On This Day
315 – The Arch of Constantine is completed near the Colosseum in Rome to commemorate Constantine I’s victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge.
The Arch of Constantine (Italian: Arco di Costantino) is a triumphal arch in Rome dedicated to the emperor Constantine the Great. The arch was commissioned by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine’s victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in AD 312. Situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill, the arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the route taken by victorious military leaders when they entered the city in a triumphal procession. [a] Dedicated in 315, it is the largest Roman triumphal arch, with overall dimensions of 21 m (69 ft) high, 25.9 m (85 ft) wide and 7.4 m (24 ft) deep. It has three bays, the central one being 11.5 m (38 ft) high and 6.5 m (21 ft) wide and the laterals 7.4 m (24 ft) by 3.4 m (11 ft) each. The arch is constructed of brick-faced concrete covered in marble.
The three bay design with detached columns was first used for the Arch of Septimius Severus in the Roman Forum (which stands at the end of the triumph route) and repeated in several other arches now lost.
Though dedicated to Constantine, much of the sculptural decoration consists of reliefs and statues removed from earlier triumphal monuments dedicated to Trajan (98–117), Hadrian (117–138) and Marcus Aurelius (161–180).
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657 – First Fitna: In the Battle of Siffin, troops led by Ali ibn Abu Talib clash with those led by Muawiyah I.
The First Fitna (Arabic: فتنة مقتل عثمان, romanized: fitnat maqtal ʻUthmān, lit. ’strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman’) was the first civil war in the Islamic community which led to the overthrow of the Rashidun Caliphate and the establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate. The civil war involved three main battles between the fourth Rashidun caliph, Ali, and the rebel groups.
The roots of the first civil war can be traced back to the assassination of the second caliph, Umar. Before he died from his wounds, Umar formed a six-member council, which ultimately elected Uthman as the next caliph. During the final years of Uthman’s caliphate, he was accused of nepotism and eventually killed by rebels in 656. After Uthman’s assassination, Ali was elected the fourth caliph. Aisha, Talha, and Zubayr revolted against Ali to depose him. The two parties fought the Battle of the Camel in December 656, in which Ali emerged victorious. Afterwards, Mu’awiya, the incumbent governor of Syria, declared war on Ali ostensibly to avenge Uthman’s death. The two parties fought the Battle of Siffin in July 657. This battle ended in stalemate and a call for arbitration, which was resented by the Kharijites, who declared Ali, Mu’awiya, and their followers as infidels. Following the Kharijites’ violence against civilians, Ali’s forces crushed them in the Battle of Nahrawan. Soon after, Mu’awiya also seized control of Egypt with the aid of Amr ibn al-As.
In 661, Ali was assassinated by the Kharijite Abd al-Rahman ibn Muljam. After Ali’s death, his heir, Hasan, was elected caliph and soon after attacked by Mu’awiya. The embattled Hasan concluded a peace treaty, acknowledging the rule of Mu’awiya. The latter founded the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled as its first caliph.
Born On This Day
975 – Thietmar, bishop of Merseburg (d. 1018)
Thietmar (also Dietmar or Dithmar; 25 July 975 – 1 December 1018), Prince-Bishop of Merseburg from 1009 until his death, was an important chronicler recording the reigns of German kings and Holy Roman Emperors of the Ottonian (Saxon) dynasty. Two of Thietmar’s great-grandfathers, both referred to as Liuthar, were the Saxon nobles Lothar II, Count of Stade, and Lothar I, Count of Walbeck. They were both killed fighting the Slavs at the Battle of Lenzen.
Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Worcester and Warwick, LG (26 July 1400 – 27 December 1439) was the posthumous daughter and eventually the sole heiress of Thomas le Despenser, 1st Earl of Gloucester (murdered 13 January 1400) by his wife, Constance of York, daughter of Edmund of Langley (son of King Edward III of England). She was born six months after her father had been beheaded for plotting against King Henry IV of England (1399–1413).
Marriages and children
Isabel married twice, successively to two identically named first-cousins, grandsons of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick:
Firstly to Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester (1394–1422) who died at the Siege of Meaux. They had one daughter:
Elizabeth de Beauchamp, born 1415, who married Edward Neville, 1st Baron Bergavenny (died 1476), and had children.
Secondly to Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick (1382–1439), her 1st husband’s first-cousin from a senior Beauchamp line, by whom she had two children:
Henry de Beauchamp (1425–1446), who succeeded his father as 14th Earl of Warwick, and later was created 1st Duke of Warwick. He married Cecily Neville, daughter of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and had by her one daughter Anne Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick who died as a child.
Anne de Beauchamp, who became 16th Countess of Warwick, following the deaths of her brother and his infant daughter. Anne married Richard Neville, the Kingmaker, eldest son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and who became jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick. Her husband therefore was the brother of her own brother’s wife. They had two daughters who married at the highest level: Isabel Neville (1451–1476), who married George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence (1449–1478), and Anne Neville (1456–1485), who married firstly Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, and secondly King Richard III (1483–1485).
NASA: Astronomy Picture of the Day
Tony Lee Dow (born April 13, 1945) is an American television actor, film producer, director, and sculptor. He is best known for his role in the television sitcom Leave It to Beaver, which ran in primetime from 1957 to 1963. Dow played Wally Cleaver, the older son of June (played by Barbara Billingsley) and Ward (played by Hugh Beaumont) Cleaver, and the older brother of Theodore “Beaver” Cleaver (played by Jerry Mathers). From 1983 to 1989, Dow reprised his role as Wally in a television movie and in The New Leave It to Beaver.
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By Sara Georgini, Smithsonian Magazine: How John Adams Managed a Peaceful Transition of Presidential Power In the election of 1800, for the first time in U.S. history, one party turned the executive office to another.
By Ernie Smith, Tedium: Surf Like A Shark That time the company behind the GameShark cheating device came up with a dial-up online service for the Nintendo 64. SharkWire strangely targeted 7-year-olds.
Rare Historical Photos: Amazing old photos that capture the everyday life in New York City in the 1940s
Rare Historical Photos: Through the Grand Canyon in a Metz 22 Speedster, 1914
The Rural Blog: Rural areas need broadband to lure remote workers, but lousy federal connectivity maps may hinder buildout
By Tian Lim VP, Google Play: 10 favorite moments from a decade of Google Play
Klondike discontinues Choco Taco after nearly 4 decades on the market Klondike said it’s working to find a way to bring its beloved ChocBy Landon Mion, FOXBusiness: Taco treat back to ice cream trucks in the future
By Simon Hill, Wired: How to Digitize Old Photos With Your Phone Bring memories back to life by taking your old pictures into the future. We tested three popular photo scanning apps against a scanner.
By In The Kitchen With Matt: Cinnamon Sugar Tortilla Chips
I Wash You Dry: Chicken Bacon Ranch Wraps
Easy Cheesy Vegetarian: Roasted Vegetable Enchilada Casserole
By Marian Blazes, The Spruce Eats: Arepas de Choclo (Sweet Corn Cakes With Cheese)
By Spruce Eats Staff: 31 Meatless Dinner Ideas the Family Will Love Whether it’s Meatless Monday or Seitan Saturday, we got you covered
By Makinze Gore, Delish: Cinnamon Roll Poke Cake Recipe Everything you love about cinnamon rolls, in a cake.
Just the Recipe: Paste the URL to any recipe, click submit, and it’ll return literally JUST the recipe- no ads, no life story of the writer, no nothing EXCEPT the recipe.
Book Blogs & Websites:
Stump the Bookseller is a service offered by Loganberry Books to reconnect people to the books they love but can’t quite remember. In brief (for more detailed information see our About page), people can post their memories here, and the hivemind goes to work. After all, the collective mind of bibliophiles, readers, parents and librarians around the world is much better than just a few of us thinking. Together with these wonderful Stumper Magicians, we have a nearly 50% success rate in finding these long lost but treasured books. The more concrete the book description, the better the success rate, of course. It is a labor of love to keep it going, and there is a modest fee. Please see the How To page to find price information and details on how to submit your Book Stumper and payment.
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