When I drove across Canada to Fort St. John for a teaching position in 2012, the place was an anomaly to me. On CBC Radio, a man in an unhurried voice said he was trying to be a Good Samaritan when he climbed out of his truck on the Halfway Bridge near Fort St. John to help a beaver he’d hit. This was only the second time that I’d heard of Fort St. John; the first time was when I accepted the teaching position here.
Category: Hi-Jacked Threads
1607 – The Flight of the Earls takes place in Ireland.
The Flight of the Earls (Irish: Imeacht na nIarlaí) took place on 4 September 1607, when Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone and Rory O’Donnell, 1st earl of Tyrconnell, and about ninety followers left Ulster in Ireland for mainland Europe.
Background to the exile
After their defeat at the Battle of Kinsale in 1601, and the end of the Nine Years’ War in Ulster in 1603, Tyrone and the Prince of Tyrconnell, Lord Tyrconnell’s elder brother and predecessor, had been forced into exile in January 1602 by the victorious English government of Ireland under the leadership of the Lord Mountjoy. They retained their lands and titles, although with much diminished extent and authority. However, the countryside was laid bare in a campaign of destruction in 1602, and induced famine in 1603. O’Neill was pardoned under the terms of the Treaty of Mellifont in March 1603 and submitted to the crown.
When King James I took the throne in 1603 he quickly proceeded to issue pardons for the Irish lords and their rebel forces. As king of Scotland he had a better understanding of the advantages from working with local chiefs in the Scottish Highlands. However, as in other Irish lordships, the 1603 peace involved O’Neill losing substantial areas of land to his cousins and neighbours, who would be granted freeholds under the English system, instead of the looser arrangements under the former Brehon law system. This was not a new policy but was a well-understood and longstanding practice in the Tudor conquest of Ireland.
On 10 September 1602 the Prince of Tyrconnell had already died, allegedly assassinated, in Spain, and his brother succeeded him as 25th Chieftain of the O’Donnell clan. He was later granted the Earldom of Tyrconnell by King James I on 4 September 1603, and restored to a somewhat diminished scale of territories in Tyrconnell on 10 February 1604.
In 1605 the new Lord Deputy of Ireland, Sir Arthur Chichester, began to encroach on the former freedoms of the two Earls and The Maguire, enforcing the new freeholds, especially that granted in North Ulster to the Ó Catháin chief. The Ó Catháins had formerly been important subjects of the O’Neills and required protection; in turn, Chichester wanted to reduce O’Neill’s authority. An option was to charge O’Neill with treason if he did not comply with the new arrangements. The discovery of the Gunpowder Plot in the same year made it harder for Catholics to appear loyal to both the crown and the papacy. As the Dublin administration sided with O Cathain, O’Neill was invited by King James to make his case in 1607 to the Privy Council in London, which he never did.
By 1607 O’Neill’s allies The Maguire and the Earl of Tyrconnell were finding it hard to maintain their prestige on lower incomes. They planned to seek Spanish support before news of the Battle of Gibraltar arrived. When their ship dropped anchor, O’Neill seems to have joined them on impulse. He had three options:
Flee with his friends and hope for a reinvasion by Spain
Go to London and stay at court until his grievances were redressed
Do nothing and live on a reduced income as a large landowner in Ulster.
Fearing arrest, they chose to flee to the Continent, where they hoped to recruit an army for the invasion of Ireland with Spanish help. However, earlier in 1607 a Spanish fleet had been destroyed by the Dutch in the Battle of Gibraltar. Also as the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) had ended in 1604, King Philip III of Spain wanted to preserve the recent peace with England under its new Stuart dynasty. As a part of the peace proposals, a Spanish princess was to marry James’ son Henry, though this never transpired. Tyrone ignored all these realities, remained in Italy, and persisted with his invasion plan until his death in exile in 1616.
1927 – John McCarthy, American computer scientist and academic (d. 2011)
John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist. McCarthy was one of the founders of the discipline of artificial intelligence. He coined the term “artificial intelligence” (AI), developed the Lisp programming language family, significantly influenced the design of the ALGOL programming language, popularized timesharing, and was very influential in the early development of AI.
McCarthy received many accolades and honors, such as the Turing Award for his contributions to the topic of AI, the United States National Medal of Science, and the Kyoto Prize.
Early life and education
John McCarthy was born in Boston, Massachusetts on September 4, 1927 to an Irish immigrant father and a Lithuanian Jewish immigrant mother, John Patrick and Ida Glatt McCarthy. The family was obliged to relocate frequently during the Great Depression, until McCarthy’s father found work as an organizer for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers in Los Angeles, California. His father came from the fishing village of Cromane in County Kerry, Ireland. His mother died in 1957.
McCarthy was exceptionally intelligent, and graduated from Belmont High School two years early. McCarthy was accepted into Caltech in 1944.
McCarthy showed an early aptitude for mathematics; during his teens he taught himself college mathematics by studying the textbooks used at the nearby California Institute of Technology (Caltech). As a result, he was able to skip the first two years of mathematics at Caltech. McCarthy was suspended from Caltech for failure to attend physical education courses; he then served in the US Army and was readmitted, receiving a B.S. in Mathematics in 1948.
It was at Caltech that he attended a lecture by John von Neumann that inspired his future endeavors.
McCarthy initially did graduate studies at Caltech, but moved to Princeton University. He received a Ph.D. in Mathematics from Princeton University in 1951 as a student of Solomon Lefschetz.
After short-term appointments at Princeton and Stanford University, McCarthy became an assistant professor at Dartmouth in 1955.
A year later, McCarthy moved to MIT as a research fellow in the autumn of 1956.
In 1962, McCarthy became a full professor at Stanford, where he remained until his retirement in 2000. By the end of his early days at MIT he was already affectionately referred to as “Uncle John” by his students.
McCarthy championed mathematical logic for artificial intelligence.
By Mercy Torres: Why We Need to Stop Chasing Success and Start Enjoying the Little Things in Life
The philosopher Alan Watts always said that life is like a song, and the sole purpose of the song is to dance.
He said that when we listen to a song, we don’t dance with the goal of getting to the end of the music. We dance to enjoy it.
RIP Walter Becker
Walter Carl Becker (February 20, 1950 – September 3, 2017) was an American musician, songwriter, and record producer. He was best known as the co-founder, guitarist, bassist, and co-songwriter of Steely Dan.
301 – San Marino, one of the smallest nations in the world and the world’s oldest republic still in existence, is founded by Saint Marinus.
San Marino (/sæn məˈriːnoʊ/ (About this sound listen); Italian: [san maˈriːno]), officially the Republic of San Marino (Italian: Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains. Its size is just over 61 km2 (24 sq mi), with a population of 33,562. Its capital is the City of San Marino and its largest city is Serravalle. San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe.
The country takes its name from Marinus, a stonemason originating from the Roman colony on the island of Rab, in modern-day Croatia. In 257 CE Marinus participated in the reconstruction of Rimini’s city walls after their destruction by Liburnian pirates. Marinus then went on to found an independent monastic community on Monte Titano in 301 CE; thus, San Marino lays claim to be the oldest extant sovereign state as well as the oldest constitutional republic.
San Marino is governed by the Constitution of San Marino (Leges Statutae Republicae Sancti Marini), a series of six books written in Latin in the late 16th century, that dictate the country’s political system, among other matters. The country is considered to have the earliest written governing documents, or constitution, still in effect.
The country’s economy mainly relies on finance, industry, services and tourism. It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP (per capita), with a figure comparable to the most developed European regions. San Marino is considered to have a highly stable economy, with one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, no national debt and a budget surplus. It is the only country with more vehicles than people. Under a diplomatic point of view, following the leadership of Italy it is one of the core members of the Uniting for Consensus group .
1923 – Glen Bell, American businessman, founded Taco Bell (d. 2010)
Glen William Bell, Jr. (September 3, 1923 – January 16, 2010) was the founder of the Taco Bell chain of restaurants.
Born in Lynwood, California, Glen Bell attended and graduated from San Bernardino High School in 1941. He served in the U.S. Marine Corps during World War II. Bell left the military in 1946 and started his first hot dog stand, called Bell’s Drive-In, in San Bernardino in 1948. In 1952, he sold the hot dog stand and built a second stand that sold hot dogs and hamburgers. Shortly thereafter, he started selling tacos at a taco stand named Taco-Tia at the price of 19 cents each from a side window. Between 1954 and 1955, he opened three Taco Tias in the San Bernardino area, eventually selling those restaurants and opening four El Tacos with a partner in the Long Beach area.
In 1962, he decided to go solo and sold the El Tacos to his partner and opened his first Taco Bell. Bell franchised his restaurant in 1964. His company grew rapidly, and the 868-restaurant chain was later sold to PepsiCo in 1978 for $125 million in stock.
Bell died from a heart attack on January 16, 2010 at age 86 in Rancho Santa Fe, California. He was survived by his wife Martha, two sons, a daughter, four grandchildren, and three sisters.
By Gary Price: Library of Congress Announces Winners of 2017 Literacy Awards
Sealaska Heritage Institute, Juneau, Alaska
Today in the Department of Defense, September 3, 2017
by Ilona Baliūnaitė: Woman Develops Bond With Over 200 Hummingbirds, Now They Complain If She’s Late To Feed Them
By Dell Cameron: Data Breach Exposes Thousands of Job Seekers Citing Top Secret Government Work [Updated]
By Tom McKay: Watch Record-Setting NASA Astronaut Peggy Whitson Return to Earth Tonight
By Whitney Kimball: An NFL Player’s Online Harvey Fundraiser Is Going Viral, And the Celebrities Are Helping
Yesss put down your DraftKings app, Jezebel readers (jk, jk). NFL player J.J. Watt of the Houston Texans started an online fundraiser last Sunday for Hurricane Harvey victims with a modest $200,000 goal and has now reached $17.5 million [UPDATE 15 minutes later: $17.8 million].
1833 – Oberlin College is founded by John Jay Shipherd and Philo P. Stewart in Oberlin, Ohio.
Oberlin College is a private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio. The college was founded as the Oberlin Collegiate Institute in 1833 by John Jay Shipherd and Philo Stewart. It is the oldest coeducational liberal arts college in the United States and the second oldest continuously operating coeducational institute of higher learning in the world. The Oberlin Conservatory of Music, part of the college, is the oldest continuously operating conservatory in the United States.
The College of Arts & Sciences offers more than 50 majors, minors, and concentrations. Oberlin is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association and the Five Colleges of Ohio consortium.
1854 – Hans Jæger, Norwegian philosopher and activist (d. 1910)
Hans Henrik Jæger (2 September 1854, Drammen, Norway – 8 February 1910, Oslo) was a Norwegian writer, philosopher and anarchist political activist who was part of the Oslo (then Kristiania)-based bohemian group known as the Kristiania Bohemians. In 1886 he was prosecuted for his book Fra Kristiania-bohêmen, then convicted and sentenced to 60 days’ imprisonment and a fine of 80 kr for infringement of modesty and public morals, and for blasphemy. He also lost his position as a stenographer at the Parliament of Norway. Jæger was defended in court by barrister Ludvig Meyer.. He and other bohemians tried to live by the nine commandments he had formulated in Fra Kristiania-bohêmen.
The following year he was forced to flee Norway. He had been sentenced to 150 more days in prison after the Norwegian government learned that he had sent 300 copies of Fra Kristiania-bohêmen to Sweden under the pretense that it was a volume of Christmas stories.
He was a friend of Edvard Munch and was the subject of one of Munch’s paintings, swiftly painted in the rented room of one of Munch’s friends.
Hans Jæger maintained that sexuality should be unrestricted in relationships, arguing that the traditional values of marriage and social class encroached on personal freedom and fulfillment. Jæger asserted that the institution of marriage should be abolished and that there should be “full sexual freedom between the sexes in the same social class.” 
Commons:Wiki Loves Monuments 2017 in the United States
All photos must be uploaded during the month of September (starting 12 AM EST), though the photos may have been taken at any time. The contest ends at 1 October at 0:00 (Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone; UTC-10).
By Matt Pearce: ‘I think he’s barbecuing’: A helicopter view of the Texas flood with the California National Guard
By Elizabeth Van Flandern: The Brothel Boss Lady who Helped Build Seattle
Just a few years prior to her entering the scene, Seattle had allowed women the right to vote– and it had almost bankrupted the city. Women elected uncorrupted officials who enforced the laws of the land and cleaned up the streets.
By MessyNessy: Abercrombie’s Abandoned New York Castle is For Sale
Can you save Abercrombie’s adventure castle? It’ll cost you $3.6 million to start with. The listing is here.
1906 – The International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys is established.
The International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys, abbreviated FICPI (an acronym for Fédération Internationale des Conseils en Propriété Intellectuelle in French, formerly known as the International Federation of Industrial Property Attorneys), is a non-political, international, professional body of intellectual property professionals, i.e., patent attorneys and trademark attorneys, in private practice, as opposed to intellectual property professionals working in the industry. FICPI was established on September 1, 1906 and is based in Basel, Switzerland.
Presidents of FICPI
Douglas N. Deeth, a Canadian patent attorney, is the current president of FICPI.
1876 – Harriet Shaw Weaver, English journalist and activist (d. 1961)
Harriet Shaw Weaver (1 September 1876 – 14 October 1961) was a political activist and a magazine editor. She was a patron of Irish writer James Joyce.
Harriet Shaw Weaver was born in Frodsham, Cheshire, the sixth of eight children of Frederic Poynton Weaver, a doctor, and Mary (née Wright) Weaver, a wealthy heiress. She was educated privately by a governess, Miss Marion Spooner, until 1894, initially in Cheshire and later in Hampstead. Her parents denied her wish to go to university. She decided to become a social worker. After attending a course on the economic basis of social relations at the London School of Economics she became involved in women’s suffrage and joined the Women’s Social and Political Union.
In 1911 she began subscribing to The Freewoman: A Weekly Feminist Review, a radical periodical edited by Dora Marsden and Mary Gawthorpe. The following year its proprietors withdrew their support from it and Weaver stepped in to save it from financial ruin. In 1913 it was renamed The New Freewoman. Later that year at the suggestion of the magazine’s literary editor, Ezra Pound, the name was changed again to The Egoist. During the following years Weaver made more financial donations to the periodical, becoming more involved with its organisation and also becoming its editor.
Ezra Pound was involved with finding new contributors and one of these was James Joyce. Weaver was convinced of his genius and started to support him, first by serialising A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man in The Egoist in 1914. When Joyce could not find anyone to publish it as a book, Weaver set up the Egoist Press for this purpose at her own expense. Joyce’s Ulysses was then serialised in The Egoist but because of its controversial content it was rejected by all the printers approached by Weaver and she arranged for it to be printed abroad. Weaver continued to give considerable support to Joyce and his family but following her reservations about his work that was to become Finnegans Wake, their relationship became strained and then virtually broken. However, on Joyce’s death, Weaver paid for his funeral and acted as his executor.
In 1931 Weaver joined the Labour Party but then, having been influenced by reading Marx’s Das Kapital she joined the Communist Party in 1938. She was active in this organisation, taking part in demonstrations and selling copies of the Daily Worker. She also continued her allegiance to the memory of Joyce, acting as his literary executor and helping to compile The Letters of James Joyce. She died at her home near Saffron Walden in 1961, aged 85, leaving her collection of literary material to the British Library and to the National Book League.
Rednecks with Paychecks to the rescue!
By David Tracy: Watch Some Lifted Truck Dudes In Houston Pull A Military Vehicle From Deep Water
By Elizabeth Segran: Karlie Kloss Programmed A Cookie-Delivering Drone And Wants Other Girls To Do The Same
by Christina Sturdivant: Video: First-Ever Screaming Hairy Armadillos Born At The National Zoo
By Maggie Bria: The Muslim WWII Heroine that Time Forgot
By Randee Dawn: ‘We’re gonna need a bigger car’: John Cena, Shaq hit the road on ‘Carpool Karaok
1920 – The first radio news program is broadcast by 8MK in Detroit.
WWJ, 950 AM (a regional broadcast frequency), is an all-news radio station located in Detroit, Michigan. Owned by the CBS Radio subsidiary of CBS Corporation, WWJ’s studios are in the Panasonic Building in Southfield, and its transmitter is located near Newport.
WWJ began daily broadcasts on August 20, 1920, operating under an amateur radio license with the call sign “8MK”. August 20, 2017 marks the beginning of its 98th year of broadcasting. The station has claimed to be “America’s Pioneer Broadcasting Station”, and where “commercial radio broadcasting began”.
WWJ is licensed by the Federal Communications Commission to broadcast in the HD Radio format. It is also simulcast on a subchannel of sister station WXYT-FM.
On August 20, 1920 a series of trial broadcasts began, to check if the equipment was ready for regular service. This date marks what WWJ considers to be its official anniversary, although because the station was still unpublicized the audience consisted of only a small number of interested local amateur radio operators. The test programs proved satisfactory, so, on August 31, 1920, the front page of the Detroit News announced that nightly (except Sunday) broadcasts by the “Detroit News Radiophone” would start that evening. The debut program featured regularly updated returns for a primary election held earlier that day, plus singing by Lois Johnson. At the beginning of the program, Elton Plant introduced Malcolm Bingay, managing director of the Detroit News, as the broadcast’s master of ceremonies.
The front page of the next day’s News contained enthusiastic reports attesting to the success of the election night broadcast, which had begun “promptly at 8:10 p. m.”, with the newspaper declaring: “The sending of the election returns by The Detroit News Radiophone Tuesday night was fraught with romance and must go down in the history of man’s conquest of the elements as a gigantic step in his progress”, while noting that the paper received “numberless telephone calls to The News office asking for details of the apparatus”. The station continued with daily broadcasts in September, most commonly between 7 and 8 p.m. Although the initial programs consisted mostly of phonograph records interspersed with news announcements, programming also included fight results from the heavyweight championship bout between Jack Dempsey and Billy Miske on September 6, and, in October, play-by-play accounts as the Cleveland Indians bested the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1920 World Series baseball championship. Weekly vocal concerts were begun on September 23, with Mable Norton Ayers as the first featured artist. By late October, the paper was boasting that “hundreds of Detroiters are now the possessors of wireless receiving sets by which they get the news bulletins, music and other features sent out by The News Radiophone”, as the station prepared to broadcast returns for that year’s presidential election on November 2.
1767 – Henry Joy McCracken, Irish businessman and activist, founded the Society of United Irishmen (d. 1798)
Henry Joy McCracken (31 August 1767 – 17 July 1798) was an Ulster Scot Protestant and industrialist from Belfast, Ireland. He was a founding member of the Society of the United Irishmen.
Henry Joy McCracken was born in High street, Belfast into two of the city’s most prominent Protestant industrial families. He was the son of Ulster Scot Presbyterian shipowner, Captain John McCracken and Ann Joy, daughter of Francis Joy, of French Huguenot Protestant descent. The Joy family made their money in linen manufacture and founded the Belfast News Letter. Henry was the elder brother of political activist and social reformer Mary Ann McCracken, with whom he shared an interest in Irish traditional culture.
In 1792, he helped organise the Belfast Harp Festival which gathered aged harpists from around Ireland, and helped preserve the Irish airs by having them transcribed by Edward Bunting. Bunting, who lodged in the McCracken’s Rosemary Lane home, was a classically trained musician.
McCracken became interested in republican politics from an early age and along with other Protestants formed the Society of the United Irishmen in 1795 which quickly made him a target of the authorities. He regularly travelled throughout the country using his business as a cover for organising other United Irish societies, but was arrested in October 1796 and lodged in Kilmainham Jail in Dublin. While imprisoned with other leaders of the United Irishmen, McCracken fell seriously ill and was released on bail in December 1797.
Following the outbreak of the United Irishmen-led Rebellion in Leinster in May 1798, the Antrim organisation met on 3 June to decide on their response. The meeting ended inconclusively with a vote to wait for French aid being passed by a narrow margin. A new meeting of delegates was held in Templepatrick on 5 June where McCracken was elected general for Antrim and he quickly began planning military operations.
McCracken formulated a plan for all small towns in Antrim to be seized after which rebels would converge upon Antrim town on 7 June where the county’s magistrates were to hold a crisis meeting. Although the plan met initial success and McCracken led the rebels in the attack on Antrim, the Catholic Defenders group whom McCracken expected assistance from were conspicuous by their absence. The mainly Ulster Scots rebels led by McCracken were defeated by the English forces and his army melted away. Although McCracken initially escaped with James Hope, James Orr, and James Dickey a chance encounter with men who recognized him from his cotton business led to his arrest. Although offered clemency if he testified against other United Irishmen leaders, McCracken refused to turn on his compatriots.
He was court-martialled and hanged at Corn Market, Belfast, on land his grandfather had donated to the city, on 17 July 1798, aged 30.
McCracken’s remains are believed to have been reinterred by Francis Joseph Biggar in 1909 at Clifton Street Cemetery, Belfast, alongside his sister Mary Ann. His illegitimate daughter Maria (whose mother is speculated to have been Mary Bodell), was raised by her aunt Mary Ann McCracken.
Society of United Irishmen
The Society of United Irishmen was founded as a liberal political organisation in 18th-century Ireland that initially sought Parliamentary reform. However, it evolved into a revolutionary republican organisation, inspired by the American Revolution and allied with Revolutionary France. It launched the Irish Rebellion of 1798 with the objective of ending British monarchical rule over Ireland and founding a sovereign, independent Irish republic.
This article was updated on Wednesday.
By Christina Caron: Where to Donate to Harvey Victims (and How to Avoid Scams)
By Christen Smith: Outdoorsmen to the rescue in Hurricane Harvey
“They can handle their boats better than the average fireman, who handles a boat once a year during annual training,” retired Lt. Gen. Russel Honore, told the Washington Post Tuesday. “They use their boats all the time and know their waters, and know their capacity. It’s an old professional pride. It’s like good food: Some people didn’t go to the Cordon Bleu, but they can cook like hell. That’s these fishermen and their boats.”
The Cajun Navy formed 12 years ago in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Honore led the joint task force after the storm responsible for coordinating military-relief efforts for affected areas of Louisiana. He estimated the Cajun Navy rescued 10,000 New Orleans residents in the days after the storm flooded the historic city.
By Chris Perez: This shotgun-wielding Texan has no time for looters
By Zara Stones: Meet the World’s No. 1 Drone Expert (Arthur Holland Michel)
By Dan Peleschuk: The Ex-Marine Messing With Tattoo Tradition
By Ben Panko: Colorado Construction Crew Unearths 66-Million-Year-Old Triceratops Fossil
Barrett Brown Talks with ex-CIA Operative Barry Eisler: Is Anybody Running the Deep State?
By jessica Wildfire: You don’t have to love your family
My real family are my friends, people I can talk to without fear of judgment, people who I can let my guard down around.
By Gary Price: Academic Libraries: Colorado College Net-Zero Energy Library Opens
1873 – Austrian explorers Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht discover the archipelago of Franz Josef Land in the Arctic Sea.
Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph’s Land (Russian: Земля́ Фра́нца-Ио́сифа, tr. Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa) is an archipelago, inhabited only by Russian military base personnel, located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia. It consists of 191 islands, which cover an area of 16,134 square kilometers (6,229 sq mi), stretching 375 kilometers (233 mi) from east to west and 234 kilometers (145 mi) from north to south. The islands are categorized in three groups, a western, central and eastern, separated by the British Channel and the Austrian Strait. The central group is further divided into a northern and southern section by the Markham Strait. The largest island is George Land, which measures 2,741 square kilometers (1,058 sq mi), followed by Wilczek Land, Graham Bell Island and Alexandra Land.
Eighty-five percent of the archipelago is glaciated, with large unglaciated areas being located on the largest islands and many of the smallest islands. The islands have a combined coastline of 4,425 kilometers (2,750 mi). Compared to other Arctic archipelagos, Franz Joseph Land has a high dissection rate of 3.6 square kilometers per coastline kilometer.[clarification needed] Cape Fligely on Rudolf Island is the northernmost point of the Eastern Hemisphere. The highest elevations are found in the eastern group, with the highest point located on Wilczek Land, 670 meters (2,200 ft) above mean sea level.
The archipelago was first spotted by the Norwegian sealers Nils Fredrik Rønnbeck and Johan Petter Aidijärvi in 1865, although they did not report their finding. The first reported finding was in the 1873 Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition led by Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht, who named the area after Emperor Franz Joseph I. The islands, then under the name Fridtjof Nansen Land, were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1926, who settled small outposts for research and military purposes. The Kingdom of Norway rejected the claim and several private expeditions were sent to the islands. With the Cold War, the islands became off limits for foreigners and two military airfields were built. The islands have been a nature sanctuary since 1994 and became part of the Russian Arctic National Park in 2012.
1400 – Vlad II Dracul (d.1447)
Vlad II, also known as Vlad Dracul or Vlad the Dragon (before 1395 – November 1447), was voivode (or prince) of Wallachia from 1436 to 1442, and again from 1443 to 1447. Born an illegitimate son of Mircea I of Wallachia, he spent his youth at the court of Sigismund of Luxembourg, who made him a member of the Order of the Dragon in 1431 (hence his sobriquet). Sigismund also recognized him as the lawful voivode of Wallachia, allowing him to settle in the nearby Transylvania. Vlad could not assert his claim during the life of his half-brother, Alexander I Aldea, who acknowledged the suzerainty of the Ottoman Sultan, Murad II.
After Alexander Aldea died in 1436, Vlad seized Wallachia with Hungarian support. Following the death of Sigismund of Luxembourg in 1437, Hungary’s position weakened, causing him to pay homage to Murad II, which included participating in Murad II’s invasion of Transylvania in the summer of 1438. John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, came to Wallachia to convince Vlad to join a crusade against the Ottomans in 1441. After Hunyadi routed an Ottoman army in Transylvania, the sultan ordered Vlad to come to Edirne where he was captured in 1442. Hunyadi invaded Wallachia and made Vlad’s cousin, Basarab II, voivode.
Vlad was released before the end of the year, but he had to leave his two sons as hostages in the Ottoman Empire. He was restored in Wallachia with Ottoman support in 1443. He remained neutral during Hunyadi’s “Long Campaign” against the Ottoman Empire between October 1443 and January 1444, but he sent 4,000 horsemen to fight against the Ottomans during the Crusade of Varna. With the support of a Burgundian fleet he captured the important Ottoman fortress at Giurgiu in 1445. He made peace with the Ottoman Empire in 1446 or 1447, which contributed to the deterioration of his relationship with Hunyadi. Hunyadi invaded Wallachia, forcing Vlad to flee from Târgoviște in late November, where he was killed at a nearby village.
By Cara Giaimo: Did 3 NASA Astronauts Really Hold a ‘Space Strike’ in 1973?
By Benjamin Sledge: The Beautiful Awful of Grief and Loss
The time for action is past. Now is the time for senseless bickering. Ashleigh Brilliant
By Janis Yee: Don’t Complain. Be the Change!
1869 – The Mount Washington Cog Railway opens, making it the world’s first mountain-climbing rack railway.
The Mount Washington Cog Railway is the world’s first mountain-climbing cog railway (rack-and-pinion railway). The railway is still in operation, climbing Mount Washington in New Hampshire, USA. It uses a Marsh rack system and one or two steam locomotives and six biodiesel powered locomotives to carry tourists to the top of the mountain. Its track is built to 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) gauge, which is technically a narrow gauge, as it is a 1⁄2-inch (12.7 mm) less than 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge.
It is the second steepest rack railway in the world after the Pilatus railway, with an average grade of over 25% and a maximum grade of 37.41%. The railway is approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) long and ascends Mt. Washington’s western slope beginning at an elevation of approximately 2,700 feet (820 m) above sea level and ending just short of the mountain’s summit peak of 6,288 feet (1,917 m). The train ascends the mountain at 2.8 miles per hour (4.5 km/h) and descends at 4.6 mph (7.4 km/h). It takes approximately 65 minutes to ascend and 40 minutes to descend although the diesel can go up in as little as 37 minutes.
Most of the Mount Washington Cog Railway is in Thompson and Meserve’s Purchase, with the part of the railway nearest to Mt. Washington’s summit being in Sargent’s Purchase.
The railway was built by Sylvester Marsh who grew up in Campton. Marsh came up with the idea while climbing the mountain in 1852. His plan was treated as insane. Local tradition says that the state legislature voted permission based on a consensus that harm resulting from operating it was no issue — since the design was attempting the impossible — but benefits were guaranteed. He was putting up $5,000 of his own money, and that (plus whatever else he could raise) would be spent locally, including building the Fabyan House hotel at nearby Fabyan Station to accommodate the expected tourists. The railway is sometimes called “Railway to the Moon” because one state legislator remarked during the proceedings that Marsh should be given a charter—not merely up Mount Washington but also to the moon.
Marsh obtained a charter for the road on June 25, 1858, but the American Civil War prevented any action until May 1866. He developed a prototype locomotive and a short demonstration section of track, then found investors and started construction.
Despite the railroad’s incomplete state, the first paying customers started riding on August 14, 1868, and the construction reached the summit in July 1869. The early locomotives all had vertical boilers, like many stationary steam engines of the time; the boilers were mounted on trunnions allowing them to be held vertically no matter what the gradient of the track. Later designs introduced horizontal boilers, slanted so that they remain close to horizontal on the steeply graded track.
In August 1869, President Ulysses S. Grant visited New England to escape the Washington heat. During his tour he rode the cog railway to the top of Mount Washington.
Running the Railway
Sylvester Marsh died in 1884 and control of the Cog passed to the Concord & Montreal Railroad, which ran it until 1889 when the Boston & Maine Railroad took over.
Control by the Teagues began in 1931 when Col. Henry N. Teague bought the Cog. He died in 1951, and Arthur S. Teague became general manager, then gained ownership in 1961. (Arthur Teague was the colonel’s protégé but no relation.) After he died in 1967, the ownership passed to his wife Ellen Crawford Teague who ran the Cog as the world’s first woman president of a railway. In 1983, Mrs. Teague sold the railway to a group of New Hampshire businessmen. Since 1986, the Cog Railway has been controlled and owned by Wayne Presby and Joel Bedor of Littleton, New Hampshire. The Bedor and Presby families also owned the Mount Washington Hotel and Resort in Bretton Woods for the period 1991-2006. In 1995, the railway appointed Charles Kenison the General Manager. These individuals were responsible for a complete revitalization of the railroad, with the assistance of Al LaPrade, a mechanical engineer whose career began at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. The Cog has been in continuous operation since 1869, with service interruptions only during the World Wars.
In the summer of 2008, the Cog introduced its first diesel locomotive. The Great Recession and the 2000s energy crisis led to fewer passengers, and the Cog sought to cut costs with the diesel, which could make three round trips for the cost of one steam train round trip. 
In December 2016, the owner of the Cog proposed building a 35-room hotel along the line, about a mile below the summit and two miles above the station. They propose to open the facility in 2019 for the 150th anniversary of the train. The proposal quickly drew public opposition due to its location in the alpine zone of the mountain.
1910 – Vivien Thomas, American surgeon and academic (d. 1985)
Vivien Theodore Thomas (August 29, 1910 – November 26, 1985) was an African-American surgical technician who developed the procedures used to treat blue baby syndrome (now known as cyanotic heart disease) in the 1940s. He was the assistant to surgeon Alfred Blalock in Blalock’s experimental animal laboratory at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, and later at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. He served as supervisor of the surgical laboratories at Johns Hopkins for 35 years. In 1976 Hopkins awarded him an honorary doctorate and named him an instructor of surgery for the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Without any education past high school, Thomas rose above poverty and racism to become a cardiac surgery pioneer and a teacher of operative techniques to many of the country’s most prominent surgeons.
A television film based on his life, Something the Lord Made, premiered in May 2004 on HBO.
Thomas was born in New Iberia, Louisiana, the son of Mary (Eaton) and William Marco Thomas. The grandson of a slave, he attended Pearl High School in Nashville in the 1920s. Thomas had hoped to attend college and become a doctor, but the Great Depression derailed his plans. He worked at Vanderbilt University in the summer of 1929 doing carpentry but was laid off in the fall. In that same year, Thomas enrolled in the Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial College as a premedical student. In the wake of the stock market crash in October, Thomas put his educational plans on hold, and, through a friend, in February 1930 secured a job as surgical research technician with Dr. Alfred Blalock at Vanderbilt University. On his first day of work, Thomas assisted Blalock with a surgical experiment on a dog. At the end of Thomas’s first day, Blalock told Thomas they would do another experiment the next morning. Blalock told Thomas to “come in and put the animal to sleep and get it set up”. Within a few weeks, Thomas was starting surgery on his own. Thomas was classified and paid as a janitor, despite the fact that by the mid-1930s, he was doing the work of a Postdoctoral researcher in the lab.
Before meeting Blalock, Thomas married Clara and had two daughters. When Nashville’s banks failed nine months after starting his job with Blalock and Thomas’ savings were wiped out, he abandoned his plans for college and medical school, relieved to have even a low-paying job as the Great Depression deepened.
Working with Blalock
Thomas and Blalock did groundbreaking research into the causes of hemorrhagic and traumatic shock. This work later evolved into research on crush syndrome and saved the lives of thousands of soldiers on the battlefields of World War II. In hundreds of experiments, the two disproved traditional theories which held that shock was caused by toxins in the blood. Blalock, a highly original scientific thinker and something of an iconoclast, had theorized that shock resulted from fluid loss outside the vascular bed and that the condition could be effectively treated by fluid replacement. Assisted by Thomas, he was able to provide incontrovertible proof of this theory, and in so doing, he gained wide recognition in the medical community by the mid-1930s. At this same time, Blalock and Thomas began experimental work in vascular and cardiac surgery, defying medical taboos against operating upon the heart. It was this work that laid the foundation for the revolutionary lifesaving surgery they were to perform at Johns Hopkins a decade later.
Working at Johns Hopkins
By 1940, the work Blalock had done with Thomas placed him at the forefront of American surgery, and when he was offered the position of Chief of Surgery at his alma mater Johns Hopkins in 1941, he requested that Thomas accompany him. Thomas arrived in Baltimore with his family in June of that year, confronting a severe housing shortage and a level of racism worse than they had endured in Nashville. Hopkins, like the rest of Baltimore, was rigidly segregated, and the only black employees at the institution were janitors. When Thomas walked the halls in his white lab coat, many heads turned. He began changing into his city clothes when he walked from the laboratory to Blalock’s office because he received so much attention.
Blue baby syndrome
In 1943, while pursuing his shock research, Blalock was approached by pediatric cardiologist Helen Taussig, who was seeking a surgical solution to a complex and fatal four-part heart anomaly called tetralogy of Fallot (also known as blue baby syndrome, although other cardiac anomalies produce blueness, or cyanosis). In infants born with this defect, blood is shunted past the lungs, thus creating oxygen deprivation and a blue pallor. Having treated many such patients in her work in Hopkins’s Harriet Lane Home, Taussig was desperate to find a surgical cure. According to the accounts in Thomas’s 1985 autobiography and in a 1967 interview with medical historian Peter Olch, Taussig suggested only that it might be possible to “reconnect the pipes” in some way to increase the level of blood flow to the lungs but did not suggest how this could be accomplished. Blalock and Thomas realized immediately that the answer lay in a procedure they had perfected for a different purpose in their Vanderbilt work, involving the anastomosis (joining) of the subclavian artery to the pulmonary artery, which had the effect of increasing blood flow to the lungs. Thomas was charged with the task of first creating a blue baby-like condition in a dog, and then correcting the condition by means of the pulmonary-to-subclavian anastomosis. Among the dogs on whom Thomas operated was one named Anna, who became the first long-term survivor of the operation and the only animal to have her portrait hung on the walls of Johns Hopkins. In nearly two years of laboratory work involving 200 dogs, Thomas was able to replicate two of the four cardiac anomalies involved in tetralogy of Fallot. He did demonstrate that the corrective procedure was not lethal, thus persuading Blalock that the operation could be safely attempted on a human patient. Blalock was impressed with Thomas’s work; when he inspected the procedure performed on Anna, he reportedly said, “This looks like something the Lord made.” Even though Thomas knew he was not allowed to operate on patients at that time, he still followed Blalock’s rules and assisted him during surgery.
By Mallory Shelbourne: Houston mayor to immigrants: If you face deportation for seeking safety, I’ll represent you
Comments on price gouging during emergencies?
By Ryan Felton: Texas Store Sold Gas At $20 Per Gallon Following Hurricane Harvey
Arctic Journey: Ghosts of the Northwest Passage
Aug 23–Sep 01, 2018
11 days, 10 nights
By Adele Peters: How Houston Can Become More Resilient To Future Floods
By Ben Paynter: A Field Guide To Truly Audacious Philanthropy
By Adele Peters: These Maps Show Which U.S. Streets Are Named After Confederate Leaders
By Tom McParland: You Can Get An NC Mazda Miata For Surprisingly Little Money
1845 – The first issue of Scientific American magazine is published.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles in the past 170 years. It is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the United States.
Scientific American was founded by inventor and publisher Rufus M. Porter in 1845 as a four-page weekly newspaper. Throughout its early years, much emphasis was placed on reports of what was going on at the U.S. Patent Office. It also reported on a broad range of inventions including perpetual motion machines, an 1860 device for buoying vessels by Abraham Lincoln, and the universal joint which now can be found in nearly every automobile manufactured. Current issues include a “this date in history” section, featuring excerpts from articles originally published 50, 100, and 150 years earlier. Topics include humorous incidents, wrong-headed theories, and noteworthy advances in the history of science and technology.
Porter sold the publication to Alfred Ely Beach and Orson Desaix Munn a mere ten months after founding it. Until 1948, it remained owned by Munn & Company. Under Munn’s grandson, Orson Desaix Munn III, it had evolved into something of a “workbench” publication, similar to the twentieth-century incarnation of Popular Science.
In the years after World War II, the magazine fell into decline. In 1948, three partners who were planning on starting a new popular science magazine, to be called The Sciences, purchased the assets of the old Scientific American instead and put its name on the designs they had created for their new magazine. Thus the partners—publisher Gerard Piel, editor Dennis Flanagan, and general manager Donald H. Miller, Jr.—essentially created a new magazine. Miller retired in 1979, Flanagan and Piel in 1984, when Gerard Piel’s son Jonathan became president and editor; circulation had grown fifteen-fold since 1948. In 1986, it was sold to the Holtzbrinck group of Germany, which has owned it since.
In the fall of 2008, Scientific American was put under the control of Nature Publishing Group, a division of Holtzbrinck.
Donald Miller died in December 1998, Gerard Piel in September 2004 and Dennis Flanagan in January 2005. Mariette DiChristina is the current editor-in-chief, after John Rennie stepped down in June 2009.
Scientific American published its first foreign edition in 1890, the Spanish-language La America Cientifica. Publication was suspended in 1905, and another 63 years would pass before another foreign-language edition appeared: In 1968, an Italian edition, Le Scienze, was launched, and a Japanese edition, Nikkei Science (日経サイエンス), followed three years later. A new Spanish edition, Investigación y Ciencia was launched in Spain in 1976, followed by a French edition, Pour la Science, in France in 1977, and a German edition, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, in Germany in 1978. A Russian edition V Mire Nauki was launched in the Soviet Union in 1983, and continues in the present-day Russian Federation. Kexue (科学, “Science” in Chinese), a simplified Chinese edition launched in 1979, was the first Western magazine published in the People’s Republic of China. Founded in Chongqing, the simplified Chinese magazine was transferred to Beijing in 2001. Later in 2005, a newer edition, Global Science (环球科学), was published instead of Kexue, which shut down due to financial problems. A traditional Chinese edition, known as 科學人 (“Scientist” in Chinese), was introduced to Taiwan in 2002. The Hungarian edition Tudomány existed between 1984 and 1992. In 1986, an Arabic edition, Oloom magazine (مجلة العلوم), was published. In 2002, a Portuguese edition was launched in Brazil.
Today, Scientific American publishes 18 foreign-language editions around the globe: Arabic, Brazilian Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Czech, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Lithuanian (discontinued after 15 issues), Polish, Romanian, Russian, and Spanish.
From 1902 to 1911, Scientific American supervised the publication of the Encyclopedia Americana, which during some of that period was known as The Americana.
It originally styled itself “The Advocate of Industry and Enterprise” and “Journal of Mechanical and other Improvements”. On the front page of the first issue was the engraving of “Improved Rail-Road Cars”. The masthead had a commentary as follows:
Scientific American published every Thursday morning at No. 11 Spruce Street, New York, No. 16 State Street, Boston, and No. 2l Arcade Philadelphia, (The principal office being in New York) by Rufus Porter. Each number will be furnished with from two to five original Engravings, many of them elegant, and illustrative of New Inventions, Scientific Principles, and Curious Works; and will contain, in high addition to the most interesting news of passing events, general notices of progress of Mechanical and other Scientific Improvements; American and Foreign. Improvements and Inventions; Catalogues of American Patents; Scientific Essays, illustrative of the principles of the sciences of Mechanics, Chemistry, and Architecture: useful information and instruction in various Arts and Trades; Curious Philosophical Experiments; Miscellaneous Intelligence, Music and Poetry. This paper is especially entitled to the patronage of Mechanics and Manufactures, being the only paper in America, devoted to the interest of those classes; but is particularly useful to farmers, as it will not only appraise them of improvements in agriculture implements, But instruct them in various mechanical trades, and guard them against impositions. As a family newspaper, it will convey more useful intelligence to children and young people, than five times its cost in school instruction. Another important argument in favor of this paper, is that it will be worth two dollars at the end of the year when the volume is complete, (Old volumes of the New York Mechanic, being now worth double the original cost, in cash.) Terms: The Scientific American will be furnished to subscribers at $2.00 per annum, – one dollar in advance, and the balance in six months. Five copies will be sent to one address six months for four dollars in advance. Any person procuring two or more subscribers, will be entitled to a commission of 25 cents each.
The commentary under the illustration gives the flavor of its style at the time:
There is perhaps no mechanical subject, in which improvement has advanced so rapidly, within the last ten years, as that of railroad passenger cars. Let any person contrast the awkward and uncouth cars of ’35 with the superbly splendid long cars now running on several of the eastern roads, and he will find it difficult to convey to a third party, a correct idea of the vast extent of improvement. Some of the most elegant cars of this class, and which are of a capacity to accommodate from sixty to eighty passengers, and run with a steadiness hardly equaled by a steamboat in still water, are manufactured by Davenport & Bridges, at their establishment in Cambridgeport, Mass. The manufacturers have recently introduced a variety of excellent improvements in the construction of trucks, springs, and connections, which are calculated to avoid atmospheric resistance, secure safety and convenience, and contribute ease and comfort to passengers, while flying at the rate of 30 or 40 miles per hour.
Also in the first issue is commentary on Signor Muzio Muzzi’s proposed device for aerial navigation.
1859 – Matilda Howell, American archer (d. 1938)
Lida Scott Howell (August 28, 1859 – December 20, 1938) was an American female archer who competed in the early twentieth century. She won three gold medals in Archery at the 1904 Summer Olympics in Missouri in the double national and Columbia rounds and for the US team.
Her father, Thomas Scott, is the oldest archer ever to have competed in the Olympics.
Beginning and Career:
Lida Scott was born in 1859. Her father was Thomas Foster Scott. She was an American archer who competed at the 1904 Summer Olympics. She was born in Warren, Ohio. Scott appeared as a competitor for the United States at the 1904 Summer Olympics, representing the Cincinnati Archers and competing in both the women’s double York round and the women’s double American round. The events were both held on September 19, 1904. In the women’s double American round, Scott was one of 22 competitors. She ranked in seventeenth place with a score of 562, hitting 135 targets across three phases, 40 yards, 50 yards, and 60 yards. The women’s double York round, where Scott was one of sixteen competitors, saw her rank in thirteenth place, having accumulated a score of 375, having managed to hit 99 targets again across three phases, this time 60 yards, 80 yards, and 100 yards. Scott, who competed in the events at the age of 71 years and 260 days, holds the distinction of being the oldest person to compete in an archery event at the Olympics. As of 2013, he is still the oldest.
Archery was an event in five of the earliest Olympics and, as it had been an acceptable leisure sport for upper class women for a long time, they were allowed to participate. America’s first female gold medalist in archery was Lida Scott. Lida Scott became interested in archery around 1878. It was a result of articles she had read that were written by Maurice Thompson. In 1881, she won the Ohio State archery championship. She repeated her victory in 1882. In the spring of 1883 she married Millard C. Howell and also won her first national championship. Her dedication to the sport continued and by 1907, she had won seventeen national titles. She competed in archery at the St Louis Olympic Games in 1904, winning two gold medals. Her score for the national round archery was 620 and for Columbia round archery, 867. Her scores in the 1895 championship set records which were not broken until 1931 – 36 years later. As an archer, she was clearly a woman ahead of her time. In 1904 a reporter from the Cincinnati Times Star interviewed Mrs. Howell after winning her 15th championship. When asked why she preferred archery over other sports, she replied, “Archery is a picturesque game, the range with its smooth green and distant glowing target with its gold and radiating red, blue, black, and white, the white-garbed players, with graceful big bows and flying arrows, makes a beautiful picture.” The reporter commented that the love of archery with her is surely inborn. She retired from National Competition in 1907. After the 1920 Olympics, archery was discontinued until 1972 due to a lack of standardized international rules.
By Bill Caswell: My Quest To Find The Best Towing Vehicle
By Jason Torchinsky: Hawk Avoids Hurricane By Taking A Cab
By Bryan Menegus: Stormfront, the Internet’s Oldest Neo-Nazi Site, Follows the Daily Stormer Down to Hell
by Anika Burgess: The Forgotten History of the Neapolitan ‘Kindergarten Ship’
The “kindergarten ship,” as it was known, was led by that kind woman, Giulia Civita Franceschi, a Naples-born educator who emphasized practice over theory. The “Civita Method” did not “simply teach them a useful skill for life” writes Maria Antoinetta Selvaggio, sociologist and author of the book Transforming Street Urchins into Adult Sailors on the Training Ship “Caracciolo” (1913–1928): Giulia Civita Franceschi and Her Educational Vision, in an email interview. “[It] also prepared them to be conscientious and dignified citizens proud of having walked the walk to social redemption and true resilience.”
By Nitish Meena: Moments from Canada
By Noa Kressel: I’m a Proud Generalist — And You Should be Too! Quick Start Tips
Here a some benefits only Generalist will identify with:
You are so-damn-good at finding information. You basically have a super power of searching the web for what you need. You know that somewhere, someone had the same problem like you — and it was solved by a specialist.
The moment the market has changed — you’ll be the first to get your s**t together, as your brain is so flexible (aka, you’ll always have a job).
Innovation starts in YOU — creating unexpected connections can only happen when you have huge amount of options.
You career is super interesting and diverse
Be modest — Remember there are probably lots of people knowing more than you in a specific field, don’t argue without double-googling.
Be modest 2 — sometimes a specialist is truly needed and the problem ahead is truly beyond your power. Learn to let go, and practice it!
By Josh on Design: Ideal OS: Rebooting the Desktop Operating System Experience