Tag: FYI

FYI March 27 & 28, 2019

On This Day

1794 – Denmark and Sweden form a neutrality compact.
A neutral country is a state which is neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO). As a type of non-combatant status, neutral nationals enjoy protection under the law of war from belligerent actions, to a greater extent than other non-combatants such as enemy civilians and prisoners of war.

Different countries interpret their neutrality differently. Some, such as Costa Rica, have demilitarized; whereas Switzerland holds to “armed neutrality” in which it deters aggression with a sizeable military while barring itself from foreign deployment. Not all neutral countries avoid any foreign deployment or alliances, however, as Austria, Ireland, Finland and Sweden have active UN peacekeeping forces and a political alliance within the European Union. The traditional Swedish policy is not to participate in military alliances, with the intention of staying neutral in the case of war. Immediately before World War II, the Nordic countries stated their neutrality, but Sweden changed its position to that of non-belligerent at the start of the Winter War.

193 – Roman Emperor Pertinax is assassinated by Praetorian Guards, who then sell the throne to Didius Julianus in an auction.
Didius Julianus (/ˈdɪdiəs/; Latin: Marcus Didius Severus Julianus Augustus;[1] 30 January 133 or 2 February 137 – 1 June 193) was Roman Emperor for nine weeks from March to June 193, during the Year of the Five Emperors.

He ascended the throne after buying it from the Praetorian Guard, who had assassinated his predecessor Pertinax. A civil war ensued in which three rival generals laid claim to the imperial throne. Septimius Severus, commander of the legions in Pannonia and the nearest of the generals to Rome, marched on the capital, gathering support along the way and easily defeating those sent to impede his progress.

Abandoned by the Senate and the Praetorian Guard, Julianus was killed by a soldier in the palace and succeeded by Severus.



Born On This Day

1724 – Jane Colden, American botanist and author (d. 1766)
Jane Colden (March 27, 1724 – March 10, 1766) was an American botanist,[2]:53–4 described as the “first botanist of her sex in her country” by Asa Gray in 1843. Although not acknowledged in botanical publications, she wrote a number of letters resulting in botanist John Ellis writing to Carl Linnaeus of her work applying the Linnaean system of plant identification to American flora, “she deserves to be celebrated”.[2]:54 Contemporary scholarship maintains that she was the first female botanist working in America. She was regarded as a respected botanist by many prominent botanists such as: John Bartram, Peter Collinson, Alexander Garden, and Carl Linnaeus. Colden is most famous for her manuscript which remains titleless, in which she describes the flora of the New York area, and draws ink drawings of 340 different species of them.


1599 – Witte de With, Dutch captain (d. 1658)
Witte Corneliszoon de With (28 March 1599 – 8 November 1658) was a famous Dutch naval officer of the 17th century.


One of the more remarkable aspects of De With’s personality was his being a notorious pamphleteer, publishing many booklets, anonymously or under the name of friends, in which he sometimes praised but more often ridiculed or even insulted his fellow officers. Tromp was a favourite subject for all three categories.


The Passive Voice: Opening Day; A Neurotic; What It’s Like Using the Internet When You Have OCD; Frankfurt’s Juergen Boos on the International Perspective: ‘It’s Always Changing’; I Was Paid £12,500 to Write My Book. Here’s Why I’m Revealing That
Open Culture: The Amazing Isolated Drums of Dennis Davis, David Bowie’s Master Drummer, Revisited by Producer Tony Visconti; Download Original Bauhaus Books & Journals for Free: A Digital Celebration of the Founding of the Bauhaus School 100 Years Ago; Newly Discovered Shipwreck Proves Herodotus, the “Father of History,” Correct 2500 Years Later and more ->
The Rural Blog: Interior secretary nominee blocked pesticide-study release; Op-ed: Funding certain research universities could help revitalize rural America; Federal judge rejects Medicaid work or ‘community engagement’ requirements for Arkansas and Kentucky; Blight is a problem for rural towns, too; some fight back and more ->
By Nick Fouriezos: The Tech Generation Rush Isn’t to Major Cities. It’s Away From Them
Why you should care
Because the move to superstar cities may have been overstated.
By Fabrice Deprez: This Far-Right Radical, and His Fists, Will Watch Over Ukraine’s Vote
Why you should care
Because in a country on edge, he’s supposed to be keeping order.
Atlas Obscura: Japan Meat Ban; Cadaver Factory; The Great Goddess; Iconic Restaurants and more ->
By Michelle Lou and Saeed Ahmed, CNN: Space scientists want to pay you almost $19,000 to lie in bed for 2 months
KTVZ News 21: In world first, HIV-positive woman donates kidney
(CNN) – An Atlanta woman became the first living HIV-positive kidney donor in the world on Monday when surgeons at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore transferred her organ to a recipient who is also HIV-positive, according to a statement from the medical center. Both the donor and the recipient, who wishes to remain anonymous, are doing well.

Nina Martinez, a 36-year-old public health consultant, acquired HIV as a 6-week-old in 1983, when she received a blood transfusion in the years before blood banks began routine testing for the virus. HIV damages the immune system and interferes with the body’s ability to fight the organisms that cause disease.

Despite her illness, Martinez’s enduring spirit is audible.
By Ashley May, USA Today: FDA proposes mammogram changes for first time in 20 years to identify breast cancer early
Open sourcing Science Journal iOS
Google’s Science Journal app enables you to use the sensors in your mobile devices to perform science experiments. We believe anyone can be a scientist anywhere. Science doesn’t just happen in the classroom or lab—tools like Science Journal let you see how the world works with just your phone. From learning about sound and motion to discovering how atmospheric pressure works, Science Journal helps you understand and measure the world around you.
By Joseph Burns: GAO report confirms the financially toxic nature of air ambulance fees







FYI March 26, 2019

On This Day

908 – Emperor Zhu Wen of Later Liang has Li Zhu, the last Tang Dynasty emperor, poisoned.
Emperor Taizu of Later Liang (後梁太祖), personal name Zhu Quanzhong (朱全忠) (852–912), né Zhu Wen (朱溫), name later changed to Zhu Huang (朱晃), nickname Zhu San (朱三, literally, “the third Zhu”), was a Jiedushi (military governor) and warlord who in 907 overthrew the Tang dynasty and established the Later Liang as its emperor, ushering in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. The last two Tang emperors, Emperor Zhaozong of Tang and Emperor Ai of Tang, who “ruled” as his puppets from 903 to 907, were both murdered by him.

Zhu Wen initially served as a general under the rebel Huang Chao, but wisely defected to the weakened Tang dynasty in 882. Taking advantage of the total chaos in the wake of Huang Chao’s defeat, Zhu Wen was able to conquer much of central China after destroying warlords like Qin Zongquan, Shi Pu, Zhu Xuan, and Zhu Jin, although most of Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei remained outside his reach, controlled by rival states Qi, Jin, and Yan respectively. Most of his later campaigns were directed at the Shatuo-ruled Jin state (later to become the Later Tang) based in Shanxi, but they mostly ended in failure due to the resourcefulness of the Jin leaders, Li Keyong and his son Li Cunxu. Due to his emphasis on unifying the north Taizu was not able to make any inroads into southern China, which came to be controlled by about seven different states, although the rulers in the south largely were nominally submissive to him with the exception of Yang Wu and Former Shu.

An outstanding micromanager, Zhu Wen used a combination of strict enforcement, ruthless violence and solicitation to ensure his officers stayed loyal to him. Zhu Wen was also a notorious sexual predator who raped not only the wives of his officers Yang Chongben and Zhang Quanyi, but also his own daughters-in-law. Zhu Wen’s reign came to an end in 912 when he was murdered in his palace by his son Zhu Yougui, whom he begot with a prostitute.



Born On This Day

1633 – Mary Beale, British artist (d. 1699)
Mary Beale (née Cradock; late March 1633 – 8 October 1699) was one of the most successful professional female Baroque-era portrait painters of the late 17th century due to her perseverance of her business. Praised by Richard Gibson and court painter Peter Lely, she is considered as successful as Joan Carlile.[citation needed] Joan Carlile was also an English portrait painter, who was one of the first women to practise painting professionally. Mary Beale managed to be the financial provider for her family through her professional portrait business. Her book Observations, though never officially published, was one of the first instructional books ever written by a woman, and boldly announced her authority on painting. Mary Beale stood apart from other women due to her outspokenness and successful business that allowed her to be the breadwinner of the family.




Vector’s World: Confusion at the pumps; Night Train and more ->
Leafly: 7 Women Writers From History You Didn’t Know Liked Cannabis
The Rural Blog: 9 in 10 new jobs since recession are in major metros; rural areas haven’t recovered the jobs they’ve lost since 2007; Lack of staff, structure at HUD agency slows hurricane aid and more ->
By Elizabeth Llorente: Oklahoma settles with OxyContin maker for $270 million







FYI March 25, 2019

On This Day

1995 – WikiWikiWeb, the world’s first wiki, and part of the Portland Pattern Repository, is made public by Ward Cunningham.
The WikiWikiWeb is the first-ever wiki, or user-editable website. It was launched on 25 March 1995 by its inventor, programmer Ward Cunningham, to accompany the Portland Pattern Repository website discussing software design patterns. The name WikiWikiWeb originally also applied to the wiki software that operated the website, written in the Perl programming language and later renamed to “WikiBase”. The site is frequently referred to by its users as simply “Wiki”, and a convention established among users of the early network of wiki sites that followed was that using the word with a capitalized W referred exclusively to the original site.

The software and website were developed in 1994 by Cunningham in order to make the exchange of ideas between programmers easier. The concept was based on the ideas developed in HyperCard stacks that Cunningham built in the late 1980s.[1][2][3] On March 25, 1995, he installed the software on his company’s (Cunningham & Cunningham) website, c2.com. Cunningham came up with the name WikiWikiWeb because he remembered a Honolulu International Airport counter employee who told him to take the Wiki Wiki Shuttle, a shuttle bus line that runs between the airport’s terminals. “Wiki Wiki” is a reduplication of “wiki”, a Hawaiian language word for “quick”.[4] Cunningham’s idea was to make WikiWikiWeb’s pages quickly editable by its users, so he initially thought about calling it “QuickWeb”, but later changed his mind and dubbed it “WikiWikiWeb”.

As of May 2015, the WikiWikiWeb’s WelcomeVisitors page contained the following description:

Welcome to WikiWikiWeb, also known as Ward’s wiki or just Wiki. A lot of people had their first wiki experience here. This community has been around since 1995 and consists of many people. We always accept newcomers with valuable contributions. If you haven’t used a wiki before, be prepared for a bit of CultureShock. The beauty of Wiki is in the freedom, simplicity, and power it offers. This site’s primary focus is PeopleProjectsAndPatterns in SoftwareDevelopment. However, it is more than just an InformalHistoryOfProgrammingIdeas. It started there, but the theme has created a culture and DramaticIdentity all its own. All Wiki content is WorkInProgress. Most of all, this is a forum where people share ideas! It changes as people come and go. Much of the information here is subjective. If you are looking for a dedicated reference site, try WikiPedia; WikiIsNotWikipedia!

Hyperlinks between pages on WikiWikiWeb are created by joining capitalized words together, a technique referred to as camel case. This convention of wiki markup formatting is still followed by some more recent wiki software, whereas others, such as the MediaWiki software that powers Wikipedia, allow links without camel case.

In December 2014, WikiWikiWeb came under the attack of vandals, and is now in a read-only state.[5] On February 1, 2015 Cunningham announced that the Wiki had been rewritten as a single-page application and migrated to the new Federated Wiki.[6]

See also
History of wikis


Born On This Day

1760 – Louisa Finch, Countess of Aylesford, English naturalist and botanical illustrator (d. 1832)
Louisa Finch, Countess of Aylesford (née Thynne; 25 March 1760 – 28 December 1832) was an English naturalist and botanical illustrator who made studies and paintings of the plants, algae, and fungi from the Warwickshire area.

The eldest daughter of the politician Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath, in 1781 she married Heneage Finch, 4th Earl of Aylesford and upon settling in Warwickshire took to studying the region’s flora. She produced over 2,800 botanical watercolour drawings was a correspondent of botanists such as William Withering, W. T. Bree, and George Don.[1][2] Additionally, she documented about 30 first records of plants from Warwickshire.[3] She also amassed an extensive collection of minerals, which was acquired by Henry Heuland after her death.[4] She had 12 children, and died at the age of 72 at the family home of Packington Hall. Her plants are collected in Oxford University, and her minerals and manuscripts in the Natural History Museum.[5]

Art Work
Christie’s (British auctioneer) notes Louisa Finch’s works in their historic sales of art auctions:

“Two albums of original watercolours of mushrooms, toadstools and other fungi. [dated: 8 October 1792-1797]. 2 volumes, 2° (498 x 380mm). 2 leaves of manuscript indices at the front of each volume, 299 original watercolours by Louisa Finch (340 x 235mm. and smaller), 152 in vol.I, 147 in vol.II, mounted one to a sheet within an ink and wash border, all numbered, all with identifying title and a note of the place where they were drawn (‘Packington’) inscribed on the mount in ink in a single hand, many with a reference number, most with dates.” [6]

Christies also states, “Intelligence as well as artistic ability have been applied to creating the albums, and they show Louisa to have been not only an accomplished draughtswoman but also a keen student of botany.”[6]

An image of a 1792 yellow flower watercolour is available here at the British Museum Website.



By Associated Press: Scott Walker, Walker Brothers singer, dead at 76
Scott Walker (born Noel Scott Engel; January 9, 1943 – March 22, 2019)[1][2][3][4] was an American-born British singer-songwriter, composer and record producer. Walker was known for his distinctive baritone voice and an unorthodox career path which took him from 1960s teen pop icon to 21st-century avant-garde musician.[5][6] Walker’s success was largely in the United Kingdom, where his first three solo albums reached the top ten. He lived in the UK from 1965 and became a British citizen in 1970.[7]

First coming to fame in the mid-1960s as frontman of the pop music trio The Walker Brothers, Walker began a solo career with 1967’s Scott, moving toward an increasingly challenging baroque pop style on late ’60s albums such as Scott 3 (1969) and Scott 4 (1969).[8][9] His solo work did not sell well, leading him to reunite with The Walker Brothers in the mid-1970s.[5][6] From the mid-1980s, Walker revived his solo career while moving in an increasingly avant-garde direction[9][10][11] that The Guardian likened to “Andy Williams reinventing himself as Stockhausen.”[6]

Walker continued to release solo material until his death, and was last signed to 4AD Records. As a record producer or guest performer, he worked with a number of artists including Pulp, Ute Lemper, Sunn O))) and Bat for Lashes.




By WFAN.com: Baseball Writers, Players Remember Longtime Reporter Marty Noble
By Bruce Haring: Larry Cohen Dies: Creator Of ‘Branded,’ ‘The Invaders’ And Horror Classic ‘It’s Alive’ Was 77
By James LaPorta: Remembering Becket – A mother’s search for answers
This Day in History March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez crashes, causing one of the worst oil spills in history
By Savannah Tanbusch: Blog Profiles: Train Blogs
By Sarah Midkif: This Is What Gloria Steinem Was Doing At Your Age
by Associated Press: Bingo and bongs: More seniors turn to pot for age-related aches
By Sum Lok-kei: Aviation authority investigates why Cathay Pacific allowed pilot with measles to fly seven times in four days as Hong Kong tackles growing outbreak of the disease

One bullet each.
By Morgan Winsor: Slain police officer targeted because he was Hispanic: Police

“In an act of cowardice, Mr. Jackson went to get a gun to settle this petty dispute, which resulted in him murdering the first Hispanic man that he came in contact with,” Johnson said.

At that time, Rivera was leaving a club with another off-duty officer and several friends, police said. As Rivera and his friends got into their car, three suspects approached their car and one suspect fired multiple rounds into the car, police said.

“When shots were fired, Rivera leaned over and shielded his girlfriend with his body from the gunfire,” Chicago Police Department spokesman Anthony Guglielmi tweeted.
By Chris Isidore, CNN Business: Krispy Kreme owners admit to family history of Nazi ties
The Reimann family, which owns the controlling stake in JAB Holdings and is reportedly one of the richest families in Germany, will donate €10 million, or $11 million, to a yet-undisclosed charity after a three-year investigation that it commissioned discovered details of their ancestors’ behavior.
By Pia Christensen: Conference panelists invite your input on their sessions
By Associated Press: Key Greenland glacier growing again after shrinking for years, NASA study shows “That was kind of a surprise.”
Open Culture: Journalism Under Siege: A Free Course from Stanford Explores the Imperiled Freedom of the Press; Watch Seder-Masochism, Nina Paley’s Animated, Feminist Take on the Passover Holiday: It’s Free and in the Public Domain; Does Playing Music for Cheese During the Aging Process Change Its Flavor? Researchers Find That Hip Hop Makes It Smellier, and Zeppelin’s “Stairway to Heaven” Makes It Milder and more ->

Nieman Lab: The long, complicated, and extremely frustrating history of Medium, 2012–present; Instead of helping Canadian news startups, a new government subsidy will only prop up failed models; After New Zealand, is it time for Facebook Live to be shut down? And more ->
GlacierHub – Newsletter 03/25/2019: Iago Otero and Emmanuel Reynard describe the launch of the Interdisciplinary Center for Mountain Research; The 800-mile-long Antarctica Peninsula is one of the fastest warming regions on the planet. Mongolia’s grasslands are being degraded by climate change and heavy goat populations, driven by global cashmere demand. More ->
MessyNessy 13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. CCCXLV): Europe’s First Underwater Restaurant; A Perfect New Life in Newfoundland, For Sale; This Performance Art; The Woman Charlie Chaplin Fell in love with “at first sight”; The Story Behind the Only Known Photo of Marilyn Monroe and John F. Kennedy (and Robert Kennedy) Together; Playing with Food in 1957 and more ->
The Passive Voice: Melville House Will Make the Mueller Report Its First Mass Market Title; Everyone’s a Copywriter. Right?; Fantasy; Make Your Ego Porous; Baby Shark Copyright Attack


Jody Harris Tutorial Team Shelton, WA: Privacy Plus a Garden Area!
By mjrovai: Colorizing Old B&W Photos and Videos With the Help of AI
This project is based on a research work developed at the University of California, Berkeley by Richard Zhang, Phillip Isola, and Alexei A. Efros. Colorful Image Colorization.

The idea of this tutorial will be to develop a fully automatic approach that will generate realistic colorizations of Black & White (B&W) photos and by extension, videos. As explained in the original paper, the authors, embraced the underlying uncertainty of the problem by posing it as a classification task using class-rebalancing at training time to increase the diversity of colors in the result. The Artificial Intelligent (AI) approach is implemented as a feed-forward pass in a CNN (” Convolutional Neural Network”) at test time and is trained on over a million color images.
By charlesglorioso: StreetWriter
By Ruud van Koningsbrugge: Ghostly Goldfish




By In The Kitchen With Matt: Caramel Rose Apple Pie



FYI March 24, 2019

On This Day

1921 – The 1921 Women’s Olympiad begins in Monte Carlo, first international women’s sports event.
The 1921 Women’s Olympiad Olympiades Féminines and Jeux Olympiques Féminins[1] was the first international women’s sports event, a 5-day multi-sport event organised by Alice Milliat and held on 24–31 March[2] 1921 in Monte Carlo[3] at the International Sporting Club of Monaco.[4] The tournament was formally called 1er Meeting International d’Education Physique Féminine de Sports Athlétiques.[5] It was the first of three Women’s Olympiads or “Monte Carlo Games” held annually at the venue, and the forerunner of the quadrennial Women’s World Games, organised in 1922–34 by the International Women’s Sports Federation founded by Milliat later in 1921.[6]



Born On This Day

1826 – Matilda Joslyn Gage, American activist and author (d. 1898)
Matilda Joslyn Gage (March 24, 1826 – March 18, 1898) was a 19th-century women’s suffragist, an aboriginal American rights activist, an abolitionist, a free thinker, and a prolific author, who was “born with a hatred of oppression.”[1]

Gage began her public career as a lecturer at the woman’s rights convention at Syracuse, New York, in 1852, being the youngest speaker present, after which, the enfranchisement of women became the goal of her life. She was a tireless worker and public speaker, and contributed numerous articles to the press, being regarded as “one of the most logical, fearless and scientific writers of her day”. During 1878–1881, she published and edited at Syracuse the National Citizen, a paper devoted to the cause of women. In 1880, she was a delegate from the National Woman Suffrage Association to the Republican and Greenback conventions in Chicago and the Democratic convention in Cincinnati, Ohio. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, she was for years in the forefront of the suffrage movement, and collaborated with them in writing the History of Woman Suffrage (1881–1887). She was the author of the Woman’s Rights Catechism (1868); Woman as Inventor (1870); Who Planned the Tennessee Campaign (1880); and Woman, Church and State (1893).[2]

Gage served as president of the New York State Suffrage Association for five years, and president of the National Woman’s Suffrage Association during 1875–76, which was one of the affiliating societies forming the national suffrage association, in 1890; she also held the office of second vice-president, vice-president-at-large and chairman of the executive committee of the original National Woman Suffrage Association.[2]

Gage’s views on suffrage and feminism were considered too radical by many members of the suffrage association, and in consequence, she organized in 1890 the Woman’s National Liberal Union[3], whose objects were: To assert woman’s natural right to self-government; to show the cause of delay in the recognition of her demand; to preserve the principles of civil and religious liberty; to arouse public opinion to the danger of a union of church and state through an amendment to the constitution, and to denounce the doctrine of woman’s inferiority. She served as president of this union from its inception until her death in Chicago, in 1898.[2]




Peter Dunlap Schohl: Good-bye, Susan, Another Member of Our Support Group Departs
By Lewis Page: 6 Exciting Birdwatching Webcams Vicariously join in on the springtime migration from your couch
Carol Tice Carol at Make a Living Writing: 10 Tips for Sharp Writing That’ll Please the Grammar Police
NSF Director’s Newsletter March 2019: Wireless NICU monitors ease babies’ stay; Thousands of tiny quakes shake Antarctic ice at night and more ->
The Passive Voice: In Y.A., Where Is the Line Between Criticism and Cancel Culture? -> Punctuation, Voice, and Control -> Sometimes It Is Better -> Our Software Is Biased like We Are. Can New Laws Change That? -> “A Loaf of Bread”, the Walrus Said, “Is What We Chiefly Need”, but Did He Remember Ip? -> Anti-Piracy Service Blasty Is Back Online After a Week’s Downtime
Maria Popova’s Brain Pickings: Astrophysicist and Author Janna Levin Reads “Berryman” by W.S. Merwin: Some of the Finest and Most Soul-Salving Advice on How to Stay Sane as an Artist and more ->
Kings River Life: Feral Paws Rescue Samson; Food Mysteries For Your Spring Reading Fun! More ->
Vector’s World: Rollin’; Super modified sprint car?? Happy World Frog Day and more ->
By Ralph Ellis and Melanie Schuman, CNN: Hundreds of cities, counties and Native American tribes file federal lawsuit against Sackler family over opioid crisis
By Johnny Kauffman: 55 Years Later, Lawyer Will Again Argue Over Redistricting Before Supreme Court

What happened to the creeps who filmed it?

By Faith Karimi, CNN: Man is arrested in kicking of an elderly woman on a subway as bystanders shot video

By Zara Stone: The Hottest Way to Read Short Stories? With Chat Fiction
Why you should care
Because this might be the way to get a distracted generation to read more.

By Nick Fouriezos: Slip Sliding Away? Here’s How to Ice-Proof Your Shoes
Why you should care
Because these hacks could prevent you from slipping on ice … or falling to your death.

By Ben Halder: How China’s ‘Cobot’ Revolution Could Transform Automation
Why you should care
The cooperative robot model that China is expanding could hold vital lessons for other developing economies that also rely heavily on small businesses.

By Allison Keyes: On the Business End of a Gun
Why you should care
About half of the time, reading about crime just becomes wallpaper for what feels like a slow slide into urban entropy. Until it happens to you.

I had taken self-defense and thought I knew how to fight. I knew to stab for the eyes or kick the guy in the balls and run, screaming, “Fire!” You’re supposed to zigzag if someone has a gun on you, so they have less of a chance of hitting you.

I couldn’t do any of that. I just froze and stared at that gun.

But I lived.
Dear Reading Friends –

A few days ago, we asked for a few brave souls to take a 60 second quiz about what YOU wanted to read next from the Two Navy Guys…

Boy howdy, did you rise to the challenge! We are bowled over with gratitude at how many people took the time to respond!

If you missed the email or it fell into the black hole of your inbox, here’s the link again: https://goo.gl/forms/Tu0fGZ1IJJtESbSr1. The flash quiz will stay open for another day, so there’s still time for you to weigh in.

We can’t thank you enough for helping us develop the next great thriller!

Happy reading,

David & JR
Two Navy Guys







FYI March 23, 2019

On This Day

1540 – Waltham Abbey is surrendered to King Henry VIII of England; the last religious community to be closed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England, Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions. Although the policy was originally envisaged as increasing the regular income of the Crown, much former monastic property was sold off to fund Henry’s military campaigns in the 1540s. He was given the authority to do this in England and Wales by the Act of Supremacy, passed by Parliament in 1534, which made him Supreme Head of the Church in England, thus separating England from Papal authority, and by the First Suppression Act (1535) and the Second Suppression Act (1539).

Professor George W. Bernard argues:

The dissolution of the monasteries in the late 1530s was one of the most revolutionary events in English history. There were nearly 900 religious houses in England, around 260 for monks, 300 for regular canons, 142 nunneries and 183 friaries; some 12,000 people in total, 4,000 monks, 3,000 canons, 3,000 friars and 2,000 nuns. If the adult male population was 500,000, that meant that one adult man in fifty was in religious orders.[1]



Born On This Day

1842 – Susan Jane Cunningham, American mathematician (d. 1921)
Susan Jane Cunningham (March 23, 1842 – January 24, 1921) was an American mathematician instrumental in the founding and development of Swarthmore College.[1] She was born in Virginia, and studied mathematics and astronomy with Maria Mitchell at Vassar College as a special student during 1866–67.[1] She also studied those subjects during several summers at Harvard University, Princeton University, Newnham College at Cambridge, the Greenwich Observatory in England, and Williams College.[1]

In 1869 she became one of the founders of the mathematics and astronomy departments at Swarthmore, and she headed both those divisions until her retirement in 1906.[2] She was Swarthmore’s first professor of astronomy, and was professor of mathematics at the college beginning in 1871.[1][3] By 1888 she was Mathematics Department Chair, and that year she was given permission to plan and equip the first observatory in Swarthmore, which housed the astronomy department, and in which she lived in until her retirement; it was known as Cunningham Observatory.[1][3][4] The building still exists on the campus although it is no longer used as an observatory, and is now simply known as the Cunningham Building.[1][3] In 1888 Cunningham was given the first honorary doctorate of science ever given by Swarthmore.[2] In 1891 she became one of the first six women to join the New York Mathematical Society, which later became the American Mathematical Society.[5] The very first was Charlotte Angas Scott, and the other four were Mary E. Byrd of Smith College, Mary Watson Whitney of Vassar, Ellen Hayes of Wellesley, and Amy Rayson, who taught mathematics and physics at a private school in New York City.[5] Cunningham was also a member of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific as early as 1891.[6] She was also a founder member of the British Astronomical Association in 1890, resigned 1908 September.

Cunningham died on January 24, 1921 from heart failure. Her funeral service was held on-campus in the Swarthmore College Meeting House, and was attended by many notable figures such as then-Pennsylvania governor William C. Sproul and Pennsylvania State Commissioner of Health Edward Martin.[7]



KSHB: Country singer dies in accidental shooting while filming music video, reports say


By David Aaro: Soldier walking across US to aid other vets
By Talia Kaplan: Indiana teachers hit with plastic pellets during active shooter drill: ‘It hurt so bad’
By Michelle Lou and Alanne Orjoux, CNN: Googling ‘Florida man’ is the latest internet fad. Let’s explore why so many crazy stories come out of the state
By Will Stone, KJZZ, NPR, Kaiser Health News: Aspiring doctors seek advanced training in addiction medicine The addiction medicine specialty is expanding its accredited training to include primary care residents and ‘social justice warriors’ who see it as a calling.
By Vanessa Romo: State-Funded Adoption Agencies In Michigan Barred From Refusing LGBTQ Parents
Faith-based adoption agencies in Michigan that benefit from taxpayer funding will no longer be allowed to legally turn away same-sex couples or LGBTQ individuals based on religious objection, under the terms of a settlement in a lawsuit alleging the practice constituted discrimination.

Attorney General Dana Nessel reached the settlement with the ACLU on Friday, recognizing that a 2015 law that permitted state-contracted child welfare agencies to refuse to provide foster care or adoption services that conflicted with their religious beliefs violates federal anti-discrimination laws.

“Discrimination in the provision of foster care case management and adoption services is illegal, no matter the rationale,” Nessel said in a statement. “Limiting the opportunity for a child to be adopted or fostered by a loving home not only goes against the state’s goal of finding a home for every child, it is a direct violation of the contract every child placing agency enters into with the state.”
By Frederic Lardinois: Firefox is now a better iPad browser
Gastro Obscura: Mythical Manna; Edible Book Festival; Fire Ant Repellent and more ->
Barn Finds Josh Mortensen: The Beetle Powered Vette: 1970 Shala-Vette
Great comments!
The Old Motor: The Esso Tiger and Band Help “Put A Tiger In Your Tank” Circa-1964
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Six-man football
Six-man football is a variant of American football played with six players per team, instead of 11.

Six-man football was developed in 1934 by Stephen Epler in Chester, Nebraska, as an alternative means for small high schools to field a football team during the Great Depression.

The first six-man game was played on Thursday, September 27, 1934, in the Hebron, Nebraska Athletic Gridiron, under the lights, with a crowd of almost 1000 watching. This game was played so that coaches all over Kansas and Nebraska could see if they wanted to try this new game of six-man. The two teams playing in the game were the combined team from Hardy-Chester and a combined team from Belvalex-Alexandria. The two teams had two weeks to practice prior to this game. After that night, rules for the game were distributed to about 60,000 coaches in the United States.[1] On October 5, 1940, Windham High School from Windham, Ohio defeated Stamford Collegiate of Niagara Falls, Ontario 39-1 in the first international six-man football game.[2]



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FYI March 22, 2019

On This Day

1638 – Anne Hutchinson is expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony for religious dissent.
Anne Hutchinson (née Marbury; July 1591 – August 1643) was a Puritan spiritual adviser and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy which shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in the Boston area, and her popularity and charisma helped create a theological schism that threatened to destroy the Puritans’ religious community in New England. She was eventually tried and convicted, then banished from the colony with many of her supporters.

Hutchinson was born in Alford, Lincolnshire, England, the daughter of Francis Marbury, an Anglican cleric and school teacher who gave her a far better education than most other girls received. She lived in London as a young adult, and there married her old friend from home William Hutchinson. The couple moved back to Alford where they began following dynamic preacher John Cotton in the nearby port of Boston, Lincolnshire. Cotton was compelled to emigrate in 1633, and the Hutchinsons followed a year later with their 11 children and soon became well established in the growing settlement of Boston in New England. Anne was a midwife and very helpful to those needing her assistance, as well as forthcoming with her personal religious understandings. Soon she was hosting women at her house weekly, providing commentary on recent sermons. These meetings became so popular that she began offering meetings for men as well, including the young governor of the colony Henry Vane.

She began to accuse the local ministers (except for Cotton and her husband’s brother-in-law John Wheelwright) of preaching a “covenant of works” rather than a “covenant of grace,” and many ministers began to complain about her increasingly blatant accusations, as well as certain theological teachings that did not accord with orthodox Puritan theology. The situation eventually erupted into what is commonly called the Antinomian Controversy, culminating in her 1637 trial, conviction, and banishment from the colony. This was followed by a March 1638 church trial in which she was put out of her congregation.

Hutchinson and many of her supporters established the settlement of Portsmouth with encouragement from Providence Plantations founder Roger Williams in what became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. After her husband’s death a few years later, threats of Massachusetts taking over Rhode Island compelled Hutchinson to move totally outside the reach of Boston into the lands of the Dutch. Five of her older surviving children remained in New England or in England, while she settled with her younger children near an ancient landmark called Split Rock in what later became The Bronx in New York City. Tensions were high at the time with the Siwanoy Indian tribe. In August 1643, Hutchinson, six of her children, and other household members were massacred by Siwanoys during Kieft’s War. The only survivor was her nine year-old daughter Susanna, who was taken captive.

Hutchinson is a key figure in the history of religious freedom in England’s American colonies and the history of women in ministry, challenging the authority of the ministers. She is honored by Massachusetts with a State House monument calling her a “courageous exponent of civil liberty and religious toleration.” She has been called the most famous—or infamous—English woman in colonial American history.



Born On This Day

1808 – Caroline Norton, English feminist, social reformer, and author (d. 1877)[1]
Caroline Elizabeth Sarah Norton (22 March 1808 – 15 June 1877) was an English social reformer and author active in the early and mid-nineteenth century.[1] Caroline left her husband in 1836, following which he sued her close friend Lord Melbourne, the then Whig Prime Minister, for criminal conversation (i.e. adultery). The jury threw out the claim, but Caroline was unable to obtain a divorce and was denied access to her three sons. Caroline’s intense campaigning led to the passing of the Custody of Infants Act 1839, the Matrimonial Causes Act 1857 and the Married Women’s Property Act 1870. Caroline modelled for the fresco of Justice in the House of Lords by Daniel Maclise, who chose her because she was seen by many as a famous victim of injustice.





























FYI March 21, 2019

On This Day

1861 – Alexander Stephens gives the Cornerstone Speech.
The Cornerstone Speech, also known as the Cornerstone Address, was an oration given by Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens at the Athenaeum in Savannah, Georgia on March 21, 1861,[1] delivered extemporaneously a few weeks before the beginning of the American Civil War in the Battle of Fort Sumter. Stephens’ speech defended slavery, explained the fundamental differences between the constitutions of the Confederacy and that of the United States, enumerated contrasts between Union and Confederate ideologies, and laid out the Confederacy’s causes for seceding.



Born On This Day

1866 – Antonia Maury, American astronomer and astrophysicist (d. 1952)
Antonia Maury (March 21, 1866 – January 8, 1952) was an American astronomer who published an important early catalog of stellar spectra. Maury was part of the Harvard Computers, a group of female astronomers and Human Computers at the Harvard College Observatory. Winner of the Annie Jump Cannon Award in Astronomy in 1943.

Early life
Antonia Caetana de Paiva Pereira Maury was born in Cold Spring, New York in 1866. She was named in honor of her maternal grandmother, Antonia Caetana de Paiva Pereira Gardner Draper,[1] who belonged to a noble family that fled Portugal for Brazil on account of Napoleon Bonaparte’s wars.[2] Maury’s father was the Reverend Mytton Maury, a direct descendant of the Reverend James Maury and one of the sons of Sarah Mytton Maury. Maury’s mother was Virginia Draper, a daughter of Antonia Caetana de Paiva Pereira Gardner and Dr. John William Draper.[2]

Maury was also the granddaughter of John William Draper and a niece of Henry Draper, both pioneering astronomers. As such, young Antonia and her two siblings were exposed to science at a very early age. [1] Her younger sister, Carlotta Maury, went on to become a geologist, stratigrapher, paleontologist.[3]

Antonia Maury attended Vassar College, graduating in 1887 with honors in physics, astronomy, and philosophy. There, she studied under the tutelage of renowned astronomer Maria Mitchell.[1]

Astronomical work
After completing her undergraduate work, Maury went to work at the Harvard College Observatory as one of the so-called Harvard Computers, highly skilled women who processed astronomical data. Her salary was 25 cents, half the amount paid to men at that time.[4] She has not always received credit for her discoveries. For example, at a meeting in 1890 about the observatory discoveries, Edward Charles Pickering is recorded saying; “a careful study of the results has been made by Miss. A. C. Maury, a niece of Dr. Draper” before continuing the discussion on the research, which was published under Pickering’s name.[4]

In this capacity, Maury observed stellar spectra and published an important catalogue of classifications in 1897.[5] As part of this work, she noticed periodic doubling of some lines in the spectrum of ζ1 Ursae Majoris (Mizar A) which led to the publication of the first spectroscopic binary orbit.[6]

Edward Charles Pickering, the observatory’s director, disagreed with Maury’s system of classification and explanation of differing line widths. In response to this negative reaction to her work, she decided to leave the observatory. However, Danish astronomer Ejnar Hertzsprung realized the value of her classifications and used them in his system of identifying giant and dwarf stars.[1] In 1922 the IAU modified its classification system based on the work done by Maury and Hertzsprung.[7]

In 1891 Maury left the observatory and started teaching in the Gilman School in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Pickering asked her to return and complete her observation, and she said that she was uncomfortable completing her research if her work is unacknowledged.[8] She returned for a year in 1893 and 1985 and her work was published in 1897. Her catalog was the first issue to have a women’s name on the title,[8] with the acknowledgment appearing as “Discussed by Antonia C. Maury under the direction of Edward Charles Pickering”[9].

Between 1896 and 1918 Maury taught physics and chemistry at the Castle School (Miss C.E. Mason’s Suburban school for girls) in Tarrytown, New York. She also gave lectures on astronomy at Cornell.[1]

In 1918, Maury returned to Harvard College Observatory as an adjunct professor. She worked better with Pickering’s successor Harlow Shapley, and she stayed in the observatory until her retirement in 1948.

Her most famous work there was the spectroscopic analysis of the binary star Beta Lyrae, published in 1933.[10]

Later years

After retirement, Maury pursued interests in nature and conservation. She enjoyed bird-watching, and she fought to save western Sequoia trees from being felled during wartime. For three years, Maury also served as curator of the John William Draper House in Hastings-on-Hudson, NY, where her grandfather and uncle had built observatories, and where the first photos of the moon as seen through a telescope were taken.

Maury died on January 8, 1952, in Dobbs Ferry, NY

Maury lunar crater

In 1943, Antonia Maury was awarded the Annie Jump Cannon Award in Astronomy by the American Astronomical Society.[11]

The lunar crater Maury and a number of smaller ejecta craters are co-named for Antonia Maury.[12] They were originally named for her cousin, Commander Matthew Fontaine Maury, United States Navy and are, perhaps, the only lunar features shared by two cousins.



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FYI March 20, 2019

On This Day

1600 – The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden: five Swedish noblemen are publicly beheaded in the aftermath of the War against Sigismund (1598–1599).[1]
The Linköping Bloodbath (Swedish: Linköpings blodbad) on 20 March 1600 was the public execution by beheading of five Swedish nobles in the aftermath of the War against Sigismund (1598–1599), which resulted in the de facto deposition of the Polish and Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa as king of Sweden. The five were advisors to Catholic Sigismund or political opponents of the latter’s uncle and adversary, the Swedish regent Duke Charles.

Detention, trial and execution
King Sigismund, eldest son to King John III, had inherited the crown from his father and been crowned the rightful king of Sweden after giving assurances that he would not act to aid the Catholic cause in Sweden during the mounting religious turmoil of the counter-reformation in the late 16th century. He violated the agreement, setting off civil war in Sweden. After trying to manage the Swedish situation from afar, Sigismund invaded with a mercenary army after receiving permission from the Polish legislature, and initially was successful. The turning point of his Swedish campaign was the Battle of Stångebro on 25 September 1598, also known as the Battle of Linköping, where Sigismund became trapped in an unfavourable position and had to agree to a truce with Charles.[1] One of Charles’ conditions for the truce was the handing over of Swedish privy counsellors from Sigismund’s camp.[1] Sigismund complied.[1]

Most prominent among these Swedish senators was the Chancellor of Sweden, Erik Sparre.[1] While Charles did not detain Sigismund as well, he forced him to agree to the Treaty of Linköping and to agree that their dispute would be settled by a future Riksdag of the Estates in Stockholm.[1] Sigismund retreated to the port of Kalmar, but instead of sailing to Stockholm, he took his sister Anna, left for Danzig in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and never returned to Sweden again.[1] Charles then crushed the remaining military opposition from forces loyal to Sigismund and those nobles who had previously taken control of Finland in the Cudgel War.[2] During these campaigns, some nobles were tried, executed or detained.[3] Executions, including the so-called Åbo Bloodbath, were carried out through decapitation or impalement, Charles himself executed a son of his adversary Clas Fleming.[4]

When in March 1600 a riksdag met in Linköping, Charles, who was meanwhile created omnipotent ruler of Sweden and had repeatedly been offered the Swedish crown, set up a court to try his remaining prisoners.[3] The court, headed by Axel Leijonhufvud and Erik Brahe, consisted of 155 members, with Charles himself being the prosecutor.[3] Tried were six nobles captured in Stångebro and two Finnish nobles captured later, including Arvid Stålarm,[3] who in 1598 had intended to aid Sigismund in Stångebro, but aborted the action when his army had reached Stockholm from Finland only after Sigismund had accepted the aforementioned truce.[1] The other Finnish noble, Axel Kurck, was sentenced to death along with Stålarm in Finland already, but the verdict had been suspended to again try them in Linköping.[4] These eight noblemen were eventually sentenced to death, but three of them were pardoned.

The noblemen publicly executed on the Linköping market square on 20 March 1600[3] were:

Erik Sparre[3][5] — the Chancellor of Sweden and a senator in the Riksens ständer
Ture Nilsson Bielke[5] — a senator in the Riksens ständer
Gustaf Banér[5] — a senator in the Riksens ständer and father of Gustavus II Adolphus the Great’s Swedish Field Marshal Johan Banér
Sten Banér[5] — a senator in the Riksens ständer
Bengt Falck — a senator in the Riksens ständer



Born On This Day

1612 – Anne Bradstreet, Puritan American poet (d. 1672)
Anne Bradstreet (March 20, 1612 – September 16, 1672), née Dudley, was the most prominent of early English poets of North America and first writer in England’s North American colonies to be published. She is the first Puritan figure in American Literature and notable for her large corpus of poetry, as well as personal writings published posthumously.

Born to a wealthy Puritan family in Northampton, England, Bradstreet was a well-read scholar especially affected by the works of Du Bartas. A mother of eight children and the wife of a public officer in the New England community, Bradstreet wrote poetry in addition to her other duties. Her early works read in the style of Du Bartas, but her later writings develop into her unique style of poetry which centers on her role as a mother, her struggles with the sufferings of life, and her Puritan faith.




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FYI March 19, 2019

On This Day

1885 – Louis Riel declares a provisional government in Saskatchewan, beginning the North-West Rebellion.
The North-West Rebellion (or the North-West Resistance, Saskatchewan Rebellion, Northwest Uprising, or Second Riel Rebellion) of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people under Louis Riel and an associated uprising by First Nations Cree and Assiniboine of the District of Saskatchewan against the government of Canada. Many Métis felt Canada was not protecting their rights, their land and their survival as a distinct people. Riel had been invited to lead the movement of protest. He turned it into a military action with a heavily religious tone. This alienated Catholic clergy, whites, most Indians and some Métis. But he had the allegiance of a couple hundred armed Métis, a smaller number of other Aboriginal people and at least one white man at Batoche in May 1885, confronting 900 Canadian army soldiers plus some armed local residents. About 91 people would die in the fighting that occurred that spring, before the rebellion’s collapse.[7][8][9]

Despite some notable early victories at Duck Lake, Fish Creek and Cut Knife, the rebellion ended when the Métis were defeated at the Siege of Batoche. The remaining Aboriginal allies scattered. Riel was captured and put on trial. He was convicted of treason and despite many pleas across Canada for amnesty, he was hanged. Riel became a heroic martyr to Francophone Canada, and ethnic tensions escalated into a major national division that was never resolved.[10][11] Due to the key role that the Canadian Pacific Railway played in transporting troops, Conservative political support for it increased and Parliament authorized funds to complete the country’s first transcontinental railway. Although only a few hundred people were directly affected in Saskatchewan, the long-term result was that the Prairie Provinces would be controlled by English speakers, not French. A much more important long-term impact was the bitter alienation French speakers across Canada showed, and anger against the repression of their countrymen.[12]



Born On This Day

1748 – Elias Hicks, American farmer, minister, and theologian (d. 1830)
Elias Hicks (March 19, 1748 – February 27, 1830) was a traveling Quaker minister from Long Island, New York. In his ministry he promoted unorthodox doctrines that led to controversy, which caused the first major schism within the Religious Society of Friends. Elias Hicks was the older cousin of the painter Edward Hicks.

Early life
Elias Hicks was born in Hempstead, New York, in 1748. He was a carpenter by trade and in his early twenties he became a Quaker like his father, John Hicks.[1]

On January 2, 1771, Hicks married a fellow Quaker, Jemima Seaman, at the Westbury Meeting House and they had eleven children, only five of whom reached adulthood. Hicks eventually became a farmer, settling on his wife’s parents’ farm in Jericho, New York, in what is now known as the Elias Hicks House.[2] There he and his wife provided, as did other Jericho Quakers, free board and lodging to any traveler on the Jericho Turnpike rather than have them seek accommodation in taverns for the night.[3]

In 1778, Hicks helped to build the Friends meeting house in Jericho, which remains a place of Quaker worship. Hicks preached actively in Quaker meeting, and by 1778 he was acknowledged as a recorded minister.[1] Hicks was regarded as a gifted speaker with a strong voice and dramatic flair. He drew large crowds when he was said to be attending meetings, sometimes in the thousands. In November 1829, the young Walt Whitman heard Hicks preach at Morrison’s Hotel in Brooklyn, and later said, “Always Elias Hicks gives the service of pointing to the fountain of all naked theology, all religion, all worship, all the truth to which you are possibly eligible—namely in yourself and your inherent relations. Others talk of Bibles, saints, churches, exhortations, vicarious atonements—the canons outside of yourself and apart from man—Elias Hicks points to the religion inside of man’s very own nature. This he incessantly labors to kindle, nourish, educate, bring forward and strengthen.”[3]

Anti-slavery activism
Elias Hicks was one of the early Quaker abolitionists.

On Long Island in 1778, he joined with fellow Quakers who had begun manumitting their slaves as early as March 1776 (James Titus and Phebe Willets Mott Dodge[4]). The Quakers at Westbury Meeting were amongst the first in New York to do so[5] and, gradually following their example, all Westbury Quaker slaves were freed by 1799.

In 1794, Hicks was a founder of the Charity Society of Jerico and Westbury Meetings, established to give aid to local poor African Americans and provide their children with education.[6]

In 1811, Hicks wrote Observations on the Slavery of Africans and Their Descendents and in it he linked the moral issue of emancipation to the Quaker Peace Testimony, by stating that slavery was the product of war.

He identified the economic reason for the perpetuation of slavery:

Q. 10. By what class of the people is the slavery of the Africans and their descendants supported and encouraged? A. Principally by the purchasers and consumers of the produce of the slaves’ labour; as the profits arising from the produce of their labour, is the only stimulus or inducement for making slaves.

and he advocated a consumer boycott of slave-produced goods to remove the economic reasons for its existence:

Q. 11. What effect would it have on the slave holders and their slaves, should the people of the United States of America and the inhabitants of Great Britain, refuse to purchase or make use of any goods that are the produce of Slavery? A. It would doubtless have a particular effect on the slave holders, by circumscribing their avarice, and preventing their heaping up riches, and living in a state of luxury and excess on the gain of oppression …[7]

Observations on the Slavery of Africans and Their Descendents gave the free produce movement its central argument. This movement promoted an embargo of all goods produced by slave labor, which were mainly cotton cloth and cane sugar, in favor of produce from the paid labor of free people. Though the free produce movement was not intended to be a religious response to slavery, most of the free produce stores were Quaker in origin, as with the first such store, that of Benjamin Lundy in Baltimore in 1826.[8]

Hicks supported Lundy’s scheme to assist the emigration of freed slaves to Haiti and in 1824, he hosted a meeting on how to facilitate this at his home in Jericho.[9] In the late 1820s, he argued in favor of raising funds to buy slaves and settle them as free people in the American Southwest.[10]

Hicks influenced the abolition of slavery in his home state, from the partial abolition of the 1799 Gradual Abolition Act to the 1817 Gradual Manumission in New York State Act which led to the final emancipation of all remaining slaves within the state on July 4, 1827.



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One bullet.
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FYI March 18, 2019

On This Day

1741 – New York governor George Clarke’s complex at Fort George is burned in an arson attack, starting the New York Conspiracy of 1741.
The Conspiracy of 1741, also known as the Negro Plot of 1741 or the Slave Insurrection of 1741, was a purported plot by slaves and poor whites in the British colony of New York in 1741 to revolt and level New York City with a series of fires. Historians disagree as to whether such a plot existed and, if there was one, its scale. During the court cases, the prosecution kept changing the grounds of accusation, ending with linking the insurrection to a “Popish” plot by Spaniards and other Catholics.[1]

In 1741 Manhattan had the second-largest slave population of any city in the Thirteen Colonies after Charleston, South Carolina. Rumors of a conspiracy arose against a background of economic competition between poor whites and slaves; a severe winter; war between Britain and Spain, with heightened anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish feelings; and recent slave revolts in South Carolina and Saint John in the Caribbean. In March and April 1741, a series of 13 fires erupted in Lower Manhattan, the most significant one within the walls of Fort George, then the home of the governor. After another fire at a warehouse, a slave was arrested after having been seen fleeing it. A 16-year-old Irish indentured servant, Mary Burton, arrested in a case of stolen goods, testified against the others as participants in a supposedly growing conspiracy of poor whites and blacks to burn the city, kill the white men, take the white women for themselves, and elect a new king and governor.[1]

In the spring of 1741 fear gripped Manhattan as fires burned across all the inhabited areas of the island. The suspected culprits were New York’s slaves, some 200 of whom were arrested and tried for conspiracy to burn the town and murder its white inhabitants. As in the Salem witch trials and the Court examining the Denmark Vesey plot in Charleston, a few witnesses implicated many other suspects. In the end, over 100 people were hanged, exiled, or burned at the stake.

Most of the convicted people were hanged or burnt – how many is uncertain. The bodies of two supposed ringleaders, Caesar, a slave, and John Hughson, a white cobbler and tavern keeper, were gibbeted. Their corpses were left to rot in public. Seventy-two men were deported from New York, sent to Newfoundland, various islands in the West Indies, and the Madeiras.



Born On This Day

1870 – Agnes Sime Baxter, Canadian mathematician (d. 1917)
Agnes Sime Baxter (Hill) (18 March 1870 – 9 March 1917) was a Canadian-born mathematician. She studied at Dalhousie University, receiving her BA in 1891, and her MA in 1892. She received her Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1895; her dissertation was “On Abelian integrals”, a resume of Neumann’s Abelian integral with comments and applications.”[1]

Baxter enrolled at Dalhousie University in 1887. Her primary courses of study were mathematics and mathematical physics. Despite the relative lack of female scholars in these areas, Baxter received her bachelor’s degree in 1891 and was the first women at the university to gain a honours degree [2]. She received multiple awards at graduation, including the Sir William Young Medal for highest standing in mathematics and mathematical physics [2].

Baxter completed her master’s degree at Dalhousie in 1892.

From 1892 to 1894, Baxter held a fellowship at Cornell University in New York. On the completion of her thesis, “On Abelian integrals, a resume of Neumann’s ‘Abelsche Integrele’ with comments and applications,” she became the second Canadian woman and the fourth woman on the North American continent to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics[3][4]. Her supervisor, James Edward Oliver in 1894 and his mathematical notes were edited by Baxter and later published [2].

On her death, her husband Albert Ross Hill wanted his wife’s memory to be preserved donated $1000 to Dalhousie University for the purchase a collection of books at Dalhousie University. The University also created the Agnes Baxter Reading Room within the Dept of Mathematics, Statistics and Computing sciences.

Non-Academic Life
Agnes Sime Baxter was born on March 18, 1870, in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The Baxter family had emmigrated to Canada from Scotland. Her father, Robert Baxter, was manager of the Halifax Gas Light Company, having managed a Scottish electric light company before moving to Nova Scotia.

Agnes Baxter married Dr. Albert Ross Hill on August 20, 1896. The marriage produced two daughters. Agnes chose not to teach at the institutions where her husband was a professor, although Albert credited her with assisting him in his work.

Agnes Ross Hill died on March 9, 1917, in Columbia, Missouri, after protracted illness and was buried in the Columbia Cemetery.[3][4]



Richard Anthony Monsour (May 4, 1937 – March 16, 2019), known professionally as Dick Dale, was an American rock guitarist, known as “The King of the Surf Guitar'”. He was a pioneer of surf music, drawing on Middle Eastern music scales and experimenting with reverberation.

Dale worked closely with Fender Musical Instruments Corporation to produce custom made amplifiers[1] including the first-ever 100-watt guitar amplifier.[2] He pushed the limits of electric amplification technology, helping to develop new equipment that was capable of producing a louder guitar sound without sacrificing reliability.[1]


Dick Dale
By Daniel Kreps: Dick Dale, King of the Surf Guitar, Dead at 81 Pioneering guitarist and progenitor of surf rock with “Let’s Go Trippin’” and “Miserlou” inspired generation of musicians
By Daniel Kreps: Jack White Pays Tribute to ‘Unique Innovator’ Dick Dale “I spent many moments learning his massive reverbed guitar licks in my bedroom, and still enjoy playing his song ‘Nitro’ whenever I can”