FYI October 30 & 31, 2020

On This Day

1918 – World War I: The Ottoman Empire signs the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies.
The Armistice of Mudros (Turkish: Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS Agamemnon in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.[1]

As part of several conditions to the armistice, the Ottomans surrendered their remaining garrisons outside Anatolia, as well as granted the Allies the right to occupy forts controlling the Straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus; and the right to occupy the same “in case of disorder” any Ottoman territory in the event of a threat to their security. The Ottoman army including the Ottoman air force was demobilized, and all ports, railways, and other strategic points were made available for use by the Allies. In the Caucasus, the Ottomans had to retreat to within the pre-war borders between the Ottoman and the Russian Empires.

The armistice was followed by the occupation of Constantinople (Istanbul) and the subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920), which was signed in the aftermath of World War I, imposed harsh terms on the Ottoman Empire, but it was never ratified by the Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul. The Ottoman Parliament was officially disbanded by the Allies on 11 April 1920 due to the overwhelming opposition of the Turkish MPs to the provisions discussed in Sèvres. Afterward, the Turkish War of Independence was fought from 1919–1923. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey, established in Ankara on 23 April 1920 by Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his followers (including former MPs of the closed Ottoman Parliament), became the new de facto government of Turkey. The Armistice of Mudros was superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne, signed on 24 July 1923, following the Turkish victory in the War of Independence.


2011 – The global population of humans reaches seven billion. This day is now recognized by the United Nations as the Day of Seven Billion.
The Day of Seven Billion, October 31, 2011, is the day that has been officially designated by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) as the approximate day on which the world’s population reached seven billion people.[2] United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon spoke at the United Nations building in New York City on this new milestone in the size of world population and the issues that it will raise, along with promoting the UNFPA’s new program named 7 Billion Actions,[3] which will seek to “build global awareness around the opportunities and challenges associated with a world of seven billion people” and inspire individuals and organizations to take action.[4]


Born On This Day

1881 – Elizabeth Madox Roberts, American poet and author (d. 1941)
Elizabeth Madox Roberts (October 30, 1881 – March 13, 1941) was a Kentucky novelist and poet, primarily known for her novels and stories set in central Kentucky’s Washington County, including The Time of Man (1926), “My Heart and My Flesh,” The Great Meadow (1930) and A Buried Treasure (1931). All of her writings are characterized by her distinct, rhythmic prose. Robert Penn Warren called “The Time of Man” a classic; the eminent Southern critic and Southern Review editor, Lewis P. Simpson, counted her among the half dozen major Southern renascence writers. Three book-length studies of her work, three collections of critical articles, a major conference on her 100th birthday, a collection of her unpublished poems, and a flourishing Roberts Society that generates 20-odd papers at its annual April conferences have yet to revive wide interest in her work.


1849 – Marie Louise Andrews, American story writer and journalist (d. 1891)
Marie Louise Andrews (October 31, 1849 – February 7, 1891) was an American author and editor from Indiana. She was one of the founders of the Western Association of Writers, and served as its secretary from its organization until June 1888, when she retired. She wrote much in both verse and prose, but she never published her works in book form, and little of her work has been preserved.



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