On This Day
96 – Domitian, who has been conducting a reign of terror for the past three years, is assassinated as a result of a plot by his wife Domitia and two Praetorian prefects.
Domitian (/dəˈmɪʃən, -iən/; Latin: Domitianus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was a Roman emperor who reigned from 81 to 96. The son of Vespasian and the younger brother of Titus, his two predecessors on the throne, he was the last member of the Flavian dynasty. Described as “a ruthless but efficient autocrat”, his authoritarian style of ruling put him at sharp odds with the Senate, whose powers he drastically curtailed.
Domitian had a minor and largely ceremonial role during the reigns of his father and brother. After the death of his brother, Domitian was declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard. His 15-year reign was the longest since that of Tiberius.[b] As emperor, Domitian strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage, expanded the border defenses of the empire, and initiated a massive building program to restore the damaged city of Rome. Significant wars were fought in Britain, where his general Agricola attempted to conquer Caledonia (Scotland), and in Dacia, where Domitian was unable to procure a decisive victory against King Decebalus. Domitian’s government exhibited strong authoritarian characteristics. Religious, military, and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality, and by nominating himself perpetual censor, he sought to control public and private morals.
As a consequence, Domitian was popular with the people and the army, but considered a tyrant by members of the Roman Senate. Domitian’s reign came to an end in 96 when he was assassinated by court officials. He was succeeded the same day by his advisor Nerva. After his death, Domitian’s memory was condemned to oblivion by the Senate, while senatorial and equestrian authors such as Tacitus, Pliny the Younger, and Suetonius propagated the view of Domitian as a cruel and paranoid tyrant. Modern revisionists instead have characterized Domitian as a ruthless but efficient autocrat whose cultural, economic, and political programs provided the foundation of the peaceful second century.
85 – Nerva, suspected of complicity of the death of Domitian, is declared emperor by Senate. The Senate then annuls laws passed by Domitian and orders his statues to be destroyed.
Nerva (/ˈnɜːrvə/; originally Marcus Cocceius Nerva; 8 November 30 – 27 January 98) was Roman emperor from 96 to 98. Nerva became emperor when aged almost 66, after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Under Nero, he was a member of the imperial entourage and played a vital part in exposing the Pisonian conspiracy of 65. Later, as a loyalist to the Flavians, he attained consulships in 71 and 90 during the reigns of Vespasian and Domitian, respectively. On 18 September 96, Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy involving members of the Praetorian Guard and several of his freedmen. On the same day, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. As the new ruler of the Roman Empire, he vowed to restore liberties which had been curtailed during the autocratic government of Domitian.
Nerva’s brief reign was marred by financial difficulties and his inability to assert his authority over the Roman army. A revolt by the Praetorian Guard in October 97 essentially forced him to adopt an heir. After some deliberation Nerva adopted Trajan, a young and popular general, as his successor. After barely fifteen months in office, Nerva died of natural causes on 27 January 98. Upon his death he was succeeded and deified by Trajan. Although much of his life remains obscure, Nerva was considered a wise and moderate emperor by ancient historians. Nerva’s greatest success was his ability to ensure a peaceful transition of power after his death by selecting Trajan as his heir, thus founding the Nerva–Antonine dynasty.
1066 – At the Battle of Fulford, Harald Hardrada defeats earls Morcar and Edwin.
The Battle of Fulford was fought on the outskirts of the village of Fulford just south of York in England, on 20 September 1066, when King Harald III of Norway, also known as Harald Hardrada (“harðráði” in Old Norse, meaning “hard ruler”), and Tostig Godwinson, his English ally, fought and defeated the Northern Earls Edwin and Morcar.
Tostig was the English king Harold II’s banished brother. He had allied with King Harald of Norway and possibly Duke William of Normandy, but there is no record of the reasoning behind his invasions. The battle was a victory for the Viking army. The earls of York could have hidden behind the walls of their city but instead they met the Viking army across a river. All day the English desperately tried to break the Viking shield wall but to no avail.
Tostig was opposed by Earl Morcar who had displaced him as Earl of Northumbria.
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1217 – Livonian Crusade: The Estonian leader Lembitu and Livonian leader Kaupo the Accursed are killed in the Battle of St. Matthew’s Day.
The Livonian crusade refers to the various military Christianisation campaigns in medieval Livonia – in what is now Latvia and Estonia – during the Papal-sanctioned Northern Crusades in the 12–13th century. The Livonian crusade was conducted mostly by the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Denmark. It ended with the creation of Terra Mariana and the Danish duchy of Estonia. The lands on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea were one of the last parts of Europe to be Christianised.
On 2 February 1207, in the territories conquered, an ecclesiastical state called Terra Mariana was established as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire, and proclaimed by Pope Innocent III in 1215 as a subject of the Holy See. After the success of the crusade, the Teutonic- and Danish- occupied territory was divided into six feudal principalities by William of Modena.
Born On This Day
AD 53 – Trajan, Roman emperor (d. 117)
Trajan (/ˈtreɪdʒən/ TRAY-jən; Latin: Caesar Nerva Traianus; 18 September 53 – 9/11 August 117) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Officially declared optimus princeps (“best ruler”) by the senate, Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over one of the greatest military expansions in Roman history and led the empire to attain its greatest territorial extent by the time of his death. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace within the Empire and prosperity in the Mediterranean world.
Trajan was born in Italica, close to modern Seville in present-day Spain, a Roman city of Italic settlers in the province of Hispania Baetica. Although some ancient authors misleadingly claimed that Trajan was of provincial origins, his branch of the Ulpia gens, the Ulpi Traiani, originated in the Italian city of Todi in Umbria; they were either among the original settlers of Italica or part of the groups who later moved in the town, at any time between the third century BC and the first century AD. His father Marcus Ulpius Traianus, also born in Hispania, was a senator, and therefore Trajan was born into a senatorial family. Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a legatus legionis in Hispania Tarraconensis, in 89 Trajan supported Domitian against a revolt on the Rhine led by Antonius Saturninus. In September 96, Domitian was succeeded by the old and childless Nerva, who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, culminating in a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard, he decided to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died in 98 and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident.
As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left numerous enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum, Trajan’s Market and Trajan’s Column. Early in his reign, he annexed the Nabataean Kingdom, creating the province of Arabia Petraea. His conquest of Dacia enriched the empire greatly, as the new province possessed many valuable gold mines. Trajan’s war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia, Mesopotamia and (possibly) Assyria. In late 117, while sailing back to Rome, Trajan fell ill and died of a stroke in the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his cousin and successor, Hadrian, whom Trajan had supposedly adopted while on his deathbed. According to historical tradition, Trajan’s ashes were entombed in a small room beneath Trajan’s Column.
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AD 86 – Antoninus Pius, Roman emperor (d. 161)
Antoninus Pius (Latin: Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Pius; 19 September 86 – 7 March 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. He was the fourth of the Five Good Emperors from the Nerva–Antonine dynasty.
Born into a senatorial family, Antoninus held various offices during the reign of Emperor Hadrian. He married Hadrian’s niece Faustina, and Hadrian adopted him as his son and successor shortly before his death. Antoninus acquired the cognomen Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. His reign is notable for the peaceful state of the Empire, with no major revolts or military incursions during this time. A successful military campaign in southern Scotland early in his reign resulted in the construction of the Antonine Wall.
Antoninus was an effective administrator, leaving his successors a large surplus in the treasury, expanding free access to drinking water throughout the Empire, encouraging legal conformity, and facilitating the enfranchisement of freed slaves. He died of illness in 161 and was succeeded by his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as co-emperors.
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917 – Kyunyeo, Korean poet (d. 973)
Gyunyeo or Kyun Yeo (Korean: 균여; Hanja: 均如; 923–973) was a Korean Buddhist monk and poet. He came from the Hwangju Byeon clan. Among his works are “Songs of the Ten Vows Samantabhara.” These songs are set out in 1075 in the biography The Life of Kuehne. This is the first extant collection of poetry in Korean. He played an important role in the spread of the Hwaeom school of Buddhism.
In popular culture
Portrayed by Jung Seung-ho in the 2002–2003 KBS1 TV series The Dawn of the Empire.
580 – Pope Vitalian (d. 672)
Pope Vitalian (Latin: Vitalianus; died 27 January 672) was the bishop of Rome from 30 July 657 to his death. His pontificate was marked by the dispute between the papacy and the imperial government in Constantinople over Monothelitism, which Rome condemned. Vitalian tried to resolve the dispute and had a conciliatory relationship with Emperor Constans II, who visited him in Rome and gave him gifts. Vitalian’s pontificate also saw the secession of the Archbishopric of Ravenna from the papal authority.
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Bullets and Bandages: Bond of Brothers: New Revised Edition Kindle Edition
by Robert J. Saniscalchi (Author), Matt McAvoy (Editor) Format: Kindle Edition
5.0 out of 5 stars 9 ratings
Bullets and Bandages: Bond of Brothers is a storyinspired by the words of a US Army Field Medic and the stories about his tour in Vietnam 1968-69. Through those stories, the author was given the unique insight into the men who struggled to survive in a war many of us didn’t understand. The author also brings to us some of his own experiences, in this engrossing time in our history. Fast paced and full of action and drama, this raw and powerful story takes you on a journey into the jungles, villages and hamlets of Vietnam, and the men in the thick of the fight. The author dedicates this story and all of his work to our Veterans and those that serve to protect our freedom today.
By The Editors, Audobon: The Bird Migration Explorer Lets You Interact With Nature’s Most Amazing Feat With this revolutionary new tool, anyone can follow hundreds of species on their epic journeys and discover challenges they face along the way.
By Jesus Vidales, The Texas Tribune: Texas social media “censorship” law goes into effect after federal court lifts block The ruling Friday from the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals likely means the case, which could have wide implications for online speech, will go before the U.S. Supreme Court again.
Book Cave is a daily email of free and bargain priced ebooks. They also offer extremely interesting blog posts such as this one:
By Chloe Holiday: Deaf, not Dumb
To me, one of the best things about reading is being submerged in an unfamiliar world, learning new things, and experiencing situations that can help me relate to others. Since September is Deaf Awareness Month, and the International Week of Deaf People is 19–25 September, let’s chat about the evolution of the portrayal of deaf people in literature and what insights we can gain. There are over twenty million people in the US alone who are hard of hearing.
By Ann Kjellberg, The Observer: How Amazon Turned Everyone Into a Romance Writer (and Created an Antitrust Headache) The ongoing antitrust trial over the proposed Penguin Random House/Simon & Schuster merger has revealed how thoroughly digital publishing has transformed the lucrative romance novel industry.
By Joseph Bien-Kahn, SI: 8.5 Miles Per Hour, on a Road With No Limits. Ian Mackay was paralyzed 14 years ago in a bike accident, but he’s come to see there’s happiness in finding new ways to experience old loves. In his case, that meant getting back on the road, in a record-setting way.
Periscope Film: ” THE CASE FOR COMPUTERS ” 1980s IBM SYSTEM/36 PERSONAL COMPUTER BILLING SYSTEM XD13134
Periscope Film: “LET’S TALK TAPE” 1960s KODAK 1/4″ MAGNETIC SOUND RECORDING TAPE PROMO FILM TAPE RECORDER XD51634
Beast Reacts: Most Skilled Workers In The World!
September 18, National Cheeseburger day!
By Betty Crocker Kitchens: Ooey-Gooey Cheeseburger Dinners You’ll Want to Make Right Now
Russ Lee: The best burrito hack ever! (Facebook video)
Taste of Home: 30 Vintage Cakes Like Grandma Used To Make
Simple Living Alaska: How to Preserve Salmon | Brined, Smoked & Canned
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