On This Day
1956 – A joint resolution of the U.S. Congress is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorizing In God We Trust as the U.S. national motto.
“In God We Trust”, also written as “In God we trust”, is the official motto of the United States of America and of the U.S. state of Florida. It was adopted by the U.S. Congress in 1956, supplanting E pluribus unum, in use since the initial 1776 design of the Great Seal of the United States.
The capitalized form “IN GOD WE TRUST” first appeared on the two-cent piece in 1864 and has appeared on paper currency since 1957. A law passed in a Joint Resolution by the 84th Congress (P.L 84–140) and approved by President Dwight Eisenhower on July 30, 1956, requires that “In God We Trust” appear on American currency. The following year, the phrase was used on paper money for the first time—on the updated one-dollar silver certificate that entered circulation on October 1, 1957. The 84th Congress later passed legislation (P.L. 84–851), also signed by President Eisenhower on July 30, 1956, declaring the phrase to be the national motto.
Some groups and people have objected to its use, contending that its religious reference violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. These groups believe the phrase should be removed from currency and public property. In lawsuits, this argument has not overcome the interpretational doctrine of accommodationism, which allows government to endorse religious establishments as long as they are all treated equally. According to a 2003 joint poll by USA Today, CNN, and Gallup, 90% of Americans support the inscription “In God We Trust” on U.S. coins.
In 2006, “In God We Trust” was designated as the motto of the U.S. state of Florida.
The Spanish equivalent of “In God We Trust”, En Dios Confiamos, is the motto of the Republic of Nicaragua. The heraldic motto of Brighton, England is the Latin equivalent, In Deo Fidemus.
Born On This Day
1926 – Betye Saar, American artist
Betye Irene Saar (born July 30, 1926 in Los Angeles, California) is an African-American artist known for her work in the medium of assemblage. Saar has been called “a legend” in the world of contemporary art. She is a visual storyteller and an accomplished printmaker. Saar was a part of the Black Arts Movement in the 1970s, which engaged myths and stereotypes about race and femininity. Her work is considered highly political, as she challenged negative ideas about African-Americans throughout her career; Betye Saar is best known for her art work that critiques American racism toward blacks. She is represented by Los Angeles based gallery Roberts Projects.
Herman Cain (December 13, 1945 – July 30, 2020) was an American business executive, syndicated columnist, and Tea Party activist. Cain grew up in Georgia and graduated from Morehouse College with a bachelor’s degree in mathematics. He then graduated with a master’s degree in computer science at Purdue University, while also working full-time for the U.S. Department of the Navy. In 1977, he joined the Pillsbury Company where he later became vice president. During the 1980s, Cain’s success as a business executive at Burger King prompted Pillsbury to appoint him as chairman and CEO of Godfather’s Pizza, in which capacity he served from 1986 to 1996.
Cain was chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Omaha Branch from 1989 to 1991. He was deputy chairman, from 1992 to 1994, and then chairman until 1996, of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. In 1995, he was appointed to the Kemp Commission, and in 1996, he served as a senior economic adviser to Bob Dole’s presidential campaign. From 1996 to 1999, Cain served as president and CEO of the National Restaurant Association.
In May 2011, Cain announced his 2012 presidential candidacy. By the fall, his proposed 9–9–9 tax plan and debating performances had made him a serious contender for the Republican nomination. In November, however, his campaign faced allegations of sexual misconduct, denied by Cain. He announced suspension of his campaign on December 3. He remained involved in politics afterwards. In the 2020 election cycle, Cain was a co-chairman of Black Voices for Trump.
Cain died on July 30, 2020 from complications due to COVID-19.
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