On This Day
1829 – In the London Protocol, the three protecting powers (United Kingdom, France and Russia) establish the borders of Greece.
The London Protocol of 22 March 1829 was an agreement between the three Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia), which amended the first London Protocol on the creation of an internally autonomous, but tributary Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty.
As a result of the Greek War of Independence, which had begun in 1821, and the Great Powers’ intervention in the conflict in the Battle of Navarino (1827), the creation of some form of Greek state in southern Greece had become certain. In 1827, the Greek Third National Assembly entrusted the governance of the fledgling nation to Ioannis Kapodistrias, who arrived in Greece in January 1828. Alongside his efforts to lay the foundations for a modern state, Kapodistrias undertook negotiations with the Great Powers as to the extent and constitutional status of the new Greek state, especially during the Poros Conference of the Great Powers’ ambassadors in September 1828. In November 1828, disregarding the ambassadors’ recommendations, the Great Powers agreed on the first London Protocol, which created an autonomous Greek state encompassing the Peloponnese (Morea) and the Cyclades islands only.
On 22 March 1829, the British Foreign Minister, George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, and the envoys of France and Russia, Jules de Polignac and Christoph von Lieven, signed the second London Protocol, which largely accepted the recommendations of the Poros Conference. According to the protocol, Greece would become a separate state enjoying complete autonomy under the rule of a hereditary Christian prince to be selected by the Powers, but recognize the suzerainty of the Ottoman Sultan and pay an annual tribute of 1.5 million Turkish piastres. The borders of the new state would run along the line of the Gulf of Arta in the west to the Pagasetic Gulf in the east, thereby including the Peloponnese and Continental Greece, as well as the Cyclades, but neither Crete nor other Aegean islands like Samos which had played a major part in the War of Independence and were still under Greek control.
The Ottoman Empire was forced to acknowledge the protocol in the Treaty of Adrianople, which concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, but soon after this, the Powers began to turn towards complete independence for Greece, which was recognized in the London Protocol of 3 February 1830.
Born On This Day
1615 – Katherine Jones, Viscountess Ranelagh, British scientist (d. 1691)
Katherine Jones, Viscountess Ranelagh (22 March 1615 – 3 December 1691), also known as Lady Ranelagh, was an Anglo-Irish scientist in seventeenth-century Britain. She was also a political and religious philosopher, and a member of many intellectual circles including the Hartlib Circle, the Great Tew Circle, and the Invisible College. Her correspondents included Samuel Hartlib, Edward Hyde, William Laud (the Archbishop of Canterbury), Thomas Hyde, and John Milton. She was the sister of Robert Boyle and is thought to have been a great influence on his work in chemistry. In her own right she was a political and social figure closely connected to the Hartlib Circle. Lady Ranelagh held a London salon during the 1650s, much frequented by virtuosi associated with Hartlib.
Very interesting and informative. Do you know anyone who served in this talented group?
Just A Car Guy: the Hormel Girls, an all-female, military-style drum and bugle corps of musicians who had served in the war, paid to promote Hormel products, because Hormel needed to market wartime, tinned food to a peacetime audience, in contrast to the 90% of Hormel’s inventory that was shipped overseas by the end of WW2, as food for American troops and allies. Thanks Steve!
Later they learned that one judge had marked the women last place for general effect. But the music judge singled them out for praise: “It was music that no other corps could match. Spamettes didn’t blast, they brought forth tones that practiced ears will not forget for a long time.”
The disappointment subsided as Hormel and his entire family met with the women at the academy following their performance, where he told them he wanted to do it again the next summer and hoped that all would come back to try again in Miami. Before leaving, he had the women line up so he could shake hands with each one and give her a hundred dollar bill even though they had not made the finals.
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