On This Day
1759 – Arthur Guinness signs a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum and starts brewing Guinness.
Guinness (/ˈɡɪnɪs/) is a dark Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James’s Gate, Dublin, Ireland, in 1759. It is one of the most successful beer brands worldwide, brewed in almost 50 countries, and available in over 120. Sales in 2011 amounted to 850 million litres (220,000,000 US gal). It is popular with the Irish, both in Ireland and abroad. In spite of declining consumption since 2001, it is still the best-selling alcoholic drink in Ireland where Guinness & Co. Brewery makes almost €2 billion worth of beer annually.
The Guinness Storehouse is a tourist attraction at St. James’s Gate Brewery in Dublin, Ireland. Since opening in 2000, it has received over 20 million visitors.
Guinness’s flavour derives from malted barley and roasted unmalted barley, a relatively modern development, not becoming part of the grist until the mid-20th century. For many years, a portion of aged brew was blended with freshly brewed beer to give a sharp lactic acid flavour. Although Guinness’s palate still features a characteristic “tang”, the company has refused to confirm whether this type of blending still occurs. The draught beer’s thick, creamy head comes from mixing the beer with nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
The company moved its headquarters to London at the beginning of the Anglo-Irish Trade War in 1932. In 1997, Guinness Plc merged with Grand Metropolitan to form the British multinational alcoholic-drinks producer Diageo plc, based in London.
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Born On This Day
1914 – Mary Logan Reddick, American neuroembryologist (d. 1966)
Mary Logan Reddick (31 December 1914 – 1 October 1966) was a neuroembryologist who earned her PhD from Radcliffe College, Harvard University in 1944. She was a full professor, first at Morehouse College, and then at the University of Atlanta from 1953 to her death. Her doctoral dissertation was on the study of chick embryos, and she went on to do research with time-lapse microscopy (then called motion picture microphotography) in tissue cultures.
In 1952, Reddick received a Ford science fellowship to study at Cambridge University. Reddick was possibly the first African-American woman scientist to receive this fellowship for study abroad, and she was the first female biology instructor at Morehouse College.
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