Music February 17, 2017

RED Friday





Long distance relationships songs



FYI Military, Medal Of Honor, February 17, 2017


(2008) Brian Williams: Jack Lucas, Youngest Medal of Honor recipient dies

Jacklyn Harold “Jack” Lucas (February 14, 1928 – June 5, 2008) was a United States Marine who later reenlisted in the United States Army and reached the Rank of Captain. He was awarded the Medal of Honor at age seventeen for heroism above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Private First Class in the Marine Corps during the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II.
During a close firefight in two trenches between Lucas and three Marines with eleven Japanese soldiers, Lucas saved the lives of the three Marines from two enemy hand grenades that were thrown into and lying in their trench by unhesitatingly placing himself on one grenade, while in the next instant pulling the other grenade under him. The grenade he covered with his body exploded, and wounded him only; the other grenade did not explode. He is the youngest Marine and the youngest serviceman in World War II to be awarded the United States’ highest military decoration for valor.[1]


Alejandro Villanueva, Captain US Army and Offensive Tackle For The Pittsburgh Steelers


Alejandro Villanueva, Captain US Army and Offensive Tackle For The Pittsburgh Steelers
After graduating from the United States Military Academy Villanueva was commissioned into the United States Army on May 22, 2010 as a second lieutenant in the Infantry.[5] Directly after being commissioned he attended various military schools, including the Infantry, Airborne and Ranger Schools; all located at Fort Benning, Georgia. After completing the three courses he was assigned to the 10th Mountain Division at Fort Drum, New York. It was with the 10th Mountain Division he deployed for the first time; for 12 months to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan as a rifle platoon leader.[5] As a result of his actions during this deployment he was awarded a Bronze Star Medal with “V” device for rescuing wounded soldiers while under enemy fire.[5] When he returned from his deployment, he was reassigned as a company executive officer.[5]
Villanueva volunteered for the 75th Ranger Regiment’s Ranger Orientation Program in 2013.[5] He was assigned to the 1st Ranger Battalion. His roles within the Battalion have included plans officer, platoon leader and company executive officer.[5]
He has deployed two more times to Afghanistan for a total of eight months between both deployments.[5]

907 Updates February 16, 2017

Michelle Theriault Boots: Alaska governor declares opioid abuse public health disaster


When is the least time the Legislature took a pay cut?   SB 91 is a disaster for victims.
Nathaniel Herz: Lawmaker: State cash better spent on prosecutors than on victim advocates



One bullet each.
Julia O’Malley: Accused sex trafficker targeted and terrorized Alaska Native teens, prosecutor says




Congratulations Laura Cole and Carlyle Watt!
Suzanna Caldwell: Chefs from 229 Parks, Fire Island bakery snag prestigious James Beard award nominations

Shorpy February 16, 2017

Knoxville, Tennessee, circa 1905. “Gay Street north from Wall Street.” Where close inspection will reveal subtle indications of a mid-summer clearance at T. Tobias & Son. 8×10 inch glass negative, Detroit Publishing Company.


The West Coast has the sunshine And the girls all get so tanned …
Huntington Beach, California. “Bathing Beauty Pageant, 1925.” Three-panel gelatin silver print by Miles F. Weaver (1879-1932).


Among the first Cadillacs to have brakes on all four wheels.
San Francisco circa 1925. “Cadillac V63 five-passenger sedan at Lafayette Park.” 5×7 inch dry-plate glass negative by Christopher Helin.


December 1942. “Locomotives in the Chicago and North Western departure yard about to leave for Clinton, Iowa.” Medium-format negative by Jack Delano for the Office of War Information.


December 1942. “Corset display at R.H. Macy department store the week before Christmas.” Photo by Marjory Collins, Office of War Information.

Music February 16, 2017





FYI February 16, 2017

February 16 is National Almond Day



On this day:

1874 – Silver Dollar becomes legal US tender.
The dollar coin is a United States coin worth one United States dollar. It is the second largest American coin currently minted in terms of physical size, with a diameter of 1.043 inches (26.5 mm) and a thickness of .079 inches (2 mm), coming second to the half dollar. Dollar coins have been minted in the United States in gold, silver, and base metal versions. The term silver dollar is often used for any large white metal coin issued by the United States with a face value of one dollar, whether or not it contains some of that metal. The Sacagawea and Presidential dollars are sometimes referred to as golden dollars. Silver dollars, the first dollar coin issue, were minted beginning in 1794. Gold dollars and gold-colored dollars have also been produced by the United States.

Dollar coins have never been very popular in the United States since the removal of specie coins from circulation. Despite efforts by the government to promote their use, such as the Presidential $1 Coin Program, most Americans currently use the one-dollar bill rather than dollar coins.[2] For this reason, since December 11, 2011 the Mint ceased production of dollar coins for general circulation, and all coins produced after that date have been specifically for collectors and can be ordered directly from the Mint,[3][4] and pre-2012 circulation dollar coins are able to be obtained from most U.S. banks.



1933 – The Blaine Act ends Prohibition in the United States.
The Blaine Act was sponsored by Wisconsin Senator John J. Blaine and passed by the United States Senate on February 17, 1933. It initiated the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which established Prohibition in the United States. The repeal was formally adopted as the 21st Amendment to the Constitution on December 5, 1933.
1937 – Wallace H. Carothers receives a United States patent for nylon.
Wallace Hume Carothers (April 27, 1896 – April 29, 1937) was an American chemist, inventor and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, credited with the invention of nylon.[1]

Carothers was a group leader at the DuPont Experimental Station laboratory, near Wilmington, Delaware, where most polymer research was done.[2] Carothers was an organic chemist who, in addition to first developing nylon, also helped lay the groundwork for neoprene. After receiving his Ph.D., he taught at several universities before he was hired by DuPont to work on fundamental research.

He married Helen Sweetman on February 21, 1936. Carothers had been troubled by periods of depression since his youth. Despite his success with nylon, he felt that he had not accomplished much and had run out of ideas. His unhappiness was compounded by the death of his sister, Isobel, and on the evening of April 28, 1937 he checked into a Philadelphia hotel room and committed suicide by drinking a cocktail of lemon juice laced with potassium cyanide, knowing the citric acid would catalyze the effects of the poison.[3][4] His daughter, Jane, was born on November 27, 1937.



1968 – In Haleyville, Alabama, the first 9-1-1 emergency telephone system goes into service.
9-1-1[1][2] is an emergency telephone number for the North American Numbering Plan (NANP), one of eight N11 codes. Like other emergency numbers around the world, this number is intended for use in emergency circumstances only, and using it for any other purpose (such as making false or prank calls) is a crime in certain jurisdictions.

In over 98% of locations in the United States and Canada, dialing “9-1-1” from any telephone will link the caller to an emergency dispatch office—called a Public-Safety Answering Point (PSAP) by the telecom industry—which can send emergency responders to the caller’s location in an emergency. In approximately 96 percent of the U.S., the Enhanced 9-1-1 system automatically pairs caller numbers with a physical address.[1]

In the Philippines, the 9-1-1 emergency hotline has been available to the public since August 1, 2016, although it was first available in Davao City. It is the first of its kind in Asia-Pacific region.[3] It replaces the previous emergency number 117 used outside Davao City.

999 is used in the United Kingdom and many British territories. 112 is the equivalent emergency number used in the European Union and various other countries. In the US, some carriers, including AT&T, map the number 112 to the emergency number 9-1-1.[4]





Born on this day:

1856 – Ossian Everett Mills, American academic, founded Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia (d. 1920)
Ossian Everett Mills (February 16, 1856 – December 26, 1920) was the founder of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity of America, at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts, on October 6, 1898.

“Let our friendship be marked by kind words, kind deeds, and lasting cooperation in our common work; and, remembering that our inspiration is from on High, from the God of all creatures, we should ever be constant in our humble attitude to this great source. Let our sincerity be manifest to all. Hypocrisy should be unknown to us, and a solicitude for our fellows should dominate our every word and action. Then our nobility will shine forth in our characters…” (The President’s Message, 1902)

The National Philanthropy of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia continues to be known as the Mills Music Mission, named for Ossian Everett Mills. In 1886, Mills originated the practice of taking a group of New England Conservatory students to perform for patients in Boston hospitals on Christmas and Easter. The students would sing, play music and give recitations. The students would also bring flowers to distribute to the patients. Mills’ “flower missions,” as they came to be known, brought joy to the lonely and hope to the destitute. The Mills Music Mission was accepted as Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia’s National Philanthropy in 2003. It is unique among fraternity philanthropies in that Sinfonians make a personal sacrifice to help individuals and lift spirits through music. During the week of February 11–18, 2006, almost 200 chapters and alumni associations participated in Mills Music Missions in observance of Ossian Everett Mills’ 150th birthday.

The Fraternity presents the Ossian E. Mills Award to a Sinfonian who, through his leadership and dedication, has immeasurably furthered the cause of Phi Mu Alpha on a national scale and who embodies the ideals of the Fraternity. The first recipient was former national executive director Edward A. Klint, who received the award at the 1988 national convention. Subsequent recipients have included James H. Patrenos, Henry Charles, T. Jervis Underwood, and Richard A. Crosby.

Mills’ memory and contributions are commemorated annually by the members of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia on October 6, which is designated as the Fraternity’s Founders Day. During the Fraternity’s Centennial celebration in October 1998, a memorial service was held at Mills’ grave site, utilizing a format based on a ceremony used to dedicate Mills’ monument which was placed in 1928. The Fraternity’s Founders Day Ceremony is based on this ceremony.

Mills’ writings are often used during the probationary membership process to provide instruction and insight into the philosophies and values that guided Mills and other members in the establishment of the Fraternity and to provide a framework for fulfilling the obligations of membership.


1920 – Anna Mae Hays, American general
Brigadier General Anna V. Mae McCabe Hays (born February 16, 1920) was the first woman in the U.S. Armed Forces to be promoted to a general officer rank.
Hays was born in 1920 in Buffalo, New York. Following graduation from high school, she enrolled at General Hospital School of Nursing, from which she graduated in 1941, having obtained a diploma in nursing. She then joined the Army Nurse Corps in early 1942, and was sent to the China Burma India Theater.[1]

Stationed in India for the duration of World War II, she was on leave in the United States when the war ended. Remaining with the Corps, she saw service during the Korean War. A succession of academic posts followed including a stint at Walter Reed Hospital, and she also earned a Master in Science in Nursing degree. She was promoted on June 11, 1970, after being appointed by President Richard Nixon on May 15, of that year. She was chief of the Army Nurse Corps from September 1, 1967 until her retirement on August 31, 1971.[1]

On the same day, directly after the promotion of Colonel Hays, Elizabeth P. Hoisington was also promoted to Brigadier General.




1953 – Roberta Williams, American video game designer, co-founded Sierra Entertainment
Roberta Williams (born February 16, 1953) is an American video game designer, writer, and a co-founder of Sierra On-Line (later known as Sierra Entertainment), who developed her first game while living in Simi Valley, California. She is most famous for her pioneering work in the field of graphic adventure games with titles such as Mystery House, the King’s Quest series, and Phantasmagoria. She is married to Ken Williams and retired from her career in 1999. Roberta Williams is one of the most influential PC game designers of the 1980s and 1990s,[1][2] and has been credited with creating the graphic adventure genre.[3]

In the 1980s and 1990s, Roberta and her husband, Ken Williams, were leading figures in the development of graphical adventure games.[4] In 1980, they founded the company On-Line Systems, which later became Sierra On-Line.[4] The first Williams’ title was Mystery House (1980), the first graphical adventure game.[5][6] The second title, Wizard and the Princess (1980), added color graphics.[7] But the first serious success was the King’s Quest series, which featured a “large expansive world” that could be explored by players.[4] After that, Roberta Williams designed such titles as Mixed-Up Mother Goose (1987), The Colonel’s Bequest (1989), and Phantasmagoria (1995), which was the first in her career to be developed in the full-motion video technology.[5] Phantasmagoria featured extreme violence and rape scenes. The game has received mixed reviews.[8] Though Sierra was sold in 1996, Williams’ production credits date to 1999, when she retired from Sierra On-Line.[9] Roberta posed for the cover of the game Softporn Adventure by Chuck Benton, published by On-line Systems.[9] She also posed much later with her children as Mother Goose for the cover photograph of Mixed-Up Mother Goose. The end sequence of Leisure Suit Larry 3 features her as an in-game character.[10]

Ars Technica stated that Roberta Williams was “one of the more iconic figures in adventure gaming”.[9] GameSpot named her as the number ten in their list of “the most influential people in computer gaming of all time” for “pushing the envelope of graphic adventures” and being “especially proactive in creating games from a woman’s point of view, and titles that appealed to the mainstream market, all the while integrating the latest technologies in graphics and sound wherever possible.”[11] In 1997, Computer Gaming World ranked her as number 10 on the list of the most influential people of all time in computer gaming for adventure game design.[12] In 2009, IGN placed the Williams at 23rd position on the list of top game creators of all time, expressing hope that “maybe one day, we’ll see the Williams again as well.”[4]

Since her retirement in 1999 (stated at the time to be a “sabbatical”[13]), she has stayed away from the public eye and rarely gives interviews to talk about her past with Sierra On-Line. However, in a 2006 interview, she admitted that her favorite game she created was Phantasmagoria and not King’s Quest: “If I could only pick one game, I would pick Phantasmagoria, as I enjoyed working on it immensely and it was so very challenging (and I love to be challenged!). However, in my heart, I will always love the King’s Quest series and, especially, King’s Quest I, since it was the game that really ‘made’ Sierra On-Line.”[3]

In a 2006 interview, Williams said that designing computer games was in the past for her then and that she intended to write a historical novel.[3] However, in 2011, the video game website Gamezebo reported that Roberta Williams was working on a social network game Odd Manor.[14]
Personal life

As a young timid child Roberta was known to have a wild imagination unlike most kids, she would make up these elaborate stories, which she called her “movies”, and use them to entertain her family. Later on in high school, she met her future husband, Ken Williams, at the age of 17. In Petter Holmberg’s biography he shares the couple’s story about how Roberta and Ken met. Petter says, “She was dating a friend of his and two months after a double date where they had both met, Ken unexpectedly called her and asked her out. Roberta wasn’t very impressed with him in the beginning. He was shy and insecure, like her, but also overly pushy at times. He asked her to go steady the first week. It took some time, but at one point Roberta suddenly realized that he was very intelligent and quite different from the other boys she had dated. Ken wanted them to have a permanent commitment and they got married when Roberta was only 19 years old,”[15] on November 4, 1972.[16] They have two children, D.J. (born 1973) and Chris (born 1979). The Williams family now has homes in Seattle, France and Mexico and they spend most of there time traveling to new and exciting places on their family owned yacht.[17]

    “My definition of an adventure game is really an interactive story set with puzzles and obstacles to solve and worlds to explore. I believe that the ‘true’ adventure game genre will never die any more than any type of storytelling would ever die.” — Roberta Williams said on the future of adventure games in an interview with Adventure Classic Gaming.” [18]
    “But best of all, I could see that you truly are the ones to take King’s Quest into the 21st century and reintroduce it to a whole new generation.” [17]
    “The experience of creating my adventure games was, other than marrying my husband and bringing into the world my two sons, the most fulfilling, wonderful experience I could ever have had,” [18]




Kristen V. Brown: Here’s Why Today’s Decision Over Who Invented CRISPR Matters


David Tracy: Heroic Driver Sacrifices His Tesla To Save Unconscious Man In Runaway Volkswagen



Nagi: Fridge Forage: 30+ Recipes From the Pantry


by Eric Grundhauser: It’s Not Always Easy Being Iceland’s Best Witchcraft Museum Modern-day lessons abound when you’re immersed in 17th century sorcery.











Images February 16, 2017

February 10, 2017 Full moon rising in eclipse, with an airplane crossing it, behind the Great Beds Lighthouse in the Raritan Bay, New Jersey. Photo by John Entwistle Photography.


February 10, 2017 Rob Pettengill in Austin, Texas wrote: “The penumbral lunar eclipse was well underway when the moon rose in Austin on Friday. The first image caches it coming up through the trees. The second image is just before mid-eclipse, and the third after the eclipse was over. The subtle effects of haze and the penumbral eclipse are clear when compared to the last image of the Snow Moon high overhead.”


February 10,2017 Gowrishankar Lakshminarayanan wrote: “A surreal snow moon rose over New York City. Loved the color of the rising moon during the blue hour. Rightly called snow moon as this visual treat manifested just few hours after the snow storm Niko.”


February 10, 2017 Eddie Popovits in Branson, Missouri caught it through treetops, around the time of maximum eclipse.


February 10, 2017 full moon rising over northeast Oklahoma., with a tinge of Earth’s penumbral shadow visible. Photo by Mike O’Neal.


February 10, 2017: Susan Gies Jensen in eastern Washington state wrote: “Tonight’s full Snow Moon passing through Earth’s penumbral shadow 37 minutes past the greatest eclipse in eastern Washington. 5:21 PM PST.”


Thursday night’s moonrise – February 9, 2017 – over Mt Blanca in Colorado, as caught by Dennis Schoenfelder of Alamosa.


woman rest in between weightlifting sets

Quotes February 16, 2017

“You gain strength, courage, and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. You are able to say to yourself, ‘I lived through this horror. I can take the next thing that comes along.’”
Eleanor Roosevelt



Courage originally meant “To speak one’s mind by telling all one’s heart.””
“The difficult thing is that vulnerability is the first thing I look for in you and the last thing I’m willing to show you. In you, it’s courage and daring. In me, it’s weakness.”
“Vulnerability sounds like truth and feels like courage. Truth and courage aren’t always comfortable, but they’re never weakness.”
Brené Brown



You can express a lot of things, a lot of action without speaking.
Catherine Deneuve


She is the exclamation mark in the happiest sentence that I could ever possibly write.
Michael Faudet




You are my sun, my moon and all my stars.
E.E. Cummings




You feel more like home to me than any place I’ve ever been.
Angela N. Blount




What is stronger than the human heart which shatters over and over and still lives.
Rupi Kaur





A person with whom you have an immediate connection the moment you meet – a connection so strong that you are drawn to them in a way you have never experienced before. As this connection develops over time, you are experiencing a love so deep, strong, and complex, that you begin to doubt that you have ever truly loved anyone prior.





Our souls already know each other, don’t they? he whispered. ‘It’s our bodies that are new.’
Karen Ross





If you don’t value yourself, then you will always be attracted to people who don’t value you either.
Sabrina Alexis




One of the best feelings… in the world is when you hug someone you love, and they hug you back even tighter.





You can’t just give up on someone because the situation is not ideal. Great relationships aren’t great because they have no problems. They’re great because both people care enough about the other person to find a way to make it work.




One day, whether you are 14, 28 or 65,
you will stumble upon someone who will start a fire in you that cannot die.
However, the saddest, most awful truth you will ever come to find––
is they are not always with whom we spend our lives”
Beau Taplin, Hunting Season




When someone cries, it’s not usually over one thing. It’s built up over anger and emotions that they have been holding in for too long.


“If you want to do something courageous, try Love.”
Sean King



“If you’re only looking out for yourself, you will always be scared. But if there are other factors, other concerns and considerations driving you, you will always find the strength and courage to overcome the danger and the fear.”
J.H. Myn




A talent is formed in stillness, a character in the world’s torrent.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
writer and statesman




Only love can be divided endlessly and still not diminish.
Anne Morrow Lindbergh




“Love is patient, love is kind, it does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud.  It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs.”
1 Corinthians 13:4-5




In our society … those who are in reality superior in intelligence can be accepted by their fellows only if they pretend they are not.
Marya Mannes,
writer and broadcast commentator




“These pains you feel are messengers. Listen to them.”




When a person tells you that you hurt them, you don’t get to decide that you didn’t.
Louis C.K.




When you are curious you find lots of it interesting things to do.
Walt Disney




You know what the issue is with this world? Everyone wants a magical solution to their problem, and refuses to believe in magic.
Alice In Wonderland




A friend is one who overlooks your broken fence  and admires the flowers in your garden.

Videos February 15, 2017


FYI February 15, 2017

February 15 is National Gumdrop Day



On this day:

1870 – Stevens Institute of Technology is founded in New Jersey, USA and offers the first Bachelor of Engineering degree in Mechanical Engineering.
Stevens Institute of Technology (SIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Hoboken, New Jersey, United States. The university also has a satellite location in Washington, D.C.. Incorporated in 1870, it is one of the oldest technological universities in the United States, and was the first college in America solely dedicated to mechanical engineering.[7] The campus encompasses Castle Point, the highest point in Hoboken, and several other buildings around the city.

Founded from an 1868 bequest from Edwin Augustus Stevens,[8] enrollment at Stevens includes more than 5,000 undergraduate and graduate students representing 47 states and 60 countries throughout Asia, Europe and Latin America.[6] The university is home to three national Centers of Excellence as designated by the U.S. Department of Defense and U.S. Department of Homeland Security.[9][10][11] Two members of the Stevens community, as alumni or faculty, have been awarded the Nobel Prize: Frederick Reines (class of 1939), in Physics, and Irving Langmuir (Chemistry faculty 1906–1909), in chemistry.[12]




1879 – Women’s rights: US President Rutherford B. Hayes signs a bill allowing female attorneys to argue cases before the Supreme Court of the United States.
Today in Legal History: Women Lawyers Allowed to Practice Before U.S. Supreme Court

Lockwood_Belva“On February 15, 1879, President Rutherford B. Hayes signed legislation allowing women to be admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court. Belva Lockwood became the first woman admitted to practice under the new law on March 3, 1879.” From

“Belva Lockwood was born on a farm in Niagara County, New York. She began to teach school at fifteen and married at nineteen. When her husband died soon after, she was left with an infant daughter to support. She returned to teaching and determined to continue her education. In 1857 she graduated with honors from Genesee College (later Syracuse University). After a move to Washington, D.C., she married Ezekiel Lockwood. She was nearly forty when she decided to study the law. She finally found a law school that would admit her, but even there her diploma was held up until she demanded action. Lockwood was admitted to the bar of the District of Columbia, but was refused admission to practice before the Supreme Court. She spent five years energetically lobbying a bill through Congress, and in 1879 Belva Lockwood became the first woman to practice law before the US Supreme Court. In 1884 she accepted the nomination of the National Equal Rights Party and ran for president. Although suffrage leaders opposed her candidacy, Lockwood saw it as an entering wedge for women. She polled over 4,000 votes and ran again in 1888. Using her knowledge of the law, she worked to secure woman suffrage, property law reforms, equal pay for equal work, and world peace. Thriving on publicity and partisanship, and encouraging other women to pursue legal careers, Lockwood helped to open the legal profession to women.” From National Women’s Hall of Fame


Born on this day:

1845 – Elihu Root, American lawyer and politician, 38th United States Secretary of State, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1937)
Elihu Root (/ˈɛlᵻhjuː ˈruːt/; February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the Secretary of War (1899–1904) under two presidents, including President Theodore Roosevelt. He moved frequently between high-level appointed government positions in Washington, D.C. and private-sector legal practice in New York City. For that reason, he is sometimes considered to be the prototype of the 20th century political “wise man,” advising presidents on a range of foreign and domestic issues. He was elected by the state legislature as a U.S. Senator from New York and served one term, 1909–1915. Root was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912.

Root was a leading lawyer, whose clients included major corporations and such powerful players as Andrew Carnegie. Root served as president or chairman of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. As Secretary of War under McKinley and Roosevelt, Root designed American policies for the new colonial possessions, especially the Philippines and Cuba. His role in suppressing a Filipino revolt angered anti-imperialist activists at home. Root favored a paternalistic approach to colonial administration, emphasizing technology, engineering, and disinterested public service, as exemplified by the ethical standards of the Progressive Era. He helped design the Foraker Act of 1900, the Philippine Organic Act (1902), and the Platt Amendment of 1901, which authorized American intervention in Cuba in the future if needed to maintain a stable government. He was a strong advocate of what became the Panama Canal, and he championed the Open Door to expand world trade with China.[1]

Root was the leading modernizer in the history of the War Department, transforming the Army from a motley collection of small frontier outposts and coastal defense units into a modern, professionally organized, military machine comparable to the best in Europe. He restructured the National Guard into an effective reserve, and created the Army War College for the advanced study of military doctrine and most important set up a general staff. As Secretary of State under Theodore Roosevelt, Root modernized the consular service by minimizing patronage, promoted friendly relations with Latin America, and resolved frictions with Japan over the immigration of unskilled workers to the West Coast. He negotiated 24 bilateral treaties that committed the United States and other signatories to use arbitration to resolve disputes, which led to the creation of the Permanent Court of International Justice.[2][3] In the United States Senate, Root was part of the conservative Republican support network for President William Howard Taft. He played a central role at the Republican National Convention in 1912 in getting Taft renominated. By 1916–17, he was a leading proponent of preparedness, with the expectation the United States would enter World War I. President Woodrow Wilson sent him to Russia in 1917 in an unsuccessful effort to establish an alliance with the new revolutionary government that had replaced the czar.[4] Root supported Wilson’s vision of the League of Nations, but with reservations along the lines proposed by Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge.



1910 – Irena Sendler, Polish nurse and humanitarian, Righteous Gentile (d. 2008)
Irena Sendler (née Krzyżanowska), also referred to as Irena Sendlerowa in Poland, nom de guerre “Jolanta” (15 February 1910 – 12 May 2008),[1] was a Polish nurse, humanitarian, and social worker who served in the Polish Underground in German-occupied Warsaw during World War II, and was head of the children’s section of Żegota,[2][3] the Polish Council to Aid Jews (Polish: Rada Pomocy Żydom), which was active from 1942 to 1945.

Assisted by some two dozen other Żegota members, Sendler smuggled approximately 2,500 Jewish children out of the Warsaw Ghetto and then provided them with false identity documents and shelter outside the Ghetto, saving those children from the Holocaust.[4] With the exception of diplomats who issued visas to help Jews flee Nazi-occupied Europe, Sendler saved more Jews than any other individual during the Holocaust.[5]

The German occupiers eventually discovered her activities and she was arrested by the Gestapo, tortured, and sentenced to death, but she managed to evade execution and survive the war. In 1965, Sendler was recognised by the State of Israel as Righteous among the Nations.[6] Late in life, she was awarded the Order of the White Eagle, Poland’s highest honor, for her wartime humanitarian efforts.



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