On This Day
The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, between Charles the Simple (King Charles III of France) and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, was signed in autumn 911. The treaty permitted the Normans to settle in Neustria in return for their protection of Charles’ kingdom from any new invasion by the “northmen”. No written records survive concerning the creation of the Duchy of Normandy.
In 911, a group of Vikings led by Rollo attacked Paris before laying siege to Chartres. Appeals for help from the Bishop of Chartres, Joseaume, were answered by Robert, Marquis of Neustria, Richard, Duke of Burgundy and Manasses, Count of Dijon. On 20 July 911, at the Battle of Chartres, they defeated Rollo despite the absence of many French barons and of Charles the Simple. After the Frankish victory near Chartres on 26 August, Charles decided to negotiate with Rollo.[clarification needed] The talks, led by Hervé, the Archbishop of Reims, resulted in the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. The treaty granted Rollo and his soldiers all the land between the river Epte and the sea “in freehold and good money”. In addition, it granted him Brittany “for his livelihood”[clarification needed]. At the time, Brittany was an independent country which France had unsuccessfully tried to conquer. In exchange, Rollo guaranteed the king his loyalty, which involved military assistance for the protection of the kingdom. As a token of his goodwill, Rollo also agreed to be baptised and to marry Gisela, a presumed legitimate daughter of Charles.
The territory covered by the treaty corresponds to the northern part of today’s Upper Normandy down to the Seine, but the territory of the Vikings would eventually extend west beyond the Seine to form the Duchy of Normandy, so named because of the Norsemen who ruled it.
The treaty was entered into[clarification needed] after the death of Alan I, King of Brittany and while another group of Vikings occupied Brittany. Around 937, Alan I’s son Alan II returned from England to expel those Vikings from Brittany in a war that was concluded in 939. During this period the Cotentin Peninsula was lost by Brittany and gained by Normandy.
Born On This Day
Mortimer Maxwell Caplin (born July 11, 1916) is an American lawyer and educator, and the founding member of Caplin & Drysdale, Chartered. Born in New York City, Caplin holds a B.S. degree, Phi Beta Kappa, from the University of Virginia, where he is also a member of the school’s prestigious Raven Society. He is an Order of the Coif graduate of the University of Virginia Law School, where he earned his LL.B. degree. Caplin also achieved a Doctor of Juridical Science from New York University, and several honorary doctorate in law degrees (LL.D.) from Washington College, the University of South Carolina, and Saint Michael’s College.
First in his class at the University of Virginia School of Law, and Editor-in-Chief of Virginia Law Review, Caplin served as a law clerk to U.S. Circuit Judge Armistead M. Dobie. He then practiced law in New York City from 1941 to 1950, with time out for military service in the United States Navy. During the invasion of Normandy, he served as U.S. Navy beachmaster, cited as member of initial landing force on Omaha Beach and the recipient of the French Legion of Honor.
In 1950, Caplin returned to UVA as professor of law, specializing in tax and corporate law and publishing extensively in these fields. He also served as adjunct professor of law at The George Washington University Law School from 1965 to 1966 and at the University of Miami School of Law from 1967 to 1970. Additionally, Caplin engaged in practice as counsel to a Virginia law firm. He turned 100 in July 2016.
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