FYI November 07, 2019

On This Day

921 – Treaty of Bonn: The Frankish kings Charles the Simple and Henry the Fowler sign a peace treaty or ‘pact of friendship’ (amicitia), to recognize their borders along the Rhine.
On 7 November 921, the Treaty of Bonn, which called itself a “pact of friendship” (amicitia), was signed between Charles III of France and Henry I of Germany in a minimalist ceremony aboard a ship in the middle of the Rhine not far from Bonn.[1][2] The use of the river, which was the border between their two kingdoms, as a neutral territory had extensive Carolingian precedents and was also used in classical antiquity and in contemporary Anglo-Saxon England.[3]

The treaty, which “more than most such amicitiae, was decidedly bilateral, reciprocal and equal”, recognised the border of the two realms and the authority of their respective kings.[4] It confirmed the legitimacy of Henry’s election by the German princes and of Charles’s rule over Lotharingia through the election by its princes. In the treaty, Henry is titled rex Francorum orientalium (King of the East Franks) and Charles rex Francorum occidentalium (King of the West Franks) in recognition of the division it made of the former Frankish Empire.[2] Charles and his bishops and counts signed first, both because he had been king longer and because he was of Carolingian stock.[1]

The treaty was ineffective. In January or early February 923, Henry made a pact of amicitia with the usurper Robert I against Charles, who subsequently sent a legate to Henry with the relic of the hand of Dionysius the Areopagite, sheathed in gold and studded in gems, “as a sign of faith and truth [and] a pledge of perpetual union and mutual love” in the words of Widukind of Corvey.[5] Charles probably intended to recall Henry to the terms of the treaty of Bonn and draw him away from Robert.[6] In June 923, Charles was captured at the Battle of Soissons and lost his kingdom. By 925, Henry had annexed Lotharingia.

The earliest edition of the treaty of Bonn was published by Heribert Rosweyde, followed by another from Jacques Sirmond (1623). Later, for the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, it was edited by Georg Pertz, but the definitive edition came out later in that series:

Ludwig Weiland, ed. Constitutiones et acta publica imperatorum et regum inde ab anno DCCCXI usque ad annum MCXCVII (911–1197), MGH LL. Constitutiones 1 (Hanover: 1893), 1 – 2, no. 1.


Born On This Day

1900 – Nellie Campobello, Mexican writer who chronicled the Mexican Revolution (d. 1986)
Nellie (or Nelly) Francisca Ernestina Campobello Luna (November 7, 1900 – July 9, 1986) was a Mexican writer. She is notable for having written one of the few chronicles of the Mexican Revolution from a woman’s perspective: Cartucho, a book that chronicles her experience as a young girl in Northern Mexico at the height of the struggle between forces loyal to Pancho Villa and those who followed Venustiano Carranza. She moved to Mexico City in 1923, where she spent the rest of her life and associated with many of the most famous Mexican intellectuals and artists of the epoch. Like her half-sister Gloria, a well-known ballet dancer, she was also known as an enthusiastic dancer and choreographer; she was the director the Mexican National School of Dance.




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