On This Day
1237 – England and Scotland sign the Treaty of York, establishing the location of their common border.
The Treaty of York was an agreement between the kings Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland, signed at York on 25 September 1237, which affirmed that Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland were subject to English sovereignty. This established the Anglo-Scottish border in a form that remains almost unchanged to modern times (the only modifications have been regarding the Debatable Lands and Berwick-upon-Tweed). The treaty detailed the future status of several feudal properties and addressed other issues between the two kings, and historically marked the end of the Kingdom of Scotland’s attempts to extend its frontier southward.
The treaty was one of a number of agreements made in the ongoing relationship between the two kings. The papal legate Otho (also known as Oddone di Monferrato) was already in the Kingdom of England at Henry’s request, to attend a synod in London in November 1237. Otho was informed in advance by Henry of the September meeting at York, which he attended. This meeting was recorded by the contemporary chronicler Matthew Paris, who disparaged both Alexander and Otho. Paris’ untruthful allegations towards Alexander, portraying him as boorishly uncivil and aggressive, have been repeated uncritically in several historical accounts.[not verified in body]
Born On This Day
1908 – Jacqueline Audry, French director and screenwriter (d. 1977)
Jacqueline Audry (September 25, 1908 – June 22, 1977) was a French film director who began making films in post-World War II France and specialised in literary adaptations. She was the first commercially successful female director of post-war France.
Audry was born in Orange, Vaucluse, France. Because there were few opportunities for female directors during the Nazi occupation, Audry worked as an assistant to directors Jean Delannoy, G. W. Pabst and Max Ophüls and directed a short film of her own, Le Feu de paille (1943), with the help of the Centre Artistique et Technique des Jeunes du Cinéma (now La Femis). The end of World War II and the liberation of France provided increased opportunities for women, but they still faced prejudice in the film industry.
Audry’s first feature film was Les Malheurs de Sophie (1946). This was based on the popular novel of the same name by the Comtesse de Ségur. No copies of this film, which was censored for its “politically inappropriate” riot scenes, exist. Unable to raise funds for her next film, she had to wait a couple of years before making Sombre dimanche (1948). In the 1940s and 1950s, she directed three films based on Colette novels; Gigi (1949), Minne (1950) and Mitsou (1956), all three with actress Danièle Delorme. Mitsou, which featured sex outside of marriage, was heavily censored.
Audry directed The Pit of Loneliness (Olivia, 1951), based on Dorothy Bussy’s 1950 semi-autobiographical novel, Olivia. Set in an all-girls boarding school, The Pit of Loneliness depicts a lesbian love story between a schoolgirl and her headmistress. At the time, the film was very controversial and was censored in the United States and the United Kingdom. Edwige Feuillère was nominated for a BAFTA award for Best Foreign Actress for her part as Mlle. Julie, the headmistress. The film has been called a “landmark of lesbian representation”. She frequently collaborated with her sister, the novelist and screenwriter Colette Audry.
Audry’s film style was traditional and at odds with the French New Wave. Her films had a feminist slant however. Many of them had central female characters and they often gave a radical view of gender roles and female sexuality. Audry died in a road accident in Poissy, Yvelines, France.
The Misfortunes of Sophie (1946)
Sombre Dimanche [fr] (Gloomy Sunday) (1948)
Minne [fr] (1950)
Olivia (US title: The Pit of Loneliness) (1951)
The Blonde Gypsy (1953)
Huis clos (No Exit) (1954)
It’s All Adam’s Fault (1958)
School for Coquettes (1958)
Le Secret du chevalier d’Éon (1959)
Girl on the Road (1962)
Bitter Fruit (1967)
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