FYI September 19, 2017 draft


1940 – Witold Pilecki is voluntarily captured and sent to Auschwitz to smuggle out information and start a resistance.
Witold Pilecki (13 May 1901 – 25 May 1948; Polish pronunciation: [ˈvitɔlt piˈlɛt͡skʲi]; codenames Roman Jezierski, Tomasz Serafiński, Druh, Witold) was a Polish cavalryman and intelligence officer. He served as a Rittmeister with the Polish Army during the Polish-Soviet War, Second Polish Republic and World War II. Pilecki was also a co-founder of the Secret Polish Army (Tajna Armia Polska) a resistance group in German-occupied Poland and was later a member of the underground Home Army (Armia Krajowa). He was the author of Witold’s Report, the first comprehensive Allied intelligence report on Auschwitz concentration camp and the Holocaust. He was a devout Catholic.[1]

During World War II, he volunteered for a Polish resistance operation that involved being imprisoned in the Auschwitz death camp in order to gather intelligence and later escape. While in the camp, Pilecki organized a resistance movement and, as early as 1941, informed the Western Allies of Nazi Germany’s Auschwitz atrocities. He escaped from the camp in 1943 after nearly two and a half years of imprisonment. Pilecki took part as a combatant in the Warsaw Uprising[2] in August–October 1944.[3] He remained loyal to the London-based Polish government-in-exile after the Soviet-backed communist takeover of Poland and was arrested for espionage in 1947 by the Stalinist secret police (Urząd Bezpieczeństwa) on charges of working for “foreign imperialism”, thought to be a euphemism for British Intelligence.[4] He was executed after a show trial in 1948. Until 1989, information about his exploits and fate was suppressed by the Polish communist regime.[4][5]

As a result of his efforts, he is considered as “one of the greatest wartime heroes”.[3][6][7] In the foreword to the book The Auschwitz Volunteer: Beyond Bravery,[8] Michael Schudrich, the Chief Rabbi of Poland, wrote as follows: “When God created the human being, God had in mind that we should all be like Captain Witold Pilecki, of blessed memory.”[1] In the introduction to that book Norman Davies, a British historian, wrote: “If there was an Allied hero who deserved to be remembered and celebrated, this was a person with few peers.”[1] At the commemoration event of International Holocaust Remembrance Day held in the US Holocaust Memorial Museum on 27 January 2013 Ryszard Schnepf, the Polish Ambassador to the US, described Pilecki as a “diamond among Poland’s heroes” and “the highest example of Polish patriotism”.[7][9]

More on wiki:

 
 
 
 


1889 – Sarah Louise Delany, American physician and author (d. 1999)
Sarah Louise “Sadie” Delany (September 19, 1889 – January 25, 1999) was an African-American educator and civil rights pioneer who was the subject, along with her younger sister Elizabeth “Bessie” Delany, of the New York Times bestselling oral history, Having Our Say, by journalist Amy Hill Hearth. Sadie was the first Black person permitted to teach domestic science at the high-school level in the New York public schools, and became famous, with the publication of the book, at the age of 103.

Biography
Delany was the second-eldest of ten children born to the Rev. Henry Beard Delany (1858–1928), the first Black person elected Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States, and Nanny Logan Delany (1861–1956), an educator. Rev. Delany was born into slavery in St. Mary’s, Georgia. Nanny Logan Delany was born in a community then known as Yak, Virginia, seven miles from Danville.

Sadie Delany was born in what was then known as Lynch’s Station, Virginia, at the home of her mother’s sister, Eliza Logan. She was raised on the campus of St. Augustine’s School (now University) in Raleigh, North Carolina, where her father was the Vice-Principal and her mother a teacher and administrator. Delany was a 1910 graduate of the school. In 1916, she moved to New York City where she attended Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, then transferred to Columbia University where she earned a bachelor’s degree in education in 1920 and a master’s of education in 1925. She was a New York City schoolteacher until her retirement in 1960. She was the first black person permitted to teach domestic science on the high school level in New York City.[citation needed]

Delany died at the age of 109 in Mount Vernon, New York, where she resided the final decades of her life. She is interred at Mount Hope Cemetery in Raleigh, North Carolina.

The Delany Sisters
Main article: Having Our Say

In 1991, Delany and her sister Bessie were interviewed by journalist Amy Hill Hearth, who wrote a feature story about them for The New York Times. A New York book publisher read Hearth’s newspaper story and asked her to write a full-length book on the sisters. Ms. Hearth and the sisters worked closely for two years to create the book, an oral history called Having Our Say: The Delany Sisters’ First 100 Years, which dealt with the trials and tribulations the sisters had faced during their century of life. The book was on The New York Times bestseller lists for 105 weeks. It spawned a Broadway play in 1995 and a television film in 1999. Both the play and film adaptations were produced by Judith R. James and Dr. Camille O. Cosby.[citation needed]

In 1994, the sisters and Hearth published The Delany Sisters’ Book of Everyday Wisdom, a follow-up to Having Our Say. After Bessie’s death in 1995 at age 104, Sadie Delany and Hearth created a third book, On My Own At 107: Reflections on Life Without Bessie.

Her siblings were:
Lemuel Thackara Delany (1887–1956)
Annie Elizabeth (“Bessie”) Delany (1891–1995)
Julia Emery Delany (1893–1974)
Henry Delany, Jr. (1895–1991)
Lucius Delany (1897–1969)
William Manross Delany (1899–1955)
Hubert Thomas Delany (1901–1990)
Laura Edith Delany (1903–1993)
Samuel Ray Delany (1906–1965)

Delany was the aunt of science fiction writer Samuel R. Delany Jr., the son of her youngest brother. Living Relative Families: Delany, Mickey, Stent, and Graham Families

 
 
 
 

Wikipedia:Today’s featured article Egyptian temple
 
 

By Stafford Marquardt: View the world through someone else’s lens in Google Earth
 
 
 
 
By Steve Grove: Supporting local journalism with Report for America
 
 
 
 
by Laura Hazard Owen: Report for America wants to place (and help pay for) young reporters in local newsrooms that need them
 
 
 
 
Search engines your university offers?
ByGary Price: Reference: Middle Tennessee St. University Launches Searchable Encyclopedia About First Amendment (Free Access)
 
 
 
 
By David Lidsky: 9 Newsletters To Make You Smarter
 
 
 
 
By Max Farsoun: Project NHM
In our first group project (team of 4) at General Assembly we were tasked with making the experience of visiting the Natural History Museum (NHM) in London more engaging through an app or responsive website.
 
 
 
 
By George Dvorsky: Waters Exposed By Massive Antarctic Iceberg Now a Protected Area
 
 
 
 
By Alanis King: Here’s How The Newest Mazda Miata Really Compares To The Old One
 
 
 
 
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By DIY Hacks and How Tos: 36 Things to Cook in a Coffee Maker
 
 
 
 
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FYI September 18, 2017


1838 – The Anti-Corn Law League is established by Richard Cobden.
The Anti-Corn Law League was a successful political movement in Great Britain aimed at the abolition of the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners’ interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread at a time when factory-owners were trying to cut wages.

Corn Laws
The Corn Laws were taxes on imported grain designed to keep prices high for cereal producers in Great Britain. The laws indeed did raise food prices and became the focus of opposition from urban groups who had far less political power than rural Britain. The corn laws imposed steep import duties, making it too expensive for anyone to import grain from other countries, even when food supplies were short. The laws were supported by Conservative landowners and opposed by Whig industrialists and workers. The League was responsible for turning public and elite opinion against the laws. It was a large, nationwide middle-class moral crusade with a utopian vision. Its leading advocate Richard Cobden, according to historian Asa Briggs, promised that repeal would settle four great problems simultaneously:

First, it would guarantee the prosperity of the manufacturer by affording him outlets for his products. Second, it would relieve the ‘condition of England question’ by cheapening the price of food and ensuring more regular employment. Third, it would make English agriculture more efficient by stimulating demand for its products in urban and industrial areas. Fourth, it would introduce through mutually advantageous international trade a new era of international fellowship and peace. The only barrier to these four beneficent solutions was the ignorant self-interest of the landlords, the ‘bread-taxing oligarchy, unprincipled, unfeeling, rapacious and plundering.'[1]

The League was founded in 1838 by Richard Cobden and John Bright. Cobden was the chief strategist; Bright was its great orator. The League was controlled by a handful of rich sponsors. The main tactic of the league was to defeat protectionists at by-elections by concentrating its financial strength and campaign resources. The idea was that it would gain nationwide publicity from a handful of election campaigns every year. The strategy resulted in numerous defeats, which the League blamed on the tyrannical power of the landlords. The tactic also required very expensive subsidies so that League supporters would have a 40 shilling freehold and thus become enfranchised. In any case the League had no capability of contesting 150–200 seats in a general election. Furthermore, Peel neutralized the League’s strategy by ramming repeal through Parliament without a general election. [2]

The League marked the emergence of the first powerful national lobbying group into politics, one with a centralized office, consistency of purpose, rich funding, very strong local and national organization, and single-minded dedicated leaders. It elected men to Parliament. Many of its procedures were innovative, while others were borrowed from the anti-slavery movement. It became the model for later reform movements.[3]

The League played little role in the final act in 1846 when Sir Robert Peel led the successful battle for repeal.[4] It then dissolved itself.[5] Many of its members continued their political activism in the Liberal Party, with the goal of establishing a fully free-trade economy.

 
 
 
 


1779 – Joseph Story, American lawyer, jurist, and politician (d. 1845)
Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 – September 10, 1845) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1845. He is most remembered for his opinions in Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee and The Amistad case, and especially for his magisterial Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, first published in 1833. Dominating the field in the 19th century, this work is a cornerstone of early American jurisprudence. It is the second comprehensive treatise on the provisions of the U.S. Constitution and remains a critical source of historical information about the forming of the American republic and the early struggles to define its law.

Story opposed Jacksonian democracy, saying it was “oppression” of property rights by republican governments when popular majorities began (in the 1830s) to restrict and erode the property rights of the minority of rich men.[1] R. Kent Newmyer presents Story as a “Statesman of the Old Republic” who tried to be above democratic politics and to shape the law in accordance with the republicanism of Alexander Hamilton and John Marshall and the New England Whigs of the 1820s and 1830s, including Daniel Webster.[2] Historians agree that Justice Joseph Story reshaped American law—as much or more than Marshall or anyone else—in a conservative direction that protected property rights.[3]

He was uniquely honored in the historical Steven Spielberg film Amistad when he was portrayed by retired Associate Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court Harry Blackmun. Justice Blackmun portrays Justice Story reading the Supreme Court’s decision in the case in which the film was based, and for which Justice Story was most widely remembered, United States v. The Amistad Africans, et al. This is the only time in known film history that an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court has portrayed another Associate Justice.

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By Matt Novak: Man Who Saved the World From Nuclear Armageddon in 1983 Dies at 77
Petrov reasoned that if the Americans were going to launch a first strike they’d send more than five missiles, despite the fact that they could still do an enormous amount of damage. He also believed that since the alert system was relatively new it seemed likely that it could be sending a false alarm.
 
 
Stanislav Yevgrafovich Petrov (Russian: Станисла́в Евгра́фович Петро́в; 9 September 1939 – 19 May 2017)
 
 
List of nuclear close calls
 
 
 
 

By Julie Zhuo: Addressing executive swoop-ins
 
 
 
 
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Andy McNab: how I survived a polar bear encounter
 
 
 
 
By Gary Price: Reference: A Selection of Recently Published or Updated Data-Rich Reports Available on the Web
This roundup is under development (August 3, 2017). New items will added daily so please bookmark this page and check back often. The most recent completed roundup includes more than 100 items can be accessed here.
 
 
 
 
By Casey Michael: How Russia Created the Most Popular Texas Secession Page on Facebook
 
 
 
 
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By Gregory Sadler: How Difficult Is It To Find An Aristotelian Friend?
The friendship of the good, however, is not predicated on profiting off each other, nor on simply passing time by having fun. Instead, your friend respects you for both who you are as a person and the way that you live. It is a mutual respect — one in which you do not deprive, condemn, or belittle one another. Rather, you push each other to be your best selves not for personal gain but for your friend’s sake. This friendship is not selfish, or clingy, or exploitative; it is a friendship of equals. You don’t just accept who they are, you celebrate it.
 
 
 
 
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Microsoft’s CEO has stopped infighting, restored morale, and created more than $250 billion in market value. All it took was focusing on what matters most.

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
September 19, 2017:
By Brian Boone: Ye can celebrate Talk Like a Pirate Day with these authentic pirate words, me hearty (8 GIFs)


 
 


 
 


 
 


 
 

The Liberation of Prague — 9/18/17

The “Big Three” from left to right: Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill on the portico of the Russian Embassy during the Tehran Conference to discuss the European Theatre in 1943.

Today’s selection — from Prague Winter by Madeleine Albright. In 1943, Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met in Tehran. There they agreed that the Soviets would be responsible for securing…

Source: The Liberation of Prague — 9/18/17

FYI September 17, 2017


1809 – Peace between Sweden and Russia in the Finnish War; the territory that will become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
The Treaty of Fredrikshamn or the Treaty of Hamina (Finnish: Haminan rauha, Swedish: Freden i Fredrikshamn) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on 17 September 1809. The treaty concluded the Finnish War and was signed in the Finnish town of Hamina (Swedish: Fredrikshamn). Russia was represented by Nikolai Rumyantsev and David Alopaeus (Russian ambassador to Stockholm), while Sweden by Infantry General Kurt von Stedingk (former Swedish ambassador to Petersburg) and Colonel Anders Fredrik Skjöldebrand.[1]

According to the treaty Sweden ceded parts of the provinces Lappland and Västerbotten (east of Tornio River and Muonio River), Åland, and all provinces east thereof. The ceded territories came to constitute the Grand Duchy of Finland, to which also the Russian 18th century conquests of Karelia, including small parts of Nyland and Savonia (later to be called Old Finland), were joined in 1812 as Viborg County. Together with the Diet of Porvoo (1809), and the Oath of the Sovereign [1], the Treaty of Fredrikshamn constitutes the cornerstone for the autonomous Grand Duchy, its own administration and institutions, and thereby a start of the development which would lead to the revival of Finnish culture, to equal position of the Finnish language, and ultimately in 1917 to Finland’s independence.

A reference to Emperor Alexander’s promise to retain old laws and privileges in Finland was included, but the treaty overstepped any formal guarantees of the legal position of Finland’s inhabitants. The Russians refused, and the Swedes were not in a position to insist. Similar clauses had been common in peace treaties, but they were also regularly circumvented. At the period of Russification of Finland, 90 years later, the Russian government argued that the treaty wasn’t violated and hence no outside party had any right to intervene, the question being solely a matter of the emperor who had granted the original promise. During the negotiations, Swedish representatives had namely endeavoured to escape the loss of the Åland islands, “the fore-posts of Stockholm,” as Napoleon rightly described them. The Åland islands were culturally, ethnically and linguistically purely Swedish, but such facts were of no significance at that time. In the course of the 19th century it would also turn out that the Åland islands were a British interest, which after the Crimean War led to the demilitarization of the islands according to the Åland Convention included in the Treaty of Paris (1856). During the Second War against Napoleon, Russia and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against Imperial France (5 April 1812). They planned to effect a landing in Swedish Pomerania, which had been overrun by the French. Russia promised to press Denmark into ceding Norway to Sweden. It was understood that Great Britain would join the treaty too, however, this never came to pass. Other plans failed to materialise due to Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

 
 
 
 


1867 – Vera Yevstafievna Popova, Russian chemist (d. 1896)
Vera Yevstafievna Popova, née Vera Bogdanovskaya (Вера Евстафьевна Попова; 17 September 1867 – 8 May 1896) was a Russian chemist. She was one of the first female chemists in Russia,[3] and the first Russian female author of a chemistry textbook.[4] She “probably became the first woman to die in the cause of chemistry” as a result of an explosion in her laboratory.[5]

Early life and education
Vera Bogdanovskaya was born in 1868 in Saint Petersburg. Her father, Evstafy Ivanovich Bogdanovsky, was a professor of surgery. Her parents arranged for their three children to be educated at home. In 1878, she began studying at the Smolny Institute at the age of 11. Starting in 1883 she spent four years at the Bestuzhev Courses and after this she worked for two years in laboratories at the Academy of Sciences and the Military Surgical Academy. In 1889 Bogdanovskaya left Russia for Switzerland, where she undertook a doctorate in chemistry at the University of Geneva. She defended her research into dibenzyl ketone in 1892.[1] Bogdanovskaya wanted to work on H-C≡P (methylidynephosphane), but had been persuaded to concentrate instead on dibenzyl ketone by her doctoral supervisor, Professor Carl Gräbe.[5] She also worked with Dr Philippe Auguste Guye in Geneva, who was working on stereochemistry.[2]

Career
Bogdanovskaya returned to Saint Petersburg in 1892 to work at the Bestuzhev Courses, where she taught chemistry. This was an institution founded in 1878 to encourage Russian women to stay in Russia to study. She was working as an assistant to Prof. L’vov teaching the first courses in stereochemistry. Her reputation as a lecturer and her knowledge of teaching enabled her to write her first book, a textbook on basic chemistry.[4] She wrote reviews, translated academic papers on chemistry and, together with her professor, published the works of Alexander Butlerov, who had died in 1886.[1] Between 1891 and 1894, she published a number of papers based on her doctoral thesis.

She was not just a chemist; she was also interested in entomology, writing and languages. In 1889, she published a description of work with bees. Bogdanovskaya published her own short stories, as well as her translations of the French short story writer Guy de Maupassant.[1]

Personal life

Bogdanovskaya left Saint Petersburg and married General Jacob Kozmich Popov in 1895. He was older than she and a director of a military steel plant, and she demanded that he build her a laboratory where she could continue her chemistry.[5] They lived in Izhevskii Zavod, a town under military control that was dedicated to weapon manufacture.[1] It has been suggested that her marriage may have been one of convenience, as it was known that Russian women sometimes married just to escape the conventions of society.[2]

Death
Popova died on 8 May 1896 (Gregorian calendar; 26 April in the Julian Calendar),[1][2] (the date is sometimes given as 1897 in English sources) as a result of an explosion which occurred while she was attempting to synthesize H-C≡P (methylidynephosphane), a chemical similar to hydrogen cyanide.[5] She was 28.

Aftermath
H-C≡P, the chemical that she was trying to synthesize at the time of her death, was not successfully created until 1961 from phosphine and carbon.[6] It is extremely pyrophoric and polymerizes easily at temperatures above −120 °C. Its triple point is −124 °C and it burns spontaneously even at low temperatures when exposed to air.[6]

Legacy
Popova was given a substantial tribute in the Journal of the Russian Physical Chemical Society.[7] A shorter obituary appeared in the journal Nature[8] and a brief notice in the American journal Science.[9] One report by the chemist Vladimir Ipatieff suggested that she may have been poisoned by her experiment or have committed suicide, but this view was not supported by other reports.[2]

Her early death led to a fund being created in her memory by her husband to assist female students.[citation needed] Her portrait was also displayed at the Women’s College where she had trained.[citation needed]

Popova is credited with classifying dibenzyl ketone. This laid the foundation for synthetic acrylic resins created from acetone cyanohydrin.[1]

 
 
 
 

By Alex Hevesy: NASCAR Short Track Legend Ted Christopher Dies In Plane Crash
 
 
 
 
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By Jessica Wildfire: Pursue Your Passion(s) Practically
What I’m about to say may depress, or inspire you. Here it is: there’s a fu@@ load of talented people in the world. Not all of them amass millions of fans worldwide and earn a fortune overnight. Many of them eek out their daily existence on a string of freelance jobs. Some of them go into teaching, some pursue their passions on the side their entire lives, and others give up. It’s not their fault they don’t win the mother load.

 
 
 
 

By Claire Lower: Make Your Own Fruit Roll-Ups With Just Three Ingredients
 
 
 
 

Shep McAllister: Sunday’s Best Deals: Fossil Accessories, Diamondback Bikes, PS4 Games, and More


 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

FYI September 16, 2017


1959 – The first successful photocopier, the Xerox 914, is introduced in a demonstration on live television from New York City.The Xerox 914 was the first successful commercial plain paper copier which in 1959 revolutionized the document-copying industry. The culmination of inventor Chester Carlson’s work on the xerographic process, the 914 was fast and economical. The copier was introduced to the public on September 16, 1959, in a demonstration at the Sherry-Netherland Hotel in New York, shown on live television.[1]

Background
Xerography, a process of producing images using electricity, was invented in 1938 by physicist-lawyer Chester Floyd “Chet” Carlson (1906–1968), and an engineering friend, Otto Kornei. Carlson entered into a research agreement with the Battelle Memorial Institute in 1944, when he and Kornei produced the first operable copy machine. He sold his rights in 1947 to the Haloid Company, a wet-chemical photocopy machine manufacturer, founded in 1906 in Rochester, New York.

Haloid introduced the first commercial xerographic copier, the Xerox Model A, in 1949. The company had, the previous year, announced the refined development of xerography in collaboration with Battelle Development Corporation, of Columbus, Ohio. Manually operated, it was also known as the Ox Box. An improved version, Camera #1, was introduced in 1950. Haloid was renamed Haloid Xerox in 1958, and, after the instant success of the 914, when the name Xerox soon became synonymous with “copy”, would become the Xerox Corporation.

In 1963, Xerox introduced the first desktop copier to make copies on plain paper, the 813. It was designed by Jim Balmer and William H. Armstrong of Armstrong-Balmer & Associates, and won a 1964 Certificate of Design Merit from the Industrial Designers Institute (IDI). Balmer had recently left Harley Earl, Inc., where he had been a designer since 1946, to co-establish Armstrong-Balmer & Associates in 1958. At Earl, Balmer had been involved in the Secretary copy machine designed for Thermofax and introduced by 3M in 1958, and Haloid Xerox had been impressed with the design, engaging Balmer to consult on the final design of the 914.

A year later, in 1964, Balmer worked with Xerox to establish their first internal industrial design group. Among those first design employees were William Dalton and Robert Van Valkinburgh.

Specifications and features
One of the most successful Xerox products ever, the 914 model (so-called because it could copy originals up to 9 inches by 14 inches (229 mm × 356 mm)) could make 100,000 copies per month (seven copies per minute). In 1985, the Smithsonian received a Xerox 914, number 517 off the assembly line. It weighs approximately 650 pounds[2] (294 kg) and measures 42″ (107 cm) high × 46″ (117 cm) wide × 45″ (114 cm) deep.

The machine was mechanically complex. It required a large technical support force,[2] and had a tendency to catch fire when overheated (Ralph Nader claimed that a model in his office had caught fire three times in a four-month period). Because of the problem, the Xerox company provided a “scorch eliminator”, which was actually a small fire extinguisher, along with the copier.[1] But despite these problems, the machine was regarded with affection by its operators, due to it being complex enough to be interesting to use, but without being so complex as to be beyond understanding.[3]

The pricing structure of the machine was designed to encourage customers to rent rather than buy – it could be rented in 1965 for $95 a month, but would cost $27,500 to buy.[2]

Sales
The 914 was a significant component of Xerox’s revenues in the mid-1960s, with one author estimating that the machine accounted for two thirds of the company’s revenue in 1965, with income generated of $243M.[2] The machine was produced between 1960 and 1977.[4]

Legacy
The company’s subsequent models were the 720, the 1000, the 813 and the 2400. One writer has assessed that the popularity of the machine has had a number of lasting impacts, such as prompting the introduction of highlighter pens, and university reading lists in the form of anthologies, rather than chapters from separate books.[4]

 
 
 
 


1846 – Anna Kingsford, English author, poet, and activist (d. 1888)
Anna Kingsford, née Bonus (16 September 1846 – 22 February 1888), was an English anti-vivisection, vegetarian and women’s rights campaigner.[1]

She was one of the first English women to obtain a degree in medicine, after Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, and the only medical student at the time to graduate without having experimented on a single animal. She pursued her degree in Paris, graduating in 1880 after six years of study, so that she could continue her animal advocacy from a position of authority. Her final thesis, L’Alimentation Végétale de l’Homme, was on the benefits of vegetarianism, published in English as The Perfect Way in Diet (1881).[2] She founded the Food Reform Society that year, travelling within the UK to talk about vegetarianism, and to Paris, Geneva, and Lausanne to speak out against animal experimentation.[1]

Kingsford was interested in Buddhism and Gnosticism, and became active in the theosophical movement in England, becoming president of the London Lodge of the Theosophical Society in 1883. She said she received insights in trance-like states and in her sleep; these were collected from her manuscripts and pamphlets by her lifelong collaborator Edward Maitland, and published posthumously in the book, Clothed with the Sun (1889).[3] Subject to ill-health all her life, she died of lung disease at the age of 41, brought on by a bout of pneumonia. Her writing was virtually unknown for over 100 years after Maitland published her biography, The Life of Anna Kingsford (1896), though Helen Rappaport wrote in 2001 that her life and work are once again being studied.[1]

Early life
Kingsford was born in Maryland Point, Stratford, now part of east London but then in Essex, to John Bonus, a wealthy merchant, and his wife, Elizabeth Ann Schröder.[4]

By all accounts a precocious child, she wrote her first poem when she was nine, and Beatrice: a Tale of the Early Christians when she was thirteen years old. Deborah Rudacille writes that Kingsford enjoyed foxhunting, until one day she reportedly had a vision of herself as the fox.[5][6] According to Maitland she was a “born seer,” with a gift “for seeing apparitions and divining the characters and fortunes of people”, something she reportedly learned to keep silent about.[7]

She married her cousin, Algernon Godfrey Kingsford in 1867 when she was twenty-one, giving birth to a daughter, Eadith, a year later. Though her husband was an Anglican priest, she converted to Roman Catholicism in 1872, which he appeared not to mind.

Kingsford contributed articles to the magazine “Penny Post” from 1868 to 1873.[8] Having been left £700 a year by her father, she bought in 1872 The Lady’s Own Paper, and took up work as its editor, which brought her into contact with some prominent women of the day, including the writer, feminist, and anti-vivisectionist Frances Power Cobbe. It was an article by Cobbe on vivisection in The Lady’s Own Paper that sparked Kingsford’s interest in the subject.[5]

Studies and research
In 1873, Kingsford met the writer Edward Maitland, a widower, who shared her rejection of materialism. With the blessing of Kingsford’s husband, the two began to collaborate, Maitland accompanying her to Paris when she decided to study medicine. Paris was at that time the center of a revolution in the study of physiology, much of it as a result of experiments on animals, particularly dogs, and mostly conducted without anaesthetic. Claude Bernard (1813–1878), described as the “father of physiology”, was working there, and famously said that “the physiologist is not an ordinary man: he is a scientist, possessed and absorbed by the scientific idea he pursues. He does not hear the cries of the animals, he does not see their flowing blood, he sees nothing but his idea …”[9]

Walter Gratzer, professor emeritus of biochemistry at King’s College London, writes that significant opposition to vivisection emerged in Victorian England, in part in revulsion at the research being conducted in France.[10] Bernard and other well-known physiologists, such as Charles Richet in France and Michael Foster in England, were strongly criticized for their work. British anti-vivisectionists infiltrated the lectures in Paris of François Magendie, Bernard’s teacher, who dissected dogs without anaesthesia, allegedly shouting at them — “Tais-toi, pauvre bête!” (Shut up, you poor beast!) — while he worked.[10] Bernard’s wife, Marie-Francoise Bernard, was violently opposed to his research, though she was financing it through her dowry.[11] In the end, she divorced him and set up an anti-vivisection society. This was the atmosphere in the faculty of medicine and the teaching hospitals in Paris when Kingsford arrived, shouldering the additional burden of being a woman. Although women were allowed to study medicine in France, Rudacille writes that they were not welcomed. Kingsford wrote to her husband in 1874:

Things are not going well for me. My chef at the Charité strongly disapproves of women students and took this means of showing it. About a hundred men (no women except myself) went round the wards today, and when we were all assembled before him to have our names written down, he called and named all the students except me, and then closed the book. I stood forward upon this, and said quietly, “Et moi aussi, monsieur.” [And me, Sir.] He turned on me sharply, and cried, “Vous, vous n’êtes ni homme ni femme; je ne veux pas inscrire vôtre nom.” [You, you are neither man nor woman; I don’t want to write your name.] I stood silent in the midst of a dead silence.”[9]

Kingsford was distraught over the sights and sounds of the animal experiments she saw. She wrote on 20 August 1879:

I have found my Hell here in the Faculté de Médecine of Paris, a Hell more real and awful than any I have yet met with elsewhere, and one that fulfills all the dreams of the mediaeval monks. The idea that it was so came strongly upon me one day when I was sitting in the Musée of the school, with my head in my hands, trying vainly to shut out of my ears the piteous shrieks and cries which floated incessantly towards me up the private staircase … Every now and then, as a scream more heart-rending than the rest reached me, the moisture burst out on my forehead and on the palms of my hands, and I prayed, “Oh God, take me out of this Hell; do not suffer me to remain in this awful place.”[9]

Death
Alan Pert, one of her biographers, wrote that Kingsford was caught in torrential rain in Paris in November 1886 on her way to the laboratory of Louis Pasteur, one of the most prominent vivisectionists of the period. She reportedly spent hours in wet clothing and developed pneumonia, then pulmonary tuberculosis.[13] She travelled to the Riviera and Italy, sometimes with Maitland, at other times with her husband, hoping in vain that a different climate would help her recover. In July 1887, she settled in London in a house she and her husband rented at 15 Wynnstay Gardens, Kensington, and waited to die, although she remained mentally active.[14]

She died on 22 February 1888, aged 41, and was buried in the churchyard of Saint Eata’s, an 11th-century church in Atcham by the River Severn, her husband’s church.[13] Her name at death is recorded as Annie Kingsford. On her marriage in Sussex in 1867, her name was given as Annie Bonus.[15]

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Eugenia Loli is a Photoshop collage artist, etc.


These are great!
Surreal Photoshop Collage and manipulation works by Eugenia Loli
 
 
 
 
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FYI September 15, 2017


1816 – HMS Whiting runs aground on the Doom Bar
HMS Whiting, built in 1811 by Thomas Kemp as a Baltimore pilot schooner, was launched as Arrow. On 8 May 1812 a British navy vessel seized her under Orders in Council, for trading with the French. The Royal Navy re-fitted her and then took her into service under the name HMS Whiting.[2] In 1816, after four years service, Whiting was sent to patrol the Irish Sea for smugglers. She grounded on the Doom Bar. When the tide rose, she was flooded and deemed impossible to refloat.[3]

Arrow
Built for speed, Arrow served as a cargo vessel trading between the USA and France.[4] This was risky, as in 1807 Britain had introduced restrictions on American trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The U.S. considered these restrictions illegitimate.[5]

On 8 May 1812, six months after being commissioned, Arrow was on a return voyage from Bordeaux to Baltimore fully laden with goods such as brandy, champagne, silk, nuts and toys, when the 38-gun frigate HMS Andromache, commanded by Captain George Tobin, seized Arrow and her cargo. Barely a month later the instruments allowing the seizure were repealed,[4] two days before the United States Congress had voted a declaration of war on Britain, which President Madison approved on 18 June 1812.[6]

Tobin sent Arrow to Plymouth as a prize, with six of his seamen and two marines on board, and under escort of HMS Armide, commanded by Captain Lucius Handyman. As her original crew arrived in England before the declaration of war, they were released.[4] Arrow was taken to Plymouth Dockyard where between June 1812 and January 1813 she was re-fitted to be used by the Royal Navy.[4]

HMS Whiting
In full, Whiting’s new name was “His Majesty’s schooner Whiting”, and not “His Majesty’s ship”.[7] She succeeded the Bermudian-built Ballyhoo schooner, Whiting, which a French privateer had captured outside a US harbour at the start of the American War of 1812. In January 1813 Lieutenant George Hayes RN,[1] took command and on 25 February 1813 she sailed for the Bay of Biscay to join Surveillante, Medusa, Bramble, Iris, Scylla, and Sparrow in the blockade of trade between the U.S. and France.[4]

Whiting was in service with the Royal Navy for almost four years. During that time, while under the command of Hayes, she captured or recaptured several vessels. On 22 March 1813, Whiting shared in the capture of the American schooner Tyger with Medusa, Scylla and Iris. Tyger, of 263 tons (bm), was armed with four guns and had a crew of 25 men. She was sailing from Bordeaux to New York with a cargo of brandy, wine, and silks.[8]

One month later, on 23 April, Whiting was in company with Scylla and Pheasant. After a chase of over 100 miles (90 nmi; 160 km), they captured the American 8-gun brig Fox, which threw two of her guns overboard during the chase. Fox and her 29-man crew was underway from Bordeaux to Philadelphia.[9]

Then on 15 July, Whiting recaptured the ship Friends, in company with Reindeer.[7] Whiting, in company with Helicon, also recaptured the Colin, on 25 October.[10]

By 26 August 1814, Whiting was under the command of Lieutenant John Little. On that day she recaptured the brig Antelope.[11][Note 1]

Whiting was also one of ten British vessels that took part in the Battle of Fort Peter, a successful British attack in January 1815 on an American fort .[13] This battle was one of the skirmishes of the War of 1812 that happened after the US and Britain had signed the Treaty of Ghent, but before the US Senate had ratified it.

Wreck on Doom Bar
On 18 August 1816, Whiting, under the command of Lieutenant John Jackson, was ordered to leave Plymouth and sail around Land’s End to the Irish Sea to counter smuggling in the area. On 15 September 1816, to escape a gale, Jackson took his vessel into harbour at Padstow on the north coast of Cornwall. The wind dropped as they came around Stepper Point, and the ship ran aground on the Doom Bar as the tide was ebbing, stranding her.[3]

According to the court-martial transcripts, an attempt to move Whiting was made at the next high tide, but she was taking on water and it became impossible to save her. Her abandonment happened over the next few days. The court martial board reprimanded Lieutenant Jackson for having attempted to enter the harbour without a pilot and for his failure to lighten her before trying to get her off; as punishment he lost one year’s seniority.[14] Five crewmen took advantage of the opportunity to desert; three were recaptured and were given “50 lashes with nine tails”.[3][15] Whiting was eventually sold and despite correspondence requesting her move eleven years later, the Navy took no further interest in her.[16]

Legacy
In May 2010, ProMare and the Nautical Archaeology Society, with the help of Padstow Primary School, mounted a search to find Whiting.[17] They conducted a geophysical survey that recorded a number of suitable targets that divers subsequently investigated. One target is located only 27 yards (25 m) from the calculated position of the wreck but sand completely covers the site, preventing further investigation at this time.[18]

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1897 – Merle Curti, American historian and author (d. 1997)
Merle Eugene Curti (September 15, 1897 in Papillion, Nebraska – March 9, 1996 in Madison, Wisconsin) was a leading American historian, who taught many graduate students at Columbia University and the University of Wisconsin, and was a leader in developing the fields of social history and intellectual history. He directed 86 finished PhD dissertations and had an unusually wide range of correspondents. As a Progressive historian he was deeply committed to democracy, and to the Turnerian thesis that social and economic forces shape American life, thought and character. He was a pioneer in peace studies, intellectual history, and social history, and helped develop quantitative methods based on census samples as a tool in historical research.

Life
Curti was born in Papillion, Nebraska, a suburb of Omaha, on September 15, 1897. His parents were John Eugene Curti, an immigrant from Switzerland, and Alice Hunt, a Yankee from Vermont. Curti attended high school in Omaha then obtained a bachelor’s degree in 1920 from Harvard University, graduating summa cum laude. He then spent a year studying in France where he met Margaret Wooster, 1898–1963, who had a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago and was a pioneer in research on child psychology.[1] They married in 1925 and had two daughters. Curti received his Ph.D. in 1927 from Harvard as one of the last students of Frederick Jackson Turner.

Curti taught at Beloit College, Smith College, and Columbia University, then in 1942 he joined the faculty of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he taught for 25 years. He also taught in Japan, Australia, and India, and lectured throughout Europe.

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Bynder
The smart solution for creative file management is here and it’s free

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 


 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

FYI September 14, 2017

1682 – Bishop Gore School, one of the oldest schools in Wales, is founded.
The Bishop Gore School (Welsh: Ysgol Esgob Gore) is a secondary school in Swansea in Wales, founded on 14 September 1682 by Hugh Gore (1613–1691), Bishop of Waterford and Lismore. It is situated in Sketty, close to Singleton Park and Swansea University. In December 2013 the school was ranked in the second highest of five bands by the Welsh Government, based on performance in exams, value added performance, disadvantaged pupils’ performance, and attendance.


History
Grammar school

Established as a Free Grammar School, initially in Goat Street (a site now part of Princess Way in the city centre), for “the gratuitous instruction of twenty boys, sons of the most indigent burgesses, and in the event of a dissolution of the corporation, to sons of the poorest inhabitants of the town”, it has since known several names and locations. In September 1853 the school moved, as the boys-only Swansea Grammar School, to Mount Pleasant into a new building designed by the architect Thomas Taylor. The building was extended in 1869 to a design by Benjamin Bucknall. The building was largely gutted by incendiary bombs during World War II although some of the 1869 building remains as part of the Swansea campus of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David.[1][2]

After the war the school was moved to the Sketty area of Swansea where it subsequently became Bishop Gore Grammar school and briefly Bishop Gore Comprehensive School.[clarification needed] It has been on its current Sketty site since 1952 with a large extension built in the 1970s and further Design and Technology extensions in the 1990s.
Comprehensive

Until 1970, Bishop Gore was an all-boys grammar school, then it merged with the girls’ grammar school Glanmôr and Townhill Secondary School to become Bishop Gore Co-educational Comprehensive school in 1971.

School today
Currently Bishop Gore has around 1800 male and female students aged 11–18. The school has a sixth form with separate lounge, facilities and uniform. The headteacher is Ryan Davies (appointed September 2007). Set at the head of Singleton Park, close to the village of Sketty and the seafront, Bishop Gore is built around two quadrangles the red brick building has in the centre the second largest hall in Swansea, second only to the Brangwyn Hall. Each pupil is assigned to a house: Caswell, Langland, Bracelet, Rotherslade or Limeslade (named after beaches on the nearby Gower peninsular), which they retain throughout their time at the school. Highlights of the school year include the Eisteddfod, the inter-house sports tournaments, the productions by Bishop Gore Theatre Company, and the end-of-year balls for the senior students.

In January 2010, an inspection report was published which awarded Bishop Gore the highest possible grades in all categories. As a result of this the school was featured as a ‘best practice’ case study by Estyn and was named in the chief inspector’s annual report – being the only secondary school in Wales to achieve this recognition.

With 88% of pupils in 2015 leaving the school with five GCSE grades A* – C, Bishop Gore is now second only to Bishopston Comprehensive School in terms of this statistic.[citation needed]
Dylan Thomas

The most famous alumnus of Bishop Gore is almost certainly the poet, playwright and author Dylan Thomas (1914–1953). His father, David John (D. J.) Thomas was senior English master at the school, then known as Swansea Grammar School.[3] Not a distinguished pupil, he nonetheless gained attention through publishing his first poem in 1926, “The Song Of The Mischievous Dog” and in 1928 winning the school’s annual one-mile race.[4][5] He left in 1931 to begin work at The South Wales Daily Post as a junior reporter.

Old Goreans
See also: Category:People educated at Bishop Gore School
Notable Old Goreans have included:

Martin Amis, writer
Donald Anderson, Baron Anderson of Swansea, politician
Gareth Armstrong, actor
Henry Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare, politician, Home Secretary 1868–73
Prof Sir John Cadogan, CBE, President of the Royal Society of Chemistry
Rt Rev Graham Chadwick, bishop and anti-apartheid campaigner
Hywel Davies, cardiologist and author
David Dykes, Director of the National Museum of Wales
Prof Sir Sam Edwards FRS, physicist and university administrator
Paul Ferris, writer
Charles Fisher, journalist
Brian Flowers, Baron Flowers, FRS, physicist
Neville George, geologist
Sir Alex Gordon, CBE, architect
Sir William Grove, scientist and judge
Rt Rev Llewellyn Henry Gwynne, Bishop of Egypt and the Sudan
Aneurin Hughes, EU diplomat
Alfred Janes, artist
John Gwyn Jeffreys, FRS, conchologist
Daniel Jones, composer
Ernest Jones, neurologist and psychoanalyst, biographer of Sigmund Freud
Mervyn Jones, Governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands
Peter Jones, broadcaster
Sir Archie Lamb KBE CMG DFC, diplomat
Mervyn Levy, artist and critic
Prof Patrick McGorry AO, psychiatrist, Australian of the Year.
John Metcalf, composer
David Miles, economist
Prof Dewi Zephaniah Phillips philosopher
Colin Phipps, geologist and Labour MP
Dylan Thomas, writer
Edmund Tucker, educationalist
Wynford Vaughan-Thomas, writer

International Rugby players
Several Old Goreans have played international rugby, for the Wales national rugby union team or the Wales women’s national rugby union team

Paul Arnold
Roger Blyth[6]
Stuart Davies
Alun Wyn Jones, captain of Wales
Haydn Mainwaring[7]
Richie Pugh, Wales Rugby sevens captain at the 2006 Commonwealth Games
Idwal Rees
Belinda Trotter, played in the first Welsh woman’s team in 1987.[8]
Geoff Wheel

Website: Bishop Gore

 
 
 
 


1643 – Jeremiah Dummer, American silversmith (d. 1718)
Jeremiah Dummer (14 September 1643 – 24 May 1718)[1] was the first American-born silversmith,[2][3] whose works are today highly valued.

Life
Dummer was born in Newbury, Massachusetts, the first son of Richard Dummer and his second wife, Frances Burr.[4]

At the age of 14, he was apprenticed to John Hull, the mintmaster at Boston.[4] Hull recorded at the time that he “received into my house Jeremie Dummer … to serve me as Apprentice eight years”.[5] When he was 23 he started on his own and became a prolific and notable silversmith making tankards, beakers, porringers, caudle cups and candlesticks. The fluted band on a plain surface is characteristic of his work.[4][6] He is said to have introduced the ornamentation known as “gadrooning”, curved flutings on the surface of silver.[7]

He held many public offices, and was a Member and Captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Society in 1671 and Constable of Boston in 1675–76.[4] He was appointed Freeman of Boston in 1680, a member of Capt Hutchinson’s Company in 1684, a member of the Council of Safety against Andres in 1689, a Selectman of Boston 1691–92, Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Suffolk County 1702–15, Treasurer of Suffolk County 1711–16, and was a member in full communion at the venerable First Church.[4]

He was also an engraver, and engraved plates for currency: in 1710 he printed the first paper money in Connecticut.[4] When the government of Connecticut decided in 1709 to issue paper currency, or Bills of Exchange, Dummer was selected to do the engraving of the plates and the printing of the bills. Journals of the Council for 1710 show transactions with Dummer relating to this currency, and in 1712 Governor Saltonstall laid before the Council Board Dummer’s bill for printing 6,550 sheets of this paper currency. Dummer’s former apprentice, John Coney, had the distinction of engraving the plates for the first paper money issued by Massachusetts some years previously, the first issued on the American continent,[8] although some sources also credit Dummer with the engraving of the Massachusetts copper plates.[9]

Dummer was also one America’s foremost early portrait painters. Among his paintings are a self-portrait and portrait of his wife, Anna,[10] together with portraits of many of his contemporaries.[11]

He died on 24 May 1718 in Boston.[1] His obituary printed in the Boston News Letter on 2 June 1718 said:

Departed this life Jeremiah Dummer, Esqr., in the 73rd year of his Age, after a long retirement … having served his country faithfully in several Publick Stations, and obtained of all that knew him the Character of a Just, Virtuous, and Pious Man;[1]

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FYI September 13, 2017


1847 – Mexican–American War: Six teenage military cadets known as Niños Héroes die defending Chapultepec Castle in the Battle of Chapultepec. American troops under General Winfield Scott capture Mexico City in the Mexican–American War.

Skipped to:
Biographies


Juan de la Barrera
was born in 1828 in Mexico City, the son of Ignacio Mario de la Barrera, an army general, and Juana Inzárruaga. He enlisted at the age of 12 and was admitted to the Academy on 18 November 1843. During the attack on Chapultepec he was a lieutenant in the military engineers (sappers) and died defending a gun battery at the entrance to the park. Aged 19, he was the oldest of the six, and was also part of the school faculty as a volunteer teacher in engineering.

Juan Escutia was born between 1828 and 1832 in Tepic, now the capital of the state of Nayarit. Records show he was admitted to the Academy as a cadet on 8 September 1847—five days before the fateful battle—but his other papers were lost during the assault. He is often portrayed as a second lieutenant in an artillery company. He is the cadet who supposedly wrapped himself up in the Mexican flag and jumped from the roof to keep it from falling into enemy hands. His body was found on the east flank of the hill, alongside that of Francisco Márquez.
Cadet Francisco Marquez

Francisco Márquez was born in 1834 in Guadalajara, Jalisco. Following the death of his father, his mother, Micaela Paniagua, remarried Francisco Ortiz, a cavalry captain. He applied to the Academy on 14 January 1847 and, at the time of the battle, belonged to the first company of cadets. A note included in his personnel record says his body was found on the east flank of the hill, alongside that of Juan Escutia. At 13 years old, he was the youngest of the six heroes.

Agustín Melgar was born between 1828 and 1832 in Chihuahua, Chihuahua. He was the son of Esteban Melgar, a lieutenant colonel in the army, and María de la Luz Sevilla, both of whom died while he was still young, leaving him the ward of his older sister. He applied to the Academy on 4 November 1846. A note in his personnel record explains that after finding himself alone, he tried to stop the enemy on the north side of the castle.

Miguel Miramón, at the age of 15, also defended Chapultepec Castle and was taken prisoner in the battle of 1847. However, he is never included as one of the Niños Héroes, as he went on to lead an insurrection against the government of Benito Juárez and was executed by firing squad in 1860.

Fernando Montes de Oca was born between 1828 and 1832 in Azcapotzalco, then a town just to the north of Mexico City and now one of the boroughs of the Federal District. His parents were José María Montes de Oca and Josefa Rodríguez. He had applied to the Academy on 24 January 1847, and was one of the cadets who remained in the castle. His personnel record reads: “Died for his country on 13 September 1847.”

Vicente Suárez was born in 1833 in Puebla, Puebla, the son of Miguel Suárez, a cavalry officer, and María de la Luz Ortega. He applied for admission to the Academy on 21 October 1845, and during his stay was an officer cadet.

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1886 – Amelie Beese, German pilot and sculptor (d. 1925)
Amelie Hedwig Boutard-Beese (13 September 1886 – 22 December 1925), also known as Melli Beese, was an early German female aviator. She was born in Laubegast (de), on the outskirts of Dresden, Saxony.

Youth
In 1906 Beese decided to pursue a career as a sculptor; however, she had to leave her native Germany to study, as German art schools did not admit female students. She studied instead at Stockholm’s Royal Academy from 1906 until 1909. During this period, she learned to sail and developed an affinity for skiing. When she returned to Dresden in 1909 and she began studying mathematics, shipbuilding, and aeronautic engineering. It was during this period that she developed a desire to become a pilot.

Interest in aviation
In November 1910 she travelled to Johannisthal, the first airfield to open in Berlin. Here she encountered early aviators from a variety of nations, and began to search for an instructor. In December of that year, Robert Thelens agreed to help her, but shortly thereafter he quit after Beese crashed a plane sustaining multiple injuries including broken ribs, nose and leg bones. In 1911, regulations pertaining to the flight test were made more stringent, and Beese, an inexperienced flier, found it increasingly difficult to persuade more experienced aviators to teach her.

Nevertheless, in May of that year she found a new instructor named von Mossner, who allowed her to take complete control of an aeroplane for the first time. Beese, encouraged by this, sought to gain more flying time, and spoke with the director of Johannisthal to this end. The director, Major von Tschudi, anticipated a stir in publicity if he allowed a female aviator to participate in the upcoming flight display, and so at the end of July 1911 Beese was allowed to fly unaided. She encountered several setbacks, including sabotage of her aircraft by other participating aviators. However, she did participate in the flight display, becoming the first female pilot in Germany on 13 September 1911.

Marriage and World War I
1912 was an eventful year for Beese. Following her father’s death in January, Beese opened a flying school at Johannisthal airfield, with financial assistance from her mother. That same year she used her early training in architecture to design and patent a collapsible aircraft.

She worked with one of her early pupils from her flying school, Charles Boutard, on plans for a flying boat. Her relationship with Boutard became close, and the two married in 1913. After marrying Boutard, Beese became a French citizen, thus making her ineligible to work on German airfields during the war. She was eventually arrested with her husband and tried as “undesirable aliens”. Charles Boutard was interned and they moved to Wittstock for the duration of the war.

After the armistice between Germany and the allies was concluded, the Boutards filed suit on claims of compensation for goods confiscated upon Charles’ internment. The lawsuits continued for most of the rest of her life, although the value of the claimed compensation decreased with the hyper-inflation that Germany suffered during the Weimar period. Despite the troubles suffered due to the ongoing lawsuits and the economic troubles suffered throughout Germany, Melli planned to make a film documenting her flying. Some pieces were shot and still survive, and were included in a film made by Walter Jerven in 1940.

Death and legacy
As time passed, the marriage of Boutard and Beese began to deteriorate, and by 1925 they had separated and Beese was living alone in Schmargendorf. Also in 1925 Beese had an unfortunate accident, crashing the aeroplane she was flying when she reapplied for her pilot’s license. On 22 December of that year, she shot herself in her Berlin flat. She is buried in the cemetery at Berlin-Schmargendorf. There is a small memorial park named after her in Wilmersdorf, at the corner of Storckwinkel- and Schwarzbacherstraße. In 1992, Straße 19 in Treptow was renamed Melli-Beese-Straße. Also, there is an exhibition dedicated to her in the Heimatmuseum in Treptow, in the eastern suburbs of Berlin. Johannisthal airfield, where she began her career as an aviator has now largely disappeared beneath the changing landscape of Berlin, and beyond street names in the area such as Pilotenstraße and Segelfliegerstraße there is no trace of it.

 
 
 
 


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FYI September 12, 2017


1915 – French soldiers rescue over 4,000 Armenian Genocide survivors stranded on Musa Dagh.
The Armenian Genocide (Armenian: Հայոց ցեղասպանություն,[note 3] Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust,[6] was the Ottoman government’s systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians,[note 2] mostly Ottoman citizens within the Ottoman Empire and its successor state, the Republic of Turkey.[7][8] The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders from Constantinople to the region of Ankara, the majority of whom were eventually murdered. The genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly, and the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre.[9] Other indigenous and Christian ethnic groups, such as the Assyrians and the Ottoman Greeks, were similarly targeted for extermination by the Ottoman government in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, and their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy.[10][11] Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide.[12]

Raphael Lemkin was explicitly moved by the annihilation of Armenians to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and to coin the word genocide in 1943.[13] The Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides,[14][15][16] because scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out in order to eliminate the Armenians, and it is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust.[17]

Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, repudiates the word genocide as an accurate term for the mass killings of Armenians that began under Ottoman rule in 1915. In recent years it has been faced with repeated calls to recognize them as genocide.[18] To date, 29 countries and 47 U.S. states have officially recognized the mass killings as genocide, as have most genocide scholars and historians.[19][20][21]

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Musa Dagh (Turkish: Musa Dağı; Armenian: Մուսա լեռ, Musa leṛ;[2] Arabic: جبل موسى‎‎ Jebel Musa; meaning “Moses Mountain”) is a mountain in the Hatay province of Turkey. In 1915 it was the location of a successful Armenian resistance to the Armenian Genocide, an event that inspired Franz Werfel to write the novel The Forty Days of Musa Dagh.

History
The deportation of the Armenian population of current Turkey, ordered by the Ottoman Empire, in July 1915 reached the six Armenian villages of the Musa Dagh region: Kabusia (Kaboussieh), Yoghunoluk, Bitias, Vakef, Kheter Bey (Khodr Bey) and Haji Habibli.[3] As Ottoman Turkish forces converged upon the town, the populace, aware of the impending danger, refused deportation and fell back upon Musa mountain, thwarting assaults for fifty-three days, from July to September 1915.[4][5] One of the leaders of the revolt was Movses Der Kalousdian, whose Armenian first name was the same as that of the mountain. Allied warships, most notably the French 3rd squadron in the Mediterranean under command of Louis Dartige du Fournet, sighted the survivors, just as ammunition and food provisions were running out.[6] French and British ships, beginning with the Guichen, evacuated 4,200 men, women and children from Musa Dagh to safety in Port Said.[7][8][9] Starting in 1918, when the Sanjak of Alexandretta came under French control, the population of the six Armenian villages returned to their homes. In 1932 a monument was erected at the top of the mountain to commemorate the event.[10]

On 29 June 1939, following an agreement between France and Turkey, the province was given to Turkey. Afterwards Armenians from six of the villages emigrated from Hatay, while some of the residents of Vakıflı village chose to stay.[11] Vakıflı is the only remaining ethnic Armenian village in Turkey,[12][13] with a population only 140 Turkish-Armenians. Most who left Hatay in 1939 emigrated to Lebanon where they resettled in the town of Anjar. Today, the town of Anjar is divided into six districts, each commemorating one of the villages of Musa Dagh.

As the French squads came to the rescue of the remaining survivors, the chief priest was quoted to say: “The evil only happened … to enable God to show us His goodness.”[14] This event was depicted in the 2016 movie The Promise.
The Forty Days of Musa Dagh
The French warship Guichen, pictured above, participated along with several cruisers in the rescue of some 4,000 Armenians who had taken shelter on Musa Dagh.

These historical events later inspired Franz Werfel to write his novel The Forty Days of Musa Dagh (1933), a fictionalized account based on his detailed research of historical sources.[citation needed] Werfel told reporters: “The struggle of 5,000 people on Musa Dagh had so fascinated me that I wished to aid the Armenian people by writing about it and bringing it to the world”.[15] A movie of the same name was released in 1982.[16]
 
 
 
 


1590 – María de Zayas, Spanish writer (d. 1661)
María de Zayas y Sotomayor (September 12, 1590 – 1661) wrote during Spain’s Golden Age of literature. She is considered by a number of modern critics as one of the pioneers of modern literary feminism, while others consider her simply a well-accomplished baroque author. The female characters in de Zayas’ stories were used as vehicles to enlighten readers about the plight of women in Spanish society, or to instruct them in proper ways to live their lives.

Biography
Born in Madrid, de Zayas was the daughter of infantry captain Fernando de Zayas y Sotomayor and María Catalina de Barrasa. Her baptism was known to have taken place in the church of San Sebastian on September 12, 1590, and given the fact that most of Spain’s well-to-do families baptized their infants days after birth, it may be deduced that de Zayas was born days before this date. So very little is known about her life that it is not even certain whether she was single or married during the time she wrote. What is known is that she was fortunate to belong to the aristocracy of Madrid, because despite earning the low salary typical of writers at the time, she lived well. In 1637, de Zayas published her first collection of novellas, Novelas Amorosas y Ejemplares (The Enchantments of Love) in Zaragoza, and ten years later, her second collection, Desengaños Amorosos (The Disenchantments of Love), was published. De Zayas also composed a play, La traicion en la Amistad, (Friendship Betrayed) as well as several poems. The author enjoyed the respect and admiration of some of the best male writers of her day. Among her many admirers were Lope de Vega,[1] who dedicated some of his poetry to her, and Alonso de Castillo Solórzano, who named her the “Sibila de Madrid,” (Sibyl of Madrid). Despite the enduring popularity of her works during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the nineteenth-century saw her works censured for their perceived vulgarity. As a result, they faded into obscurity, and would remain obscure until the late twentieth century. The exact day of her death remains a mystery. Death certificates bearing the name María de Zayas have been found in both 1661 and 1669, yet neither seems to belong to her.

The only physical description of de Zayas, which is likely made in jest, comes from Francesc Fontanella in his Vejámenes:

(English)
Madame Maria de Zayas

She lived with a manly face,
what great skirt she had,
mustaches spinning high.
She resembled a gentleman,
But, I have just come to discover
that she poorly hides a sword,
underneath the feminine skirts.
In the third décima
she was an unhappy commentator
for she has such a bad third
how quickly she wants to get
in order to award her good desires
of a farthingale’s ?
shall have a heathen crown.

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