FYI January 23, 2017





On this day:

1556 – The deadliest earthquake in history, the Shaanxi earthquake, hits Shaanxi province, China. The death toll may have been as high as 830,000.
The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake (Chinese: 华县大地震; pinyin: Huáxiàn Dàdìzhèn) or Jiajing earthquake (Chinese: 嘉靖大地震; pinyin: Jiājìng Dàdìzhèn) was a catastrophic earthquake and is also the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people.[1] It occurred on the morning of 23 January 1556 in Shaanxi, during the Ming Dynasty. More than 97 counties in the provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Gansu, Hebei, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu and Anhui were affected. Buildings were damaged slightly in the cities of Beijing, Chengdu and Shanghai.[2] An 840-kilometre-wide (520 mi) area was destroyed,[3] and in some counties as much as 60% of the population was killed.[4] Most of the population in the area at the time lived in yaodongs, artificial caves in loess cliffs, many of which collapsed with catastrophic loss of life.


1571 – The Royal Exchange opens in London.
The Royal Exchange in London was founded in the 16th century by the merchant Thomas Gresham on the suggestion of his factor Richard Clough to act as a centre of commerce for the City of London.[1] The site was provided by the City of London Corporation and the Worshipful Company of Mercers, who still jointly own the freehold. It is trapezoidal in shape and is flanked by Cornhill and Threadneedle Street, which converge at Bank junction in the heart of the City. The design was inspired by a bourse Gresham had seen in Antwerp, and was Britain’s first specialist commercial building.

It has twice been destroyed by fire and subsequently rebuilt. The present building was designed by William Tite in the 1840s. The site was notably occupied by the Lloyd’s insurance market for nearly 150 years. Today the Royal Exchange contains offices, luxury shops and restaurants.

Traditionally, the steps of the Royal Exchange is the place where Royal Proclamations (such as the dissolution of Parliament) are read out by either a herald or a crier.



1849 – Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M.D. by the Geneva Medical College of Geneva, New York, becoming the United States’ first female doctor.
Elizabeth Blackwell (3 February 1821 – 31 May 1910) was a British-born physician, notable as the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, as well as the first woman on the UK Medical Register. She was the first woman to graduate from medical school, a pioneer in promoting the education of women in medicine in the United States, and a social and moral reformer in both the United States and in the United Kingdom. Her sister Emily was the third woman in the US to get a medical degree.

In October, 1847, Blackwell was accepted as a medical student by Hobart College, then called Geneva Medical College, located in upstate New York. Her acceptance was a near-accident. The dean and faculty, usually responsible for evaluating an applicant for matriculation, were not able to make a decision due to the special nature of Blackwell’s case. They put the issue up to a vote by the 150 male students of the class with the stipulation that if one student objected, Blackwell would be turned away. The young men voted unanimously to accept her.[6][7]

When Blackwell arrived at the college, she was rather nervous. Nothing was familiar – the surroundings, the students and the faculty. She did not even know where to get her books. However, she soon found herself at home in medical school.[1] While she was at school, she was looked upon as an oddity by the townspeople of Geneva. She also rejected suitors and friends alike, preferring to isolate herself. In the summer between her two terms at Geneva, she returned to Philadelphia, stayed with Dr. Elder, and applied for medical positions in the area to gain clinical experience. The Guardians of the Poor, the city commission that ran Blockley Almshouse, granted her permission to work there, albeit not without some struggle. Blackwell slowly gained acceptance at Blockley, although some young resident physicians still would walk out and refuse to assist her in diagnosing and treating her patients. During her time there, Blackwell gained valuable clinical experience, but was appalled by the syphilitic ward and those afflicted with typhus. Her graduating thesis at Geneva Medical College ended up being on the topic of typhus. The conclusion of this thesis linked physical health with socio-moral stability – a link that foreshadows her later reform work.[1]

On January 23, 1849, Elizabeth Blackwell became the first woman to achieve a medical degree in the United States. The local press reported her graduation favourably, and when the dean, Dr. Charles Lee, conferred her degree, he stood up and bowed to her.[8]




1957 – American inventor Walter Frederick Morrison sells the rights to his flying disc to the Wham-O toy company, which later renames it the “Frisbee”.
Walter Frederick “Fred” Morrison (January 16 1920 in Richfield, Utah – February 9, 2010 in Monroe, Utah)[1] was an American inventor and entrepreneur, best known as the inventor of the Frisbee.[2][3][4]

Morrison claimed that the original idea for a flying disc toy came to him in 1937, while throwing a popcorn can lid with his girlfriend, Lu, whom he later married. The popcorn can lid soon dented which led to the discovery that cake pans flew better and were more common. Morrison and Lu developed a little business selling “Flyin’ Cake Pans” on the beaches of Santa Monica, California.

During World War II he learned something of aerodynamics flying his P-47 Thunderbolt in Italy. He was shot down and was a prisoner of war for 48 days.

In 1946, he sketched out a design (called the Whirlo-Way) for the world’s first flying disc. In 1948 an investor, Warren Franscioni, paid for molding the design in plastic. They named it the Flyin-Saucer. After disappointing sales, Fred & Warren parted ways in early 1950. In 1954, Fred bought more of the Saucers from the original molders to sell at local fairs, but soon found he could produce his own disc more cheaply. In 1955, he and Lu designed the Pluto Platter, the archetype of all modern flying discs. On January 23, 1957, they sold the rights for the Pluto Platter to the Wham-O toy company. Initially Wham-O continued to market the toy solely as the “Pluto Platter”, but by June 1957 they also began using the name Frisbee after learning that college students in the Northeast were calling the Pluto Platter by that name. Morrison also invented several other products for Wham-O, but none were as successful as the Pluto Platter.

Morrison and his wife, Lu Nay Morrison had three children. Lu died in 1987.[5]

There is a disc golf course in Holladay, Utah named in his honor.

Morrison died in his home at the age of 90 on February 9, 2010.[6]

Born on this day:

1745 – William Jessop, English engineer, built the Cromford Canal (d. 1814)
William Jessop (23 January 1745 – 18 November 1814) was an English civil engineer, best known for his work on canals, harbours and early railways in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

The Cromford Canal ran 14.5 miles (23.3 kilometres) from Cromford to the Erewash Canal in Derbyshire, England with a branch to Pinxton. Built by William Jessop with the assistance of Benjamin Outram, its alignment included four tunnels and 14 locks.[1]

From Cromford it ran south following the 275-foot (84 m) contour line along the east side of the valley of the Derwent to Ambergate, where it turned eastwards along the Amber valley. It turned sharply to cross the valley, crossing the river and the Ambergate to Nottingham road, by means of an aqueduct at Bullbridge, before turning towards Ripley. From there the Butterley Tunnel took it through to the Erewash Valley.

From the tunnel it continued to Pye Hill, near Ironville, the junction for the branch to Pinxton, and then descended through fourteen locks to meet the Erewash Canal at Langley Mill. The Pinxton Branch became important as a route for Nottinghamshire coal, via the Erewash, to the River Trent and Leicester and was a terminus of the Mansfield and Pinxton Railway.

A 6-mile (9.7 km) long section of the Cromford canal between Cromford and Ambergate is listed as a Biological Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)[2][3] and a Local Nature Reserve.[4][5]

In addition to purely canal traffic, there was a lively freight interchange with the Cromford and High Peak Railway, which traversed the plateau of the Peak District from Whaley Bridge in the north west, and which descended to the canal at High Peak Junction by means of an inclined plane.


1897 – William Stephenson, Canadian captain and spy (d. 1989)
Sir William Samuel Stephenson, CC, MC, DFC (23 January 1897 – 31 January 1989) was a Canadian soldier, airman, businessman, inventor, spymaster, and the senior representative of British intelligence for the entire western hemisphere during World War II. He is best known by his wartime intelligence codename Intrepid. Many people consider him to be one of the real-life inspirations for James Bond.[2] Ian Fleming himself once wrote, “James Bond is a highly romanticized version of a true spy. The real thing is … William Stephenson.”[3]

As head of the British Security Coordination, Stephenson handed over British scientific secrets to Franklin D. Roosevelt and relayed American secrets to Winston Churchill.[4] In addition, Stephenson has been credited with changing American public opinion from an isolationist stance to a supportive tendency regarding America’s entry into World War II.[4]


1918 – Gertrude B. Elion, American biochemist and pharmacologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1999)
Gertrude Belle Elion (January 23, 1918 – February 21, 1999) was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with George H. Hitchings and Sir James Black. Working alone as well as with Hitchings and Black, Elion developed a multitude of new drugs, using innovative research methods that would later lead to the development of the AIDS drug AZT. She developed the first immunosuppressive drug, azathioprine, used for organ transplants.

Elion had also worked for the National Cancer Institute, American Association for Cancer Research and World Health Organization, among other organizations. From 1967 to 1983, she was the Head of the Department of Experimental Therapy for Burroughs Wellcome.

She was affiliated with Duke University as Adjunct Professor of Pharmacology and of Experimental Medicine from 1971 to 1983 and Research Professor from 1983 to 1999.[13]

Rather than relying on trial-and-error, Elion and Hitchings used the differences in biochemistry between normal human cells and pathogens (disease-causing agents such as cancer cells, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses) to design drugs that could kill or inhibit the reproduction of particular pathogens without harming the host cells. The drugs they developed are used to treat a variety of maladies, such as leukemia, malaria, organ transplant rejection (azathioprine), as well as herpes (acyclovir, which was the first selective and effective drug of its kind).[14] Most of Elion’s early work came from the use and development of purines. Elion’s inventions include:

6-mercaptopurine (Purinethol), the first treatment for leukemia and used in organ transplantation.[12][15]
Azathioprine (Imuran), the first immuno-suppressive agent, used for organ transplants.[12]
Allopurinol (Zyloprim), for gout.[12]
Pyrimethamine (Daraprim), for malaria.[12]
Trimethoprim (Proloprim, Monoprim, others),[12] for meningitis, septicemia, and bacterial infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts.
Acyclovir (Zovirax), for viral herpes.[12]
Nelarabine for cancer treatment.[16]

During 1967 she occupied the position of the head of the company’s Department of Experimental Therapy and officially retired in 1983. Despite her retirement, Elion continued working almost full-time at the lab, and oversaw the adaptation of azidothymidine (AZT), which became the first drug used for treatment of AIDS.[17][18][19]





Steve Spaleta: Blastoff! Missile-Detecting Satellite Launches Aboard Atlas V Rocket


Valentine Rice Krispie Bars by Penolopy Bulnick


How to Make No Bake Homemade Snickers Bars by KitchenMason


How to Grow Popcorn Shoots by mtairymd


Shorpy November 23, 2017


Evaristo Gallegos’ O.K. Store was “opposite the courthouse,” so this is Fourth Street in Santa Rosa, New Mexico. Though this Kodachrome slide was undated, others in the set had handwritten dates in the mid-1940s.

Quotes January 23, 2017

There are two ways of exerting one’s strength: One is pushing down, the other is pulling up.
Booker T. Washington,
writer, educator and orator

“Criticism is something we can avoid easily by saying nothing, doing nothing, and being nothing.”


“Any fool can criticize, condemn, and complain but it takes character and self-control to be understanding and forgiving.”
Dale Carnegie


“When virtues are pointed out first, flaws seem less insurmountable.”
Judith Martin



“The pleasure of criticizing takes away from us the pleasure of being moved by some very fine things.”
Jean de La Bruyère


“You can’t let praise or criticism get to you. It’s a weakness to get caught up in either one.”
John Wooden


“Criticism is an indirect form of self-boasting.”
Emmet Fox


“Any fool can criticize, condemn and complain and most fools do.”
Benjamin Franklin


“Remember: when people tell you something’s wrong or doesn’t work for them, they are almost always right. When they tell you exactly what they think is wrong and how to fix it, they are almost always wrong.”
Neil Gaiman


“The trouble with most of us is that we’d rather be ruined by praise than saved by criticism.”
Norman Vincent Peale


“When we judge or criticize another person, it says nothing about that person; it merely says something about our own need to be critical.”


“It is much more valuable to look for the strength in others. You can gain nothing by criticizing their imperfections.”
Daisaku Ikeda



“The artist doesn’t have time to listen to the critics. The ones who want to be writers read the reviews, the ones who want to write don’t have the time to read reviews.”
William Faulkner



“If we judge ourselves only by our aspirations and everyone else only their conduct we shall soon reach a very false conclusion.”
Calvin Coolidge



“I have yet to find the man, however exalted his station, who did not do better work and put forth greater effort under a spirit of approval than under a spirit of criticism.”
Charles Schwab

“I criticize by creation, not by finding fault.”
Marcus Tullius Cicero


“Let me never fall into the vulgar mistake of dreaming that I am persecuted whenever I am contradicted.”
Ralph Waldo Emerson



“Don’t criticize what you don’t understand, son. You never walked in that man’s shoes.”
Elvis Presley


“Criticism, like rain, should be gentle enough to nourish a man’s growth without destroying his roots.”
Frank A. Clark


“You’re never as good as everyone tells you when you win, and you’re never as bad as they say when you lose.”
Lou Holtz



“People tend to criticize their spouse most loudly in the area where they themselves have the deepest emotional need.”
Gary Chapman

“The critic has to educate the public; the artist has to educate the critic.”
Oscar Wilde



“You’re never as good as everyone tells you when you win, and you’re never as bad as they say when you lose.”
Lou Holtz



“Criticism is the disapproval of people, not for having faults, but having faults different from your own.”


“He who throws dirt always loses ground.”

Images January 23, 2017











Music January 23, 2017

Anchorage Folk Festival – 2017





Steve Durr performs professionally in and around Talkeetna and offers up his own songs about Alaska and Alaskan life

Videos January 22, 2017






FYI January 22, 2017



On this day:

1889 – Columbia Phonograph is formed in Washington, D.C.
Columbia Records (also known simply as Columbia) is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment (SME), a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, Inc., the United States division of Sony Corporation. It was founded in 1887, evolving from an earlier enterprise named the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company.[1] Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business,[2][3][4] being the second major record company to produce recorded records.[5] Columbia Records went on to release records by an array of notable singers, instrumentalists, and bands. From 1961 to 1990, its recordings were released outside the U.S. and Canada by the CBS Records label (which was named after the Columbia Broadcasting System) to avoid confusion with the EMI label of the same name, before adopting the Columbia name internationally in 1990. It is one of Sony Music’s three flagship record labels alongside RCA Records and Epic Records.

Until 1989, Columbia Records had no connection to Columbia Pictures, which used various other names for record labels they owned, including Colpix Records, Colgems Records, Bell Records and later Arista Records. Rather, as above, it was connected to CBS (which stood for Columbia Broadcasting System), a broadcasting media company which had purchased the company in 1938, and had been co-founded in 1927 by Columbia Records itself. Though Arista Records was sold to Bertelsmann Music Group (BMG), it would later become a sister label of Columbia Records through its mutual connection to Sony Music. Both Columbia Records and Columbia Pictures are connected through their parent company Sony Corporation of America, which is the parent of both the music and motion picture arms of Sony in the United States.

Artists currently signed to Columbia Records include but are not limited to Adele, A R Rahman, Barbra Streisand, Beyoncé, Bring Me the Horizon, Bob Dylan, Bruce Springsteen, Calvin Harris, Celine Dion, Daft Punk, David Gilmour, Earl Sweatshirt, Electric Light Orchestra, Ella Henderson, Harry Styles, James Arthur, J. Cole, Juicy J, Lavengro, Little Mix, One Direction, Passion Pit, Patti Smith, Pharrell Williams, and the casts of Fox’s hit television shows Glee and Empire. In 2012, Columbia Records gained the highest label share on adult contemporary radio in the US, and was named the number-one adult contemporary label that year.[6]



1927 – Teddy Wakelam gives the first live radio commentary of a football match anywhere in the world, between Arsenal F.C. and Sheffield United at Highbury.
Captain Henry Blythe Thornhill (Teddy) Wakelam (8 May 1893 – 10 July 1963) was an English sports broadcaster and rugby union player.

He played rugby for Harlequin F.C. and became its captain. On 15 January 1927 Wakelam gave the first ever running sports commentary on BBC radio, a Rugby International match, England v Wales (final score 11-9) at Twickenham. By today’s standard it sounded really odd: to give listeners an idea what it actually was they were hearing a picture was published in the Radio Times of the pitch divided in numbered squares. And as Wakelam described the run of play a voice in the background mentioned the square the play was happening in. It is believed the phrase “Back to Square One” comes from this, long abandoned, practice.

Wakelam was an expert on a wide variety of sports. A week after his broadcasting debut he and C.A. Lewis gave the first football commentary on British radio, Arsenal – Sheffield United, 1-1. Later in 1927 he would also cover cricket and Wimbledon. It was in London SW19 that he would prove to be an unflappable character: in the mid 1930s he accidentally set fire to his notes but kept on commentating as if nothing had happened.

The first sports commentator on BBC radio also became one of the first on BBC television in 1938, when he covered the test match at Lord’s. He also gave commentaries on boxing and even non sporting events like Tidworth Tattoo, but rugby union always remained his specialty. Only a handful of his commentaries have survived, but apparently Wakelam was quite a good reporter. John Arlott called him “a natural talker with a reasonable vocabulary, a good rugby mind and a conscious determination to avoid journalese.”[1]

Teddy Wakelam also was rugby correspondent for The Morning Post. He wrote a number of books including ‘Harlequin Story’ (1954) about the history of his old club. He is namechecked in the title of a sports book, “After Captain Teddy” by Mike Jeffrey.


Born on this day:

1858 – Beatrice Webb, English sociologist and economist (d. 1943)
Martha Beatrice Webb, Baroness Passfield, FBA (née Potter; 22 January 1858 – 30 April 1943), was an English sociologist, economist, socialist, labour historian and social reformer. It was Webb who coined the term “collective bargaining”. She was among the founders of the London School of Economics and played a crucial role in forming the Fabian Society.

Beatrice Potter was born in Standish House in the village of Standish, Gloucestershire, the last but one of the nine daughters of businessman Richard Potter and Laurencina Heyworth, a Liverpool merchant’s daughter. Her paternal grandfather was Liberal Party MP Richard Potter, co-founder of the Little Circle which was key in creating the Reform Act 1832.

From an early age Beatrice was self-taught and cited as important influences the cooperative movement and the philosopher Herbert Spencer. After her mother’s death in 1882 she acted as a hostess and companion for her father. In 1882, she began a relationship with twice-widowed Radical politician Joseph Chamberlain, by then a Cabinet minister in Gladstone’s second government. He would not accept her need for independence as a woman and after four years of “storm and stress” their relationship failed.[1] Marriage in 1892 to Sidney Webb established a lifelong “partnership” of shared causes. At the beginning of 1901 Beatrice wrote that she and Sidney were “still on our honeymoon and every year makes our relationship more tender and complete”.[2]

One of Beatrice’s older sisters, Catherine, became a well-known social worker. After Catherine married Leonard Courtney (see Catherine Courtney, Baroness Courtney of Penwith), Beatrice took over her work as a voluntary rent-collector in the model dwellings at Katharine Buildings, Wapping, operated by the East End Dwellings Company.[5]
Beatrice and Sidney Webb working together in 1895

The young Beatrice also assisted her cousin by marriage Charles Booth in his pioneering survey of the Victorian slums of London, work which eventually became the massive 17-volume Life and Labour of the People of London (1902-1903).

These experiences stimulated a critical attitude to current ideas of philanthropy.

In 1890 Beatrice Potter was introduced to Sidney Webb, whose help she sought with her research. They married in 1892, and until her death 51 years later shared political and professional activities. When her father died in January 1892, leaving Potter an endowment of £1,000 pounds a year, she had a private income for life with which to support herself and the research projects she pursued.

The Webbs became active members of the Fabian Society. With the Fabians’ support, Beatrice Webb co-authored books and pamphlets on socialism and the co-operative movement including The History of Trade Unionism (1894) and Industrial Democracy (1897).

In 1895, the Fabians used part of an unexpected legacy of £10,000 from Henry Hutchinson, a solicitor from Derby, to found the London School of Economics and Political Science.[6]
Contributions to theory of co-operative movement

Beatrice Webb made a number of important contributions to the political and economic theory of the co-operative movement.

In her 1891 book The Cooperative Movement in Great Britain, based on her experiences in Lancashire, she distinguished between “co-operative federalism” and “co-operative individualism”. She identified herself as a co-operative federalist, a school of thought which advocates consumer co-operative societies. She argued that consumers’ co-operatives should be set up co-operative wholesale societies (by forming co-operatives in which all members are co-operatives, the best historical example being the English Co-operative Wholesale Society) and that these federal co-operatives should then acquire farms or factories.

Webb dismissed the idea of worker co-operatives where the people who did the work and benefited from it had some control over how it was organised, arguing that – at the time she was writing – such ventures had proved largely unsuccessful, at least in ushering in her form of socialism led by volunteer committees of people like herself.[7] Examples of successful worker cooperatives did of course exist, then as now.[citation needed] In some professions they were the norm. However, the Webbs’ final book, The Truth About The Soviet Union (1942), celebrated central planning.[citation needed]

It was Webb who coined the term “collective bargaining”.[8]

1865 – Wilbur Scoville, American chemist and pharmacist (d. 1942)
Wilbur Lincoln Scoville (January 22, 1865 – March 10, 1942)[1] was an American pharmacist best known for his creation of the “Scoville Organoleptic Test”, now standardized as the Scoville scale.

He devised the test and scale in 1912 while working at the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company to measure pungency, “spiciness” or “heat”, of various chili peppers.

Scoville was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut. He married Cora B. Upham on September 1, 1891 in Wollaston (Quincy, Massachusetts). They had two children: Amy Augusta, born August 21, 1892 and Ruth Upham, born October 21, 1897.[2]

Scoville wrote The Art of Compounding, which was first published in 1895 and has gone through at least 8 editions. The book was used as a pharmacological reference up until the 1960s. Scoville also wrote Extracts and Perfumes, which contained hundreds of formulations. For a time he was a professor at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. In 1912, he devised the test and scale known as the “Scoville Organoleptic Test” while working at the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company. It measured piquancy, or “spiciness”, of various chili peppers. It is now standardized as the Scoville scale.

In 1922, Scoville won the Ebert prize from the American Pharmaceutical Association and in 1929 he received the Remington Honor Medal. Scoville also received an honorary Doctor of Science from Columbia University in 1929.



Andrew Liszewski: A Toaster Just for Bacon Will Make Every Meal So Much Better



907 Updates January 22, 2017

Nathaniel Herz: As clock ticked toward session, Alaska lawmakers turned to lobbyists for cash


Our neighbor had planned to leave yesterday morning to head down the Alcan with his two dogs and towing a  28′ trailer.  He did not go anywhere, it doesn’t look good for today either.   I asked if he was gong to take anyone with him and he replied no, that he’s  a professional truck driver and knows all about it. We wish him the best. However he has a lot going against him:  1) he’s under a time constraint, 2) has a 1/2 ton truck, 3) traveling alone on a road he’s never been on.
Suzanna Caldwell: Heavy snowfall in Anchorage leads to whiteout conditions, road closures


Kim Sunée: Cold days call for hearty cooking, and this bean chili fits the bill



What’s Going on at Storyknife in January


Music January 22, 2017


Shorpy January 22, 2017

Reader submitted photo’s

Apparently, The Eyebrow of Doom IS hereditary. John G. Muckey was my first cousin 5X removed


1943 My grandfather Thomas A. Hawkins and his Navy peers in their enlistment group photo, about 1943. Grandpa is two persons directly above the officer on the right. He enlisted in the Construction Battalion and was separated in 1953 as a Boatswain’s Mate (Stevedore) Petty Officer First Class. This photo was taken either in Columbia or Charleston, S.C., where he entered).



1945 This is a newspaper photo of my husband’s grandmother’s bowling team. It was taken in Illinois, but I’m not sure of the town where Smitty’s Tavern was located – probably either Libertyville or Grayslake.


A thrift store find from the same metal box as Dressed to Smoke. The majority of the slides in this unusual collection are portraits of women; they tend to be a bit on the exotic side.