1751 – The Theresian Military Academy is founded in Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
The Theresian Military Academy (German: Theresianische Militärakademie, TherMilAk) is a military academy in Austria, where the Austrian Armed Forces train their officers. Founded in 1751, the academy is located in the castle of Wiener Neustadt in Lower Austria.
The Theresian Military Academy (known as the Theresianum) is one of the oldest military academies in the world (the oldest is the Military Academy of Modena). It was founded on 14 December 1751 by Maria Theresa of Austria, who gave the first commander of the Academy, Fieldmarshal Leopold Josef Graf Daun (Count Daun), the order Mach er mir tüchtige Officier und rechtschaffene Männer daraus (“Make me hard working officers and honest men”).
Per year, the Academy accepted 100 noblemen and 100 commoners to start their education there. In 1771, Fieldmarshal Lieutenant Hannig published the official studying plan, and in 1775, Maria Theresa published the Academy Rules. At this time, it took 11 years to complete the Academy, but step by step, it was shortened to 3 years.
The Styrian Prince Erzherzog Johann (Archduke John) was the principal headmaster of the academy for 44 years (1805–1849).
During the First Republic (1918–1938), the academy was located in Enns until 1934, and then again in the castle of Wiener Neustadt. A very remarkable event in the time between Austrofascism and the Anschluss (Occupation of Austria by Nazi Germany) was that Lieutenant General Rudolf Towarek (Commander of the TherMilAk between 1933 and 1938) prevented the Wehrmacht from entering the castle for several days. This was the only military resistance made by Austrians against the occupation by Nazi Germany. GenLt Towarek wasn’t punished for this action; he was, however, retired while retaining the right to wear the Austrian uniform after his retirement, which was highly unusual in those days.
After the Anschluss, the Wehrmacht installed a war school for non-commissioned officers at the castle of Wiener Neustadt. The first commander of this school was Erwin Rommel. At this time, the Germans erected a new building next to the castle, which is now known as Fort Daun, in which the Military High School of Austria is located.
After World War II and the Austrian State Treaty which was signed in 1955, the demolished castle was rebuilt. In 1958, the military academy was again located in Wiener Neustadt after a short intermezzo (1955–1958) in Enns.
The TherMilAk today
The current Commanding Officer – CO (German: Kommandant – Kdt) of the TherMilAk is Brigadier Mag. Gerhard Herke.
From 1997-2008, the TherMilAk was a 4-year college which could also be attended by civilian students and finished with a master’s degree in military leadership. In 2008, it was changed into a 3-year curriculum, graduating with a bachelor’s degree. In 2003, the first four women completed the academy. Since 1959, more than 3,600 young officers have been educated at the Theresian Military Academy.
1851 – Mary Tappan Wright, American novelist and short story writer (d. 1916)
Mary Tappan Wright (1851–1916) was an American novelist and short story writer best known for her acute characterizations and depictions of academic life. She was the wife of classical scholar John Henry Wright and the mother of legal scholar and utopian novelist Austin Tappan Wright and geographer John Kirtland Wright.
Life and family
Wright was born Mary Tappan December 14, 1851, in Steubenville, Ohio, or December 18 of the same year, the daughter of Eli Todd Tappan, president of Kenyon College, and Lydia (McDowell) Tappan. She was educated at Auburn Young Ladies’ Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio. She married, April 2, 1878, John Henry Wright, then an associate professor of Greek at Dartmouth College and later professor of classical philology and dean of the Collegiate Board of Johns Hopkins University, professor of Greek at Harvard University, and dean of Harvard’s Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The couple had three children, Elizabeth Tappan Wright (who died young), Austin Tappan Wright, and John Kirtland Wright. They lived successively in Hanover, New Hampshire, Baltimore, Maryland and Cambridge, Massachusetts, aside from one period during which John was a professor at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, when they resided in Greece. Wright was a founding member of the Boston Authors Club in 1900. Her husband died November 25, 1908, and she herself died August 25, 1916 in Cambridge. She was survived by her two sons.
Wright and her husband are said to have “worked together on their literary activities.” Wright’s first known published story was “How They Cured Him,” which appeared in The Youth’s Companion (March 24, 1887), one of several written for that periodical. Some of the Youth’s Companion tales form a loose series centering on holidays and featuring recurring characters; some of the early Dulwich tales were also published in that magazine. However, Wright’s tales for Scribner’s Magazine, beginning with “As Haggards of the Rock” (May 1890), attracted more notice, and the initial six of them, including also “A Truce,” “A Portion of the Tempest,” “From Macedonia,” “Deep as First Love,” and “A Fragment of a Play, With a Chorus,” were collected in her first book, A Truce, and Other Stories (1895). None of her other short stories were gathered into book form in her lifetime.
Much of her fiction dealt with American university life, often set in the fictional college town she called Dulwich in her short stories and The Test, and Great Dulwich in her other novels, which combines elements of both Kenyon College and Harvard University. Her novels are all set in college towns, the third and fourth in Dulwich itself (the first and second also mention it peripherally). Her first novel, Aliens (1902), attracted much attention when it appeared for its portrait of contemporary northerners in the racially tense Southern town of Tallawara. The next, The Test (1904), the story of a wronged young woman, received mixed reviews for what some perceived as its unpleasant subject matter and unsympathetic characters, though it was generally praised as well written. The Tower (1906) was described as “a love story placed against the life of a college community taken from the faculty side and told with deep understanding and the most delicate art” and The Charioteers (1912) as “a story of the social life and environment of college professors and their families.”
Wright’s first four books were published by Charles Scribner’s Sons, the fifth being issued by D. Appleton & Company after having been rejected by the Houghton Mifflin Company. Close to half of her short pieces appeared in Scribner’s Magazine; others appeared in The Youth’s Companion, Christian Union and its successor The Outlook, The Independent, Harper’s Magazine, Harper’s Weekly, and an anthology of works by various authors. She also contributed a book review to the North American Review.
All of Wright’s novels are currently available in e-editions on Book Search. Aliens was reprinted by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, in June, 2007; The Tower was reprinted by Kessinger in December, 2008. Wright’s previously uncollected short stories were issued in new collections by Fleabonnet Press from December, 2007-November 2008.
In her writing Wright was praised as having “a keen sense of humor, good descriptive powers, a good working knowledge of human nature, an effective style” and the ability to “tell a story well.” Her skill at characterization was also noted.
Wright’s papers, including correspondence and original manuscripts and fragments, are found in various archival collections at the Harvard University Library and the Houghton Library at Harvard College. An early commonplace book from 1870–77, containing mostly poetry, is in the Stone-Wright family papers at the Massachusetts Historical Society.
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