On This Day
1643 – Thirty Years’ War: French forces under the duc d’Enghien decisively defeat Spanish forces at the Battle of Rocroi, marking the symbolic end of Spain as a dominant land power.
The Thirty Years’ War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945; one of its enduring results was 19th-century Pan-Germanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided Germany and became a key justification for the 1871 creation of the German Empire.
Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers. These states employed relatively large mercenary armies, and the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence.
The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples. The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose, which had been granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much less tolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the largely Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand’s policies were considered strongly pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant.
These events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, and triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the then relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria (and also with the Holy Roman Empire) to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor’s representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war. The Protestant Bohemians ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant Union. The southern states, mainly Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor. The Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after. Protestant rulers across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor’s action.
After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony finally gave its support to the Protestant Union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been simply the Emperor’s attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe. Habsburg Spain, wishing to finally crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic (which was still a part of the Holy Roman Empire), intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs.
The Thirty Years’ War devastated entire regions, resulting in high mortality, especially among the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, and the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories. The war also bankrupted most of the combatant powers.
The Dutch Republic enjoyed contrasting fortune; it was removed from the Holy Roman Empire and was able to end its revolt against Spain in 1648 and subsequently enjoyed a time of great prosperity and development, known as the Dutch Golden Age, during which it became one of the world’s foremost economic, colonial, and naval powers. The Thirty Years’ War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European powers. The rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, and the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and increasingly dominant in the latter part of the 17th century.
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Born On This Day
1903 – Ruth Ella Moore, American scientist (d. 1994)
Ruth Ella Moore (May 19, 1903 in Columbus, Ohio – 1994) was a bacteriologist, who in 1933 became the first African-American woman to gain a PhD in a natural science. She was a professor and head of the Department of Bacteriology at Howard University, publishing work on tuberculosis, immunology and dental caries, the response of gut microorganisms to antibiotics, and the blood type of African-Americans.
Moore attended Ohio State University for both undergraduate and graduate levels. In 1926, she earned her Bachelor of Science degree, in 1927 her Masters of Science Degree and in 1933 her Ph.D. in Bacteriology. Her dissertation was on the Tuberculosis bacteria and the titles were “Studies on Dissociation of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis” and “A New Method of Concentration on the Tubercule Bacilli as Applied to Sputum And Urine Examination”.
During her graduate school years, she taught hygiene and English at Tennessee State College now known as Tennessee State University in Nashville. In 1939, she became assistant Professor of bacteriology at Howard University College of Medicine. In 1948 she was appointed, and in 1955 she was made Head of the Department of Bacteriology. In 1960, she was appointed associate professor of microbiology. She retired in 1973 while holding position of the associate Professor of emeritus of microbiology. While in Howard, she conducted studies on blood groups and enterobacteriacea. She was a member of the American Public Health Association and the American Society of Microbiologists. Moore retired in 1971.
Moore’s publications include a 1938 discussion of the immunology of dental caries, publications in the 1950s on blood types in African-Americans. and a 1963 publication on the sensitivity of gut microorganisms to antibiotics.
She is believed to be the first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D in the natural sciences. In 2005, US representative Eddie Bernice Johnson introduced a bill recognizing Ruth Ella Moore as well as other scientists in the United States.
She died in Rockville Maryland at the age of 91 (1994).
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It’s no longer about Content Marketing.
It’s about Personal Authorship.
Which means that most media is now focused on the individual instead of the brand. Brand is the backdrop for the community. And the brand pulls in individuals to lead that community forward and represent the brand.
So it’s your time to speak up. Your time to connect. Your time to add to a conversation. You’ve got a plethora of networks to choose from. Which one suits you best? And what do you want to see happen there?
Everyone there wants to hear it “first” and then spread the word seamlessly with RT. (That’s a Retweet, which republicizes other’s content on your feed). You gain status on the network by affiliation, and by discovery. Conversations happen publicly or in DM’s where people move to other channels like email. There are many sub-groups and cliques which form to further dial in content discovery, which is further expedited by Twitter “lists.”
Got taken over by memes. Stories have kept the platform alive, and shopping will be the next pump of oxygen. But it’s no longer about photography, and it’s no longer about manicuring your life to perfection. Slowly it’s shifting more towards Snapchat. Just like Facebook. More messages between friends in “private” channels. IGTV seems to have fallen off the map, and Youtube will try and eat that cake with more social-like features.
Is about connection. People miss this because they think the main show is Gaming. But why do people spend hours watching Twitch streams? Why do people tune in week in and week out? They want to connect. But it’s nearly impossible to build up an audience there, there are no sharing features! If they get that right, the platform will grow exponentially.
It could slowly take over your search traffic. Anything you want is there, and it’s built for you to discover based on intent rather than just popularity alone. So the niche still wins on Youtube. And there are plenty of niches left to fill. My take is that we all will find ourselves turning to Youtube more and more for queries we have about just about anything, and sometimes just for killing dead time.
New formats are still emerging, and celebrities and brands are still catching on. This network is conversational. Quality is a must, but it no longer needs to be overproduced. Apple’s missing the boat with their app, discoverability is still greatly lacking. Spotify will grow simply because it’s easier to have your media in one place, whereas with Apple you’re stuck trying to understand iTunes.
With all of these, cross-pollination is the key.
You build on one channel, and if you understand the nuances of each network you can start bridging between them. But it’s not easy to go Omnichannel. Many stumble trying to make the leap. Like going from Youtube to Twitch. Or Twitter to Instagram. It takes a different effort, time and dedication if it even works then.
Each network has to be thought about on an island, but does it also make sense as a whole?
In technology, follow the developers.
In media, follow the comedians.
Netflix didn’t disrupt cable TV, social media did.
Social media is about direct authorship by individuals.
Before brands rented TV ad time for attention.
Now they rent an individual’s reputation and trust.
Brands and Individuals collaborate to foster relationships between each other…
And that’s what’s so striking today. Its fluid.
We’ve blurred the lines between networks, people, brands, information…
It’s one giant ongoing conversation.