable dikes on the Dutch coasts, as a result of which there were enormous floods and immense damage. The total number of dead is thought to have been in the tens of thousands,[1] but exact data is not available. Tens of thousands of people became homeless. Livestock was lost in huge numbers. Winter stocks of food and fodder were destroyed. The Allerheiligenvloed marks the origin of the Verdronken Land van Saeftinghe (verdronken = “drowned”). In Zeeland the small islands Wulpen and Koezand and Cadzand and Stuivezand were permanently lost.

It was confirmed that the floods drowned 20,000 people to death.[2]

 
 
 
 

1526 – Catherine Jagiellon, queen of John III of Sweden (d. 1583)
Catherine Jagiellon (Polish: Katarzyna Jagiellonka; Swedish: Katarina Jagellonica, Lithuanian: Kotryna Jogailatė; 1 November 1526 – 16 September 1583) was a Polish princess and the wife of John III of Sweden. As such, she was Duchess of Finland (1562–83), Queen of Sweden (1569–83) and Grand Princess of Finland (1581–83). Catherine had significant influence over state affairs during the reign of her spouse, and negotiated with the pope to introduce a counter reformation in Sweden.[1]

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The Rural Blog: National Rural Health Day is Nov. 16

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