On This Day
996 – Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk, Bishop of Freising, which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi (Austria in Old High German).
The German name of Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German word Ostarrîchi “eastern realm”, recorded in the so-called Ostarrîchi Document of 996, applied to the Margraviate of Austria, a march, or borderland, of the Duchy of Bavaria created in 976. The name is seemingly comparable to Austrasia, the early middle age term for the “eastern lands” of Francia, as known from the written records.
The Old High German name parallels the Middle Latin name Marchia Orientalis (“eastern borderland”), alternatively called Marchia austriaca. The shorter Latinized name Austria is first recorded in the 12th century. It has occasionally led to confusion, because, while it renders the Germanic word for “east” it is reminiscent of the native Latin term for “south”, auster.
In the 12th century, the Margraviate was elevated to the status of duchy, in 1453 to archduchy and from 1804 claiming imperial status, all the time retaining both the name Österreich and the Latin name Austria.
Ostmark, a translation of Marchia Orientalis into Standard German, was used officially from 1938, when the country was incorporated into the German Reich, until 1945.
The contemporary state was created in 1955, with the Austrian State Treaty, and is officially called the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich).
619 – A qaghan of the Western Turkic Khaganate is assassinated in a Chinese palace by Eastern Turkic rivals after the approval of Tang emperor Gaozu.
The Tang campaigns against the Western Turks, known as the Western Tujue in Chinese sources, were a series of military campaigns conducted by the Tang dynasty against the Western Turkic Khaganate in the 7th century AD. Early military conflicts were a result of the Tang interventions in the rivalry between the Western and Eastern Turks in order to weaken both. Under Emperor Taizong, campaigns were dispatched in the Western Regions against Gaochang in 640, Karasahr in 644 and 648, and Kucha in 648.
The wars against the Western Turks continued under Emperor Gaozong, and the khaganate was annexed after General Su Dingfang’s defeat of Qaghan Ashina Helu in 657. The Western Turks attempted to capture the Tarim Basin in 670 and 677, but were repelled by the Tang. The Second Turkic Empire defeated the fragmented Western Turks in 712, and absorbed the tribes into the new empire.
The areas controlled by Tang Empire came under the dynasty’s cultural influences and the Turkic influence of the ethnically Turkic Tang soldiers stationed in the region. Indo-European prevalence in Central Asia declined as the expeditions accelerated Turkic migration into what is now Xinjiang. By the end of the 657 campaign, the Tang had reached its largest extent. The Turks, Tibetans, Muslim Arabs and the Tang competed for control over Central Asia until the collapse of the Tang in the 10th century.
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Born On This Day
846 – Louis the Stammerer, Frankish king (d. 879)
Louis II, known as Louis the Stammerer (French: Louis le Bègue; 1 November 846 – 10 April 879), was the king of Aquitaine and later the king of West Francia. He was the eldest son of Emperor Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. Louis the Stammerer was physically weak and outlived his father by a year and a half.
He succeeded his younger brother Charles the Child as the ruler of Aquitaine in 866 and his father in West Francia in 877, but he was never crowned emperor.
Louis was crowned king on 8 October 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, at Compiegne and was crowned a second time in August 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may have even offered him the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis had relatively little impact on politics. He was described “a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion”. In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Girona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the invading Vikings, but he fell ill and died on 9 April or 10 April 879, not long after beginning this final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman II and Louis III of France.
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682 – Umar II, Arabian caliph (d. 720)
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (Arabic: عمر بن عبد العزيز, romanized: ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz; 2 November 680 – c. 5 February 720), commonly known as Umar II (عمر الثاني), was the eighth Umayyad caliph. He made various significant contributions and reforms to the society, and he has been described as “the most pious and devout” of the Umayyad rulers and was often called the first Mujaddid and sixth righteous caliph of Islam.
He was also a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd al-Malik’s younger brother, Abd al-Aziz. He was also a matrilineal great-grandson of the second caliph, Umar ibn Al-Khattab.
Surrounded with great scholars, he is credited with having ordered the first official collection of Hadiths and encouraged education to everyone. He also sent out emissaries to China and Tibet, inviting their rulers to accept Islam. At the same time, he remained tolerant with non-Muslim citizens. According to Nazeer Ahmed, it was during the time of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz that the Islamic faith took roots and was accepted by huge segments of the population of Persia and Egypt.
Militarily, Umar is sometimes deemed a pacifist, since he ordered the withdrawal of the Muslim army in places such as Constantinople, Central Asia and Septimania despite being a good military leader. However, under his rule the Umayyads conquered many territories from the Christian kingdoms in Spain.
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By Rachel Treisman, NPR: Martin Luther King Jr. paid the bill for Julia Roberts’ birth. Here’s the backstory
By Nafeesah Allen, Huff Post: How To Locate Your iPhone, Even If It’s Turned Off Misplacing or losing your iPhone is the worst, but there are ways to find it even when the power’s off.
Ernie Smith, Tedium: Keeping You On Your Zs and Qs From the standards bodies to the FDA to the airwaves, the weird processes that go into naming prescription drugs—and why so many use reltively obscure letters, like Z and X.
Ernie Smith, Tedium: The Social Circle The completed purchase of Twitter by Elon Musk reflects a symbolic victory for those who saw its power as a tool of influence, rather than for communication.
Ernie Smith, Tedium: Slot Wars The battle to replace the standard expansion slot in the IBM PC reflected an effort by two sides of the PC world to gain control. Spoiler: The clone-makers won.
Ernie Smith, Tedium: More Thoughts About Dongles In honor of the new terrible dongle that Apple just released, let’s talk about dongles some more—including who came up with the term.
By Janna Karel, Eater: Inside Bacon Nation, Where the BLT Uses Bacon as Bread and Bread as Bacon This new restaurant features a menu with all things bacon.
Most Actor & Actress Famous: Ken Curtis Takes his Life after a Painful and Tragic Secret Compromise
Ken Curtis (born Curtis Wain Gates; July 2, 1916 – April 28, 1991) was an American singer and actor best known for his role as Festus Haggen on the CBS western television series Gunsmoke. Although he appeared on Gunsmoke earlier in other roles, he was first cast as Festus in season 8 episode 13, December 8, 1962 “Us Haggens.” His next appearance was Season 9, episode 2, October 5, 1963 as Kyle Kelly, in “Lover Boy.” Curtis joined the cast of Gunsmoke permanently as Festus in “Prairie Wolfer,” season 9 episode 16, January 18, 1964; though this fact is often confused with a 1969 episode of the same name (“Prairie Wolfer”) made five years later (S13E10).
By Dishplay_it with Myriam: Patatas Bravas With Romesco Sauce
By bryans workshop: Pumpkin Pizza With Pumpkin Chicken Meatballs!
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