FYI March 16, 2019

On This Day

 
 
1995 – Mississippi formally ratifies the Thirteenth Amendment, becoming the last state to approve the abolition of slavery. The Thirteenth Amendment was officially ratified in 1865.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865. The amendment was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War.

Since the American Revolution, states had divided into states that allowed or states that prohibited slavery. Slavery was implicitly permitted in the original Constitution through provisions such as Article I, Section 2, Clause 3, commonly known as the Three-Fifths Compromise, which detailed how each slave state’s enslaved population would be factored into its total population count for the purposes of apportioning seats in the United States House of Representatives and direct taxes among the states. Though many slaves had been declared free by President Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, their post-war status was uncertain. On April 8, 1864, the Senate passed an amendment to abolish slavery. After one unsuccessful vote and extensive legislative maneuvering by the Lincoln administration, the House followed suit on January 31, 1865. The measure was swiftly ratified by nearly all Northern states, along with a sufficient number of border states up to the death of Lincoln, but approval came with President Andrew Johnson, who encouraged the “reconstructed” Southern states of Alabama, North Carolina and Georgia to agree, which brought the count to 27 states, and caused it to be adopted before the end of 1865.

Though the amendment formally abolished slavery throughout the United States, factors such as Black Codes, white supremacist violence, and selective enforcement of statutes continued to subject some black Americans to involuntary labor, particularly in the South. In contrast to the other Reconstruction Amendments, the Thirteenth Amendment was rarely cited in later case law, but has been used to strike down peonage and some race-based discrimination as “badges and incidents of slavery.” The Thirteenth Amendment applies to the actions of private citizens, while the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments apply only to state actors. The Thirteenth Amendment also enables Congress to pass laws against sex trafficking and other modern forms of slavery.

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Born On This Day

 
 
1750 – Caroline Herschel, German-English astronomer (d. 1848)
Caroline Lucretia Herschel (/ˈhɜːrʃəl, ˈhɛər-/;[1] 16 March 1750 – 9 January 1848) was a German astronomer, whose most significant contributions to astronomy were the discoveries of several comets, including the periodic comet 35P/Herschel–Rigollet, which bears her name.[2] She was the younger sister of astronomer William Herschel, with whom she worked throughout her career.

She was the first woman to be awarded a Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1828), and to be named an Honorary Member of the Royal Astronomical Society (1835, with Mary Somerville). She was also named an honorary member of the Royal Irish Academy (1838). The King of Prussia presented her with a Gold Medal for Science on the occasion of her 96th birthday (1846).[3]

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FYI

 
 

By Jennifer Kelleher and Hillel Italie: W.S. Merwin, former U.S. poet laureate from Maui, dies at 91
 
 
 
 
SOURCE: AP news agency: New Zealand attack: Afghan man hailed as hero for chasing killer
 
 
 
 
By Stephen Clark: Delta 4 rocket launches Air Force’s 10th WGS broadband satellite
 
 
 
 
By Snejana Farberov For Dailymail.com: Hero pilot Sully of ‘Miracle on the Hudson’ fame slams ‘absurdly low’ number of training hours for Ethiopian Airlines pilots after deadly crash
 
 
 
 
Mentally ill or just a failure of humanity?
By Farnoush Amiri: Man accused of attacking brown pelican charged with animal cruelty The brown pelican is a species protected under the federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Florida state law.
 
 
 
 
Lit Hub Weekly: March 11 – 15, 2019
 
 
 
 
By Jan van IJken: An Extraordinary Time-Lapse Captures the Microscopic Development of a Single Cell into a Newt
 
 
 
 
Open Culture: An Animated Introduction to Friedrich Nietzsche’s Life & Thought
 
 
 
 
The Passive Voice: Golden Age of the Grift; Walmart Tipped to Take on Ipad with Its Own Android Tablet and more ->
 
 
 
 
By Sarah Grant: Joe Walsh, Ringo Starr and the Mission to Save 45 Million Addicted Americans The Eagles guitarist and Beatles drummer have a frank conversation about the fear, sacrifice and surrender required for getting sober
 
 
 
 
By Maren Estrada: This $38 wireless home camera has features you won’t even find on a $300 Nest camera
 
 
 
 

Ideas

By Hometalk Highlights: 30 Ways To Use Old Jeans For Brilliant Craft Ideas
 
 
By Best of Hometalk: Turn Wood Into Wonders by Making DIY Pallet Projects With Instructions
 
 


 
 

 
 

Recipes

 
 
Kitchn: 5 Simple (3-Ingredient) Meals Using Trader Joe’s Freezer Staples, The Grocery Store Section You’re Overlooking & More from Kitchn