Tag: Hi-jacked

FYI September 24, 2017


1906 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt proclaims Devils Tower in Wyoming as the nation’s first National Monument.
Devils Tower (also Bear Lodge Butte[5]) is a laccolithic butte composed of igneous rock in the Bear Lodge Mountains (part of the Black Hills) near Hulett and Sundance in Crook County, northeastern Wyoming, above the Belle Fourche River. It rises dramatically 1,267 feet (386 m) above the Belle Fourche River, standing 867 feet (265 m) from summit to base. The summit is 5,112 feet (1,559 m) above sea level.

Devils Tower was the first declared United States National Monument, established on September 24, 1906, by President Theodore Roosevelt. The monument’s boundary encloses an area of 1,347 acres (545 ha).

In recent years, about 1% of the monument’s 400,000 annual visitors climbed Devils Tower, mostly using traditional climbing techniques.[6]

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1898 – Charlotte Moore Sitterly, American astronomer (d. 1990)
Charlotte Emma Moore Sitterly (September 24, 1898 – March 3, 1990) was an American astronomer.[1] She is known for her extensive spectroscopic studies of the Sun and chemical elements. Her tables of data are known for their reliability and still used regularly.[2]

Early life and education
Charlotte Moore was born to George W. and Elizabeth Walton Moore in Ercildoun, Pennsylvania, a small village near Coatesville. Her father was the Superintendent of Schools for Chester County and her mother was a schoolteacher. Her parents were Quakers and Charlotte was a lifelong member of Fallowfield Friends Meeting.[3]

She attended Swarthmore College, where she participated in many extracurricular activities such as ice hockey, student government, glee club, and tutoring. In order to pay her tuition, Moore was a substitute teacher.[3] She graduated from Swarthmore in 1920 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics and went on to Princeton to work as a human computer.[4]

Career
On the recommendation of her mathematics professor at Swarthmore, Moore obtained a job at the Princeton University Observatory working for Professor Henry Norris Russell as a human computer carrying out calculations needed to use photographic plates in determining the position of the Moon.[5] Over time, while working for Russell, Moore’s interest in astrophysics began to blossom. Russell and Moore researched binary stars and stellar mass, and published extensively on the subject over the years of their collaboration.[6] Her research included an effort to classify 2500 stars based on their spectra.[7]

After five years at Princeton, as part of an ongoing collaboration between Russell and research groups there, she moved to the Mount Wilson Observatory where she worked extensively on solar spectroscopy, analyzing the spectral lines of the Sun and thereby identifying the chemical elements in the Sun. With her collaborators, she analyzed the spectra of sunspots.[6] Her pictures from the Mount Wilson Observatory helped redetermine the new International Angstrom scale. She earned a Ph.D. in astronomy in 1931 from the University of California, Berkeley on a Lick Fellowship; she was not able to study at Princeton because they did not accept women – and would not for the next 30 years.[4][5] While working on her Ph.D, she continued researching spectroscopy and collected and analyzed data about the spectra of chemical elements and molecules. After obtaining her Ph.D, she returned to Princeton to continue work with Russell as a research assistant.[4]

One of her most significant contributions to physics was her identification of technetium in sunlight, the first example of technetium naturally existing. She joined the then National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in 1945.[8] Her tables of atomic spectra and energy levels, published by NBS, have remained essential references in spectroscopy for decades. While there, she began to research the infrared solar spectrum and atomic energy levels.[5] Later in her life, it became possible to launch instruments on rockets and she extended her work to the ultraviolet spectral lines.[9]

In 1949 she became the first woman elected as an associate of the Royal Astronomical Society of Great Britain, in honor of her work on multiplet tablets and in identifying solar spot electra. Throughout her career she authored and co-authored over 100 papers and attended the tenth general assembly of the International Astronomical Union on the Joint Commission on Spectroscopy in Moscow in 1958.[4] Sitterly retired from her position at the NBS when she turned 70, in 1968, but continued her research at the Naval Research Laboratory.[9] Sitterly was honored by the Journal of the Optical Society of America by a commemorative issue in 1988.[10]
Personal life

During her second stay at Princeton, she met and married, on May 30, 1937, Bancroft W. Sitterly, who became a physics professor. She continued to publish journals under her maiden name because most of her recognition was under that name. She believed that traveling is one of the most important aspects of a scientist’s life, as it promotes collaboration between scientists. She enjoyed gardening, traveling, and music with her husband until his death in 1977. She continued her research until her death from heart failure at the age of 91.[4]

Honors
Awards

Annie J. Cannon Award (1937)[6]
Federal Woman’s Award (1961)
William F. Meggers Award of the Optical Society of America (1972)[6]
Bruce Medal (1990)[6]

Service
Vice President, American Astronomical Society
Vice President, American Association for the Advancement of Science Section D
President, Commission on Fundamental Spectroscopic Data, International Astronomical Union

Named after her
Asteroid 2110 Moore-Sitterly

Works
A Multiplet Table of Astrophysical Interest, 1933
The Solar Spectrum (with Harold D. Babcock), 1947
The Masses of the Stars (with Henry Norris Russell), 1940
Ultraviolet Multiplet Table, 1950
Atomic Energy Levels as Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra, 1958

 
 
 
 

By Mike Vago: Meet the English nobleman who may have been King James’ boyfriend
 
 
 
 
By William Hughes: R.I.P. soul singer Charles Bradley

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
$135,000~
https://youtu.be/XEPanglcJWk

 
 
 
 
By Elena K, Hometalk Team: Easy Grout Cleaner (and Swiffer Hack) for Under $8
 
 
 
 
By Penolopy Bulnick: Halloween Wreaths
 
 
 
 
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Yankee Magazine: Vermont Apple Cider Doughnuts
 
 
 
 

Shep McAllister: Sunday’s Best Deals


 
 


 
 


 
 


 
 

FYI September 23, 2017


1889 – Nintendo Koppai (Later Nintendo Company, Limited) is founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce and market the playing card game Hanafuda.

Skipped to:
Nintendo was founded as a card company by Fusajiro Yamauchi on September 23, 1889.[8] Based in Kyoto, the business produced and marketed a playing card game called “Hanafuda”. The handmade cards soon became popular, and Yamauchi hired assistants to mass-produce cards to satisfy demand.[9] In 1949, the company adopted the name Nintendo Karuta Co., Ltd.[b], doing business as The Nintendo Playing Card Co. outside Japan. Nintendo continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan[10] and organizes its own contract bridge tournament called the “Nintendo Cup”.[11] The word Nintendo can be translated as “leave luck to heaven”, or alternatively as “the temple of free hanafuda”.[12][13]

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1931 – Hilly Kristal, American businessman, founded CBGB (d. 2007)
Hilly Kristal (born Hillel Kristal[1]; September 23, 1931[2] – August 28, 2007) was an American club owner and musician who was the owner of the iconic New York City club, CBGB, which opened in 1973 and closed in 2006 over a rent dispute.[3]

Early years
Kristal was born in New York, New York in 1931 but his family moved to Hightstown, New Jersey when he was an infant.[4][5] He studied music from a young age and eventually attended the Settlement Music School in Philadelphia. Kristal also spent a period of time in the Marines.[5]

Venturing into music
He moved back to New York City, where he worked as a singer, appearing on stage in the men’s choral group at Radio City Music Hall. He later became the manager of the Village Vanguard, a jazz club in Greenwich Village, where he booked Miles Davis and other musicians.

He married in 1951 and had two children: Lisa Kristal Burgman and Mark Dana Kristal.[6]

In 1966 he and Ron Delsener co-founded the Rheingold Central Park Music Festival, sponsored by Rheingold Beer. By 1968, Delsener had changed beer sponsors to Schaefer and Kristal was no longer involved. The festival took place every year until 1976 in Central Park and featured superstars from all music genres, including Miles Davis, the Who, Chuck Berry, Bob Marley, B.B. King, Led Zeppelin, the Beach Boys, Frank Zappa, Ray Charles, Patti LaBelle, Ike & Tina Turner, Fleetwood Mac, the Allman Brothers, Slade, Kris Kristofferson, Curtis Mayfield, Bruce Springsteen, Aerosmith and the Doors.

CBGB
In 1970, Kristal opened a bar in the Bowery section of New York called “Hilly’s on the Bowery”, which closed within a couple of years. Then in December 1973, he created “CBGB and OMFUG”, an abbreviation for the kinds of music he intended to feature there (the letters stood for “Country, BlueGrass, Blues and Other Music For Uplifting Gormandizers”).[6] The club, eventually called simply CBGB, became known as the starting point for the careers of such punk rock and new wave acts as the Ramones, Talking Heads, Patti Smith, Television and Blondie.

CBGB featured many famous musicians over the years and remained very popular until its closing in 2006 due to a personal disagreement with the landlord, who opted not to renew the lease. For a short while after the closing, Kristal considered moving the club to Las Vegas.[7]

Death
Kristal died on August 28, 2007 from complications of lung cancer, aged 75.[6]

 
 
 
 


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FYI September 22, 2017


1711 – The Tuscarora War begins in present-day North Carolina.
The Tuscarora War was fought in North Carolina from September 22, 1711 until February 11, 1715 between the British, Dutch, and German settlers and the Tuscarora Native Americans. The Europeans enlisted the Yamasee and Cherokee as Indian allies against the Tuscarora, who had amassed several allies themselves. This was considered the bloodiest colonial war in North Carolina.[1] Defeated, the Tuscarora signed a treaty with colonial officials in 1718 and settled on a reserved tract of land in what became Bertie County.

The first successful and permanent settlement of North Carolina by Europeans began in earnest in 1653. The Tuscarora lived in peace with the European settlers who arrived in North Carolina for over 50 years at a time when nearly every other colony in America was actively involved in some form of conflict with Native Americans. However, the settlers increasingly encroached on Tuscarora land, raided villages to take slaves, and introduced epidemic diseases. After their defeat, most of the Tuscarora migrated north to New York where they joined their Iroquoian cousins, the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. They were accepted as the sixth nation. Their chief said that Tuscarora remaining in the South after 1722 were no longer members of the tribe.

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1515 – Anne of Cleves (d. 1557)
Anne of Cleves (German: Anna von Kleve; 22 September 1515 – 16 July 1557)[1] was Queen of England from 6 January to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII.[1] The marriage was declared never consummated and, as a result, she was not crowned queen consort. Following the annulment, she was given a generous settlement by the King, and thereafter referred to as the King’s Beloved Sister.[2][3] She lived to see the coronation of Queen Mary I, outliving the rest of Henry’s wives.[4]

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Map for where you live?
By Patrick Allan: Check Your L.A. Home’s Likelihood of Collapsing During an Earthquake With This Tool
 
 
 
 

By Patrick Allan: How to Clear Your Amazon Browsing History
 
 
 
 

By: RYAN BROWNE AND MIRANDA GREEN First woman to graduate Marine’s Infantry Officer Course
 
 
 
 

By Maritsa Georgiou: Schools re-examine cybersecurity measures after Flathead hacking
 
 
 
 

This tiny home is also an amp
By Jamie Robinson


By Jamie Robinson: This tiny home is also an amp
There are buildings with great acoustics, and then there’s this – a tiny home that is also a working amp.

‘Amplified’ is the Arkansas home of musician Asha Mevlana, who performs with the Trans-Siberian Orchestra.
 
 
 
 
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Seasonal notices where you live?
Peak Foliage Colors Approaching in Vermont’s Northeast Kingdom
 
 
 
 
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FYI September 21, 2017


1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit is published.
The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children’s fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien. It was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book remains popular and is recognized as a classic in children’s literature.

The Hobbit is set in a time “between the Dawn of Færie and the Dominion of Men”,[1] and follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by Smaug the dragon. Bilbo’s journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into more sinister territory.[2]

The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien’s geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity, competence, and wisdom by accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey, and adventurous sides of his nature and applying his wits and common sense.[3] The story reaches its climax in the Battle of the Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict.

Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story, along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view Tolkien’s own experiences during World War I as instrumental in shaping the story. The author’s scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in fairy tales are often noted as influences.

The publisher was encouraged by the book’s critical and financial success and, therefore, requested a sequel. As Tolkien’s work progressed on the successor The Lord of the Rings, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien’s changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled.

The work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, screen, radio, board games, and video games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits.

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1552 – Barbara Longhi, Italian painter (d. 1638)
Barbara Longhi (/bɑːrˈbɑːrə ˈlɒŋɡi/; 21 September 1552 – 23 December 1638)[1] was an Italian painter. She was much admired in her lifetime as a portraitist, although most of her portraits are now lost or unattributed. Her work, such as her many Madonna and Child paintings, earned her a fine reputation as an artist.

Life and work
Barbara Longhi was born on 21 September 1552 in the northern Italian city of Ravenna, where she spent her entire life.[1] Her father, Luca Longhi (1507–1580) was a well-known Mannerist painter,[2] and her older brother Francesco (1544–1618) was also a painter. Both siblings received painting education from their father and were part of his studio,[3] with Barbara assisting in such projects as work on large altarpieces.[2] She also modeled, and gained some familiarity with the process of marketing her artwork to patrons.[1] Although her training was completed by 1570, her ties to her family and to her father’s workshop remained strong. Very little is known of her life, not even whether she was ever married.[1]

Longhi was very respected as a portraitist, but only one of her portraits, the Camaldolese Monk, is known today. This is also her only known painting depicting an adult male, and one of only a few that includes a date (although the last digit is not entirely legible; it may be 1570 or 1573).[2]

Longhi’s father had depicted her as Saint Barbara in his 1570 painting Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints. Longhi also probably modeled for her father’s Nuptials of Cana.[1] Her Saint Catherine of Alexandria (pictured above) bears a strong resemblance to her father’s depictions of her in the two paintings mentioned above, and it is generally acknowledged as a self-portrait.[1][2][4] Of Longhi’s portrayal of herself as the aristocratic, cultured Saint Catherine of Alexandria, Irene Graziani writes that “when she exhibits an image of herself, Barbara, too, is presented according to the model of the virtuous, elegant and erudite woman, revisiting the themes which Lavinia [Fontana] had developed several years earlier in Bologna, according to a repertoire tied to late Mannerism”.[4] It has been suggested that Longhi may have presented her self-portrait as the devotional image of a saint in order to avoid the appearance of indulging in the sin of vanity.[4] Originally commissioned for the Sant’Appolinare Monastery, Classe,[1] the painting was acquired by the Museo d’Arte della Città di Ravenna in 1829, and underwent a restoration in 1980.[4] Several other of her depictions of Catherine of Alexandria exist.[2]

Most of Longhi’s paintings are unsigned, but on one she included the initials “B.L.F.”, standing for “Barbara Longhi fecit” (“made by Barbara Longhi”)[3] and on another, “B.L.P.”, for “Barbara Longhi pinxit” (“painted by Barbara Longhi”).[5] As almost all of her work was unsigned, it is unknown how many paintings she created or are still in existence. Only about fifteen are definitively attributed to her.[2][6] Of those, about twelve are paintings of the Virgin and Child;[2] such paintings were very popular during the Counter-Reformation.[3] It is thought that some of her works may be erroneously attributed to her father.[5]

Among Longhi’s paintings which do not depict the Madonna is Judith with the Head of Holofernes (ca. 1570–75). This subject was also painted by other female artists including Fede Galizia, Elisabetta Sirani and Artemisia Gentileschi. Longhi’s version differs greatly from two versions painted by Gentileschi in that it does not depict the violent act; instead, her Judith appears to seek forgiveness as she looks heavenward. This is consistent with Counter-Reformation ideas about willingness to admit guilt, and believing in absolution for the penitent.[7]

The simplicity of composition and subtle colour palette used in her paintings also reflect the doctrines of the Counter-Reformation. Her relatively small works, as opposed to the large altarpieces created by her father, are indicative of their intended emphasis on devotional thoughts. She sought to evoke empathy in the viewer with her subjects. She resisted the trend to create huge Biblical scenes, instead concentrating on serene depictions of the Virgin and Child.[1]

Her artistic influences included Raphael, Antonio da Correggio, Parmigianino, Marcantonio Raimondi, and Agostino Veneziano.[1][2] The international success of famed female Italian painter Sofonisba Anguissola may have also served as an inspiration.[8] While influenced by these major figures, her own unique style evolved; for example, her delicate rendering of features such as arms and necks on her Madonnas, and her use of a “warm and subtle golden palette”.[2] She “links traditional composition with intensity of feeling and innovative colouring.”[8]

She died in Ravenna on 23 December 1638, at the age of 86.[1]

Assessment
Longhi is one of the few female artists mentioned in the second edition (1568) of Italian painter and art historian Giorgio Vasari’s epic work Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects. Vasari writes that Longhi “draws very well, and she has begun to colour some things with good grace and manner”.[9] But as Germaine Greer discussed in her The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and Their Work, such “haphazard” selections of women artists including Longhi rarely offered “serious criticism of their achievement.”[10] Greer then offered her own assessment: “Barbara’s output was considerable, all small pictures, remarkable for their purity of line and soft brilliance of colour”[11] and “Barbara Longhi brings to her extremely conservative picture-making a simplicity and intensity of feeling quite beyond her mannerist father and her dilettante brother.”[12]

Muzio Manfredi assessed Longhi’s talent in a 1575 lecture in Bologna:

You should know that in Ravenna lives today a girl of eighteen years of age, daughter of the Excellent painter Messer Luca Longhi. She is so wonderful in this art that her own father begins to be astonished by her, especially in her portraits as she barely glances at a person that she can portray better than anybody else with the sitter posing in front.[9]

Despite a measure of fame in her home town of Ravenna, Longhi was not well known elsewhere during her lifetime. Her paintings provide some insight into the Counter-Reformation’s influence on regional art.[7]

Collections
The Museo d’Arte della Città di Ravenna owns seven works by Barbara Longhi, as well as eleven of her father Luca’s and three by her brother Francesco.[5]

Her work is represented in the collections of the Musée du Louvre (Paris), Pinacoteca di Brera (Milan), Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna, Museo Biblioteca del Grappa, Walters Art Museum (Baltimore, Maryland), and Indianapolis Museum of Art, and also in the Santa Maria Maggiore (Ravenna).

 
 
 
 


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“I’m holding together,” Cole said Thursday by telephone, adding with a chuckle: “The only thing is I need a lot of WD-40.”
 
 
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Other people’s opinions murder dreams in cold blood. I can’t even blame other people’s opinions actually, it’s our fear of them that does the actual killing. The opinions themselves are just accessories before the fact to it.
 
 
 
 
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This Cinematic Twitter Account Offers Hilariously Inaccurate Title Lines
 
 
 
 
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FYI September 20, 2017


1848 – The American Association for the Advancement of Science is created.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.[1] It is the world’s largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members,[2] and is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science, which had a weekly circulation of 138,549 in 2008.[3]

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1831 – Kate Harrington, American poet and educator (d. 1917)
Kate Harrington, born Rebecca Harrington Smith and later known as Rebecca Smith Pollard, was an American teacher, writer and poet.[1]

Biography
She was born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania on September 20, 1831. She spent her most productive years in Iowa. Her father, Prof. N.R. Smith, was a playwright and an authority on Shakespeare. She was married to New York City poet and editor Oliver I. Taylor. Harrington was the anonymous author of Emma Bartlett, or Prejudice and Fanaticism, a fictional reply to Uncle Tom’s Cabin, intended to expose the hypocrisy of Know-Nothingism.

Harrington’s family moved to Ohio, then Kentucky, where Harrington worked as a teacher. Later, she taught in Chicago. Harrington lived in various Iowa cities, including Farmington, Keosauqua, Burlington, Ft. Madison and Keokuk. She began her writing career with the Louisville Journal, whose editor opposed secession and was an important influence in keeping Kentucky in the Union.

In her Letters from a Prairie Cottage, Harrington included a children’s corner with tales about taming and raising animals and of a cat who adopted orphan chicks. Harrington also wrote other children’s books, including a primer and a speller. Pollard’s work in the field of reading represented a pioneer effort in terms of creating a sequential reading program of intensive synthetic phonics, complete with a separate teacher’s manual and spelling and reading books, and moving into a broad based graded series of literature readers. Her series is important for its high correlation of spelling and reading instruction, for its concern for the interests of children, for its incorporation of music into the process of learning to read, and as the forerunner for other phonics systems. Her readers were used in every state in the Union and were still in use in Keokuk, Iowa, as late as 1937. Few women have single-handedly contributed so much to the field of reading.[2]

In 1869, she published a book of poems entitled Maymie, as a tribute to her ten-year-old daughter who died that year.

Emma Bartlett received mixed reviews when it was published in 1856. The Ohio Statesman gave her a very good review but the Cincinnati Times said, “We have read this book. We pronounce the plot an excellent one and the style charming, but she has failed to fulfill the intended mission of the book.” It accused her of also showing prejudice and fanaticism typical of the politicians that she tried to defend.

In 1870, Harrington published “In Memoriam, Maymie, April 6th, 1869”, a meditation on death and suffering, written on the occasion of the death of Harrington’s young daughter.[3]

In 1876, Harrington published “Centennial, and Other Poems,” to commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, and the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, the first official World’s Fair to be held in the United States. The volume included many poems about Iowa, as well as selected poems of Harrington’s father, Prof. N.R. Smith, and illustrations of the Centennial grounds in Philadelphia.

Kate Harrington, or Rebecca Harrington Smith Pollard wrote all of her life. She was 79 years old when she produced the poem, “Althea” or “Morning Glory,” which relates to Iowa. She died in Ft. Madison on May 29, 1917.

 
 
 
 

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[slideshare id=79941052&doc=hecomputerhistory-170919150550]
 
 
 
 

By Jezebel Staff and Rise Magazine: ‘In One Day I Had Lost Everything That Mattered to Me’: Stories From Inside the Child Welfare System
 
 
 
 

By Erin Marquis: Show Me Better Artwork On A Vehicle, I Dare You
 
 
 
 
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By Gary Price: Beta Two of Elsevier’s DataSearch Tool Now Available, Search Across Multiple Repositories
 
 
 
 

Vermont Fall Foliage Runs


 
 


 
 


 
 


 
 

FYI September 19, 2017 draft


1940 – Witold Pilecki is voluntarily captured and sent to Auschwitz to smuggle out information and start a resistance.
Witold Pilecki (13 May 1901 – 25 May 1948; Polish pronunciation: [ˈvitɔlt piˈlɛt͡skʲi]; codenames Roman Jezierski, Tomasz Serafiński, Druh, Witold) was a Polish cavalryman and intelligence officer. He served as a Rittmeister with the Polish Army during the Polish-Soviet War, Second Polish Republic and World War II. Pilecki was also a co-founder of the Secret Polish Army (Tajna Armia Polska) a resistance group in German-occupied Poland and was later a member of the underground Home Army (Armia Krajowa). He was the author of Witold’s Report, the first comprehensive Allied intelligence report on Auschwitz concentration camp and the Holocaust. He was a devout Catholic.[1]

During World War II, he volunteered for a Polish resistance operation that involved being imprisoned in the Auschwitz death camp in order to gather intelligence and later escape. While in the camp, Pilecki organized a resistance movement and, as early as 1941, informed the Western Allies of Nazi Germany’s Auschwitz atrocities. He escaped from the camp in 1943 after nearly two and a half years of imprisonment. Pilecki took part as a combatant in the Warsaw Uprising[2] in August–October 1944.[3] He remained loyal to the London-based Polish government-in-exile after the Soviet-backed communist takeover of Poland and was arrested for espionage in 1947 by the Stalinist secret police (Urząd Bezpieczeństwa) on charges of working for “foreign imperialism”, thought to be a euphemism for British Intelligence.[4] He was executed after a show trial in 1948. Until 1989, information about his exploits and fate was suppressed by the Polish communist regime.[4][5]

As a result of his efforts, he is considered as “one of the greatest wartime heroes”.[3][6][7] In the foreword to the book The Auschwitz Volunteer: Beyond Bravery,[8] Michael Schudrich, the Chief Rabbi of Poland, wrote as follows: “When God created the human being, God had in mind that we should all be like Captain Witold Pilecki, of blessed memory.”[1] In the introduction to that book Norman Davies, a British historian, wrote: “If there was an Allied hero who deserved to be remembered and celebrated, this was a person with few peers.”[1] At the commemoration event of International Holocaust Remembrance Day held in the US Holocaust Memorial Museum on 27 January 2013 Ryszard Schnepf, the Polish Ambassador to the US, described Pilecki as a “diamond among Poland’s heroes” and “the highest example of Polish patriotism”.[7][9]

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1889 – Sarah Louise Delany, American physician and author (d. 1999)
Sarah Louise “Sadie” Delany (September 19, 1889 – January 25, 1999) was an African-American educator and civil rights pioneer who was the subject, along with her younger sister Elizabeth “Bessie” Delany, of the New York Times bestselling oral history, Having Our Say, by journalist Amy Hill Hearth. Sadie was the first Black person permitted to teach domestic science at the high-school level in the New York public schools, and became famous, with the publication of the book, at the age of 103.

Biography
Delany was the second-eldest of ten children born to the Rev. Henry Beard Delany (1858–1928), the first Black person elected Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States, and Nanny Logan Delany (1861–1956), an educator. Rev. Delany was born into slavery in St. Mary’s, Georgia. Nanny Logan Delany was born in a community then known as Yak, Virginia, seven miles from Danville.

Sadie Delany was born in what was then known as Lynch’s Station, Virginia, at the home of her mother’s sister, Eliza Logan. She was raised on the campus of St. Augustine’s School (now University) in Raleigh, North Carolina, where her father was the Vice-Principal and her mother a teacher and administrator. Delany was a 1910 graduate of the school. In 1916, she moved to New York City where she attended Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, then transferred to Columbia University where she earned a bachelor’s degree in education in 1920 and a master’s of education in 1925. She was a New York City schoolteacher until her retirement in 1960. She was the first black person permitted to teach domestic science on the high school level in New York City.[citation needed]

Delany died at the age of 109 in Mount Vernon, New York, where she resided the final decades of her life. She is interred at Mount Hope Cemetery in Raleigh, North Carolina.

The Delany Sisters
Main article: Having Our Say

In 1991, Delany and her sister Bessie were interviewed by journalist Amy Hill Hearth, who wrote a feature story about them for The New York Times. A New York book publisher read Hearth’s newspaper story and asked her to write a full-length book on the sisters. Ms. Hearth and the sisters worked closely for two years to create the book, an oral history called Having Our Say: The Delany Sisters’ First 100 Years, which dealt with the trials and tribulations the sisters had faced during their century of life. The book was on The New York Times bestseller lists for 105 weeks. It spawned a Broadway play in 1995 and a television film in 1999. Both the play and film adaptations were produced by Judith R. James and Dr. Camille O. Cosby.[citation needed]

In 1994, the sisters and Hearth published The Delany Sisters’ Book of Everyday Wisdom, a follow-up to Having Our Say. After Bessie’s death in 1995 at age 104, Sadie Delany and Hearth created a third book, On My Own At 107: Reflections on Life Without Bessie.

Her siblings were:
Lemuel Thackara Delany (1887–1956)
Annie Elizabeth (“Bessie”) Delany (1891–1995)
Julia Emery Delany (1893–1974)
Henry Delany, Jr. (1895–1991)
Lucius Delany (1897–1969)
William Manross Delany (1899–1955)
Hubert Thomas Delany (1901–1990)
Laura Edith Delany (1903–1993)
Samuel Ray Delany (1906–1965)

Delany was the aunt of science fiction writer Samuel R. Delany Jr., the son of her youngest brother. Living Relative Families: Delany, Mickey, Stent, and Graham Families

 
 
 
 

Wikipedia:Today’s featured article Egyptian temple
 
 

By Stafford Marquardt: View the world through someone else’s lens in Google Earth
 
 
 
 
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by Laura Hazard Owen: Report for America wants to place (and help pay for) young reporters in local newsrooms that need them
 
 
 
 
Search engines your university offers?
ByGary Price: Reference: Middle Tennessee St. University Launches Searchable Encyclopedia About First Amendment (Free Access)
 
 
 
 
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By Max Farsoun: Project NHM
In our first group project (team of 4) at General Assembly we were tasked with making the experience of visiting the Natural History Museum (NHM) in London more engaging through an app or responsive website.
 
 
 
 
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13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. CCLIII)

1. When People Accidentally Found Their Doppelgängers In MuseumsFound on Bored Panda. 2. This Fantabulous Forgotten Boy BandThe Fantabulous Jags ladies and gentlemen. Have a listen. 3. Matching Family Sleepwear of the SeventiesFound on Groovela and more…

Source: 13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. CCLIII)

FYI September 17, 2017


1809 – Peace between Sweden and Russia in the Finnish War; the territory that will become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
The Treaty of Fredrikshamn or the Treaty of Hamina (Finnish: Haminan rauha, Swedish: Freden i Fredrikshamn) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on 17 September 1809. The treaty concluded the Finnish War and was signed in the Finnish town of Hamina (Swedish: Fredrikshamn). Russia was represented by Nikolai Rumyantsev and David Alopaeus (Russian ambassador to Stockholm), while Sweden by Infantry General Kurt von Stedingk (former Swedish ambassador to Petersburg) and Colonel Anders Fredrik Skjöldebrand.[1]

According to the treaty Sweden ceded parts of the provinces Lappland and Västerbotten (east of Tornio River and Muonio River), Åland, and all provinces east thereof. The ceded territories came to constitute the Grand Duchy of Finland, to which also the Russian 18th century conquests of Karelia, including small parts of Nyland and Savonia (later to be called Old Finland), were joined in 1812 as Viborg County. Together with the Diet of Porvoo (1809), and the Oath of the Sovereign [1], the Treaty of Fredrikshamn constitutes the cornerstone for the autonomous Grand Duchy, its own administration and institutions, and thereby a start of the development which would lead to the revival of Finnish culture, to equal position of the Finnish language, and ultimately in 1917 to Finland’s independence.

A reference to Emperor Alexander’s promise to retain old laws and privileges in Finland was included, but the treaty overstepped any formal guarantees of the legal position of Finland’s inhabitants. The Russians refused, and the Swedes were not in a position to insist. Similar clauses had been common in peace treaties, but they were also regularly circumvented. At the period of Russification of Finland, 90 years later, the Russian government argued that the treaty wasn’t violated and hence no outside party had any right to intervene, the question being solely a matter of the emperor who had granted the original promise. During the negotiations, Swedish representatives had namely endeavoured to escape the loss of the Åland islands, “the fore-posts of Stockholm,” as Napoleon rightly described them. The Åland islands were culturally, ethnically and linguistically purely Swedish, but such facts were of no significance at that time. In the course of the 19th century it would also turn out that the Åland islands were a British interest, which after the Crimean War led to the demilitarization of the islands according to the Åland Convention included in the Treaty of Paris (1856). During the Second War against Napoleon, Russia and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against Imperial France (5 April 1812). They planned to effect a landing in Swedish Pomerania, which had been overrun by the French. Russia promised to press Denmark into ceding Norway to Sweden. It was understood that Great Britain would join the treaty too, however, this never came to pass. Other plans failed to materialise due to Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

 
 
 
 


1867 – Vera Yevstafievna Popova, Russian chemist (d. 1896)
Vera Yevstafievna Popova, née Vera Bogdanovskaya (Вера Евстафьевна Попова; 17 September 1867 – 8 May 1896) was a Russian chemist. She was one of the first female chemists in Russia,[3] and the first Russian female author of a chemistry textbook.[4] She “probably became the first woman to die in the cause of chemistry” as a result of an explosion in her laboratory.[5]

Early life and education
Vera Bogdanovskaya was born in 1868 in Saint Petersburg. Her father, Evstafy Ivanovich Bogdanovsky, was a professor of surgery. Her parents arranged for their three children to be educated at home. In 1878, she began studying at the Smolny Institute at the age of 11. Starting in 1883 she spent four years at the Bestuzhev Courses and after this she worked for two years in laboratories at the Academy of Sciences and the Military Surgical Academy. In 1889 Bogdanovskaya left Russia for Switzerland, where she undertook a doctorate in chemistry at the University of Geneva. She defended her research into dibenzyl ketone in 1892.[1] Bogdanovskaya wanted to work on H-C≡P (methylidynephosphane), but had been persuaded to concentrate instead on dibenzyl ketone by her doctoral supervisor, Professor Carl Gräbe.[5] She also worked with Dr Philippe Auguste Guye in Geneva, who was working on stereochemistry.[2]

Career
Bogdanovskaya returned to Saint Petersburg in 1892 to work at the Bestuzhev Courses, where she taught chemistry. This was an institution founded in 1878 to encourage Russian women to stay in Russia to study. She was working as an assistant to Prof. L’vov teaching the first courses in stereochemistry. Her reputation as a lecturer and her knowledge of teaching enabled her to write her first book, a textbook on basic chemistry.[4] She wrote reviews, translated academic papers on chemistry and, together with her professor, published the works of Alexander Butlerov, who had died in 1886.[1] Between 1891 and 1894, she published a number of papers based on her doctoral thesis.

She was not just a chemist; she was also interested in entomology, writing and languages. In 1889, she published a description of work with bees. Bogdanovskaya published her own short stories, as well as her translations of the French short story writer Guy de Maupassant.[1]

Personal life

Bogdanovskaya left Saint Petersburg and married General Jacob Kozmich Popov in 1895. He was older than she and a director of a military steel plant, and she demanded that he build her a laboratory where she could continue her chemistry.[5] They lived in Izhevskii Zavod, a town under military control that was dedicated to weapon manufacture.[1] It has been suggested that her marriage may have been one of convenience, as it was known that Russian women sometimes married just to escape the conventions of society.[2]

Death
Popova died on 8 May 1896 (Gregorian calendar; 26 April in the Julian Calendar),[1][2] (the date is sometimes given as 1897 in English sources) as a result of an explosion which occurred while she was attempting to synthesize H-C≡P (methylidynephosphane), a chemical similar to hydrogen cyanide.[5] She was 28.

Aftermath
H-C≡P, the chemical that she was trying to synthesize at the time of her death, was not successfully created until 1961 from phosphine and carbon.[6] It is extremely pyrophoric and polymerizes easily at temperatures above −120 °C. Its triple point is −124 °C and it burns spontaneously even at low temperatures when exposed to air.[6]

Legacy
Popova was given a substantial tribute in the Journal of the Russian Physical Chemical Society.[7] A shorter obituary appeared in the journal Nature[8] and a brief notice in the American journal Science.[9] One report by the chemist Vladimir Ipatieff suggested that she may have been poisoned by her experiment or have committed suicide, but this view was not supported by other reports.[2]

Her early death led to a fund being created in her memory by her husband to assist female students.[citation needed] Her portrait was also displayed at the Women’s College where she had trained.[citation needed]

Popova is credited with classifying dibenzyl ketone. This laid the foundation for synthetic acrylic resins created from acetone cyanohydrin.[1]

 
 
 
 

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What I’m about to say may depress, or inspire you. Here it is: there’s a fu@@ load of talented people in the world. Not all of them amass millions of fans worldwide and earn a fortune overnight. Many of them eek out their daily existence on a string of freelance jobs. Some of them go into teaching, some pursue their passions on the side their entire lives, and others give up. It’s not their fault they don’t win the mother load.

 
 
 
 

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FYI September 16, 2017


1959 – The first successful photocopier, the Xerox 914, is introduced in a demonstration on live television from New York City.The Xerox 914 was the first successful commercial plain paper copier which in 1959 revolutionized the document-copying industry. The culmination of inventor Chester Carlson’s work on the xerographic process, the 914 was fast and economical. The copier was introduced to the public on September 16, 1959, in a demonstration at the Sherry-Netherland Hotel in New York, shown on live television.[1]

Background
Xerography, a process of producing images using electricity, was invented in 1938 by physicist-lawyer Chester Floyd “Chet” Carlson (1906–1968), and an engineering friend, Otto Kornei. Carlson entered into a research agreement with the Battelle Memorial Institute in 1944, when he and Kornei produced the first operable copy machine. He sold his rights in 1947 to the Haloid Company, a wet-chemical photocopy machine manufacturer, founded in 1906 in Rochester, New York.

Haloid introduced the first commercial xerographic copier, the Xerox Model A, in 1949. The company had, the previous year, announced the refined development of xerography in collaboration with Battelle Development Corporation, of Columbus, Ohio. Manually operated, it was also known as the Ox Box. An improved version, Camera #1, was introduced in 1950. Haloid was renamed Haloid Xerox in 1958, and, after the instant success of the 914, when the name Xerox soon became synonymous with “copy”, would become the Xerox Corporation.

In 1963, Xerox introduced the first desktop copier to make copies on plain paper, the 813. It was designed by Jim Balmer and William H. Armstrong of Armstrong-Balmer & Associates, and won a 1964 Certificate of Design Merit from the Industrial Designers Institute (IDI). Balmer had recently left Harley Earl, Inc., where he had been a designer since 1946, to co-establish Armstrong-Balmer & Associates in 1958. At Earl, Balmer had been involved in the Secretary copy machine designed for Thermofax and introduced by 3M in 1958, and Haloid Xerox had been impressed with the design, engaging Balmer to consult on the final design of the 914.

A year later, in 1964, Balmer worked with Xerox to establish their first internal industrial design group. Among those first design employees were William Dalton and Robert Van Valkinburgh.

Specifications and features
One of the most successful Xerox products ever, the 914 model (so-called because it could copy originals up to 9 inches by 14 inches (229 mm × 356 mm)) could make 100,000 copies per month (seven copies per minute). In 1985, the Smithsonian received a Xerox 914, number 517 off the assembly line. It weighs approximately 650 pounds[2] (294 kg) and measures 42″ (107 cm) high × 46″ (117 cm) wide × 45″ (114 cm) deep.

The machine was mechanically complex. It required a large technical support force,[2] and had a tendency to catch fire when overheated (Ralph Nader claimed that a model in his office had caught fire three times in a four-month period). Because of the problem, the Xerox company provided a “scorch eliminator”, which was actually a small fire extinguisher, along with the copier.[1] But despite these problems, the machine was regarded with affection by its operators, due to it being complex enough to be interesting to use, but without being so complex as to be beyond understanding.[3]

The pricing structure of the machine was designed to encourage customers to rent rather than buy – it could be rented in 1965 for $95 a month, but would cost $27,500 to buy.[2]

Sales
The 914 was a significant component of Xerox’s revenues in the mid-1960s, with one author estimating that the machine accounted for two thirds of the company’s revenue in 1965, with income generated of $243M.[2] The machine was produced between 1960 and 1977.[4]

Legacy
The company’s subsequent models were the 720, the 1000, the 813 and the 2400. One writer has assessed that the popularity of the machine has had a number of lasting impacts, such as prompting the introduction of highlighter pens, and university reading lists in the form of anthologies, rather than chapters from separate books.[4]

 
 
 
 


1846 – Anna Kingsford, English author, poet, and activist (d. 1888)
Anna Kingsford, née Bonus (16 September 1846 – 22 February 1888), was an English anti-vivisection, vegetarian and women’s rights campaigner.[1]

She was one of the first English women to obtain a degree in medicine, after Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, and the only medical student at the time to graduate without having experimented on a single animal. She pursued her degree in Paris, graduating in 1880 after six years of study, so that she could continue her animal advocacy from a position of authority. Her final thesis, L’Alimentation Végétale de l’Homme, was on the benefits of vegetarianism, published in English as The Perfect Way in Diet (1881).[2] She founded the Food Reform Society that year, travelling within the UK to talk about vegetarianism, and to Paris, Geneva, and Lausanne to speak out against animal experimentation.[1]

Kingsford was interested in Buddhism and Gnosticism, and became active in the theosophical movement in England, becoming president of the London Lodge of the Theosophical Society in 1883. She said she received insights in trance-like states and in her sleep; these were collected from her manuscripts and pamphlets by her lifelong collaborator Edward Maitland, and published posthumously in the book, Clothed with the Sun (1889).[3] Subject to ill-health all her life, she died of lung disease at the age of 41, brought on by a bout of pneumonia. Her writing was virtually unknown for over 100 years after Maitland published her biography, The Life of Anna Kingsford (1896), though Helen Rappaport wrote in 2001 that her life and work are once again being studied.[1]

Early life
Kingsford was born in Maryland Point, Stratford, now part of east London but then in Essex, to John Bonus, a wealthy merchant, and his wife, Elizabeth Ann Schröder.[4]

By all accounts a precocious child, she wrote her first poem when she was nine, and Beatrice: a Tale of the Early Christians when she was thirteen years old. Deborah Rudacille writes that Kingsford enjoyed foxhunting, until one day she reportedly had a vision of herself as the fox.[5][6] According to Maitland she was a “born seer,” with a gift “for seeing apparitions and divining the characters and fortunes of people”, something she reportedly learned to keep silent about.[7]

She married her cousin, Algernon Godfrey Kingsford in 1867 when she was twenty-one, giving birth to a daughter, Eadith, a year later. Though her husband was an Anglican priest, she converted to Roman Catholicism in 1872, which he appeared not to mind.

Kingsford contributed articles to the magazine “Penny Post” from 1868 to 1873.[8] Having been left £700 a year by her father, she bought in 1872 The Lady’s Own Paper, and took up work as its editor, which brought her into contact with some prominent women of the day, including the writer, feminist, and anti-vivisectionist Frances Power Cobbe. It was an article by Cobbe on vivisection in The Lady’s Own Paper that sparked Kingsford’s interest in the subject.[5]

Studies and research
In 1873, Kingsford met the writer Edward Maitland, a widower, who shared her rejection of materialism. With the blessing of Kingsford’s husband, the two began to collaborate, Maitland accompanying her to Paris when she decided to study medicine. Paris was at that time the center of a revolution in the study of physiology, much of it as a result of experiments on animals, particularly dogs, and mostly conducted without anaesthetic. Claude Bernard (1813–1878), described as the “father of physiology”, was working there, and famously said that “the physiologist is not an ordinary man: he is a scientist, possessed and absorbed by the scientific idea he pursues. He does not hear the cries of the animals, he does not see their flowing blood, he sees nothing but his idea …”[9]

Walter Gratzer, professor emeritus of biochemistry at King’s College London, writes that significant opposition to vivisection emerged in Victorian England, in part in revulsion at the research being conducted in France.[10] Bernard and other well-known physiologists, such as Charles Richet in France and Michael Foster in England, were strongly criticized for their work. British anti-vivisectionists infiltrated the lectures in Paris of François Magendie, Bernard’s teacher, who dissected dogs without anaesthesia, allegedly shouting at them — “Tais-toi, pauvre bête!” (Shut up, you poor beast!) — while he worked.[10] Bernard’s wife, Marie-Francoise Bernard, was violently opposed to his research, though she was financing it through her dowry.[11] In the end, she divorced him and set up an anti-vivisection society. This was the atmosphere in the faculty of medicine and the teaching hospitals in Paris when Kingsford arrived, shouldering the additional burden of being a woman. Although women were allowed to study medicine in France, Rudacille writes that they were not welcomed. Kingsford wrote to her husband in 1874:

Things are not going well for me. My chef at the Charité strongly disapproves of women students and took this means of showing it. About a hundred men (no women except myself) went round the wards today, and when we were all assembled before him to have our names written down, he called and named all the students except me, and then closed the book. I stood forward upon this, and said quietly, “Et moi aussi, monsieur.” [And me, Sir.] He turned on me sharply, and cried, “Vous, vous n’êtes ni homme ni femme; je ne veux pas inscrire vôtre nom.” [You, you are neither man nor woman; I don’t want to write your name.] I stood silent in the midst of a dead silence.”[9]

Kingsford was distraught over the sights and sounds of the animal experiments she saw. She wrote on 20 August 1879:

I have found my Hell here in the Faculté de Médecine of Paris, a Hell more real and awful than any I have yet met with elsewhere, and one that fulfills all the dreams of the mediaeval monks. The idea that it was so came strongly upon me one day when I was sitting in the Musée of the school, with my head in my hands, trying vainly to shut out of my ears the piteous shrieks and cries which floated incessantly towards me up the private staircase … Every now and then, as a scream more heart-rending than the rest reached me, the moisture burst out on my forehead and on the palms of my hands, and I prayed, “Oh God, take me out of this Hell; do not suffer me to remain in this awful place.”[9]

Death
Alan Pert, one of her biographers, wrote that Kingsford was caught in torrential rain in Paris in November 1886 on her way to the laboratory of Louis Pasteur, one of the most prominent vivisectionists of the period. She reportedly spent hours in wet clothing and developed pneumonia, then pulmonary tuberculosis.[13] She travelled to the Riviera and Italy, sometimes with Maitland, at other times with her husband, hoping in vain that a different climate would help her recover. In July 1887, she settled in London in a house she and her husband rented at 15 Wynnstay Gardens, Kensington, and waited to die, although she remained mentally active.[14]

She died on 22 February 1888, aged 41, and was buried in the churchyard of Saint Eata’s, an 11th-century church in Atcham by the River Severn, her husband’s church.[13] Her name at death is recorded as Annie Kingsford. On her marriage in Sussex in 1867, her name was given as Annie Bonus.[15]

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Eugenia Loli is a Photoshop collage artist, etc.


These are great!
Surreal Photoshop Collage and manipulation works by Eugenia Loli
 
 
 
 
If Amazon can not guarantee it was a legitimate review then it should be removed.
By Charles Ventura: Amazon removes one-star reviews from Hillary Clinton’s new book
 
 
 
 
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FYI September 15, 2017


1816 – HMS Whiting runs aground on the Doom Bar
HMS Whiting, built in 1811 by Thomas Kemp as a Baltimore pilot schooner, was launched as Arrow. On 8 May 1812 a British navy vessel seized her under Orders in Council, for trading with the French. The Royal Navy re-fitted her and then took her into service under the name HMS Whiting.[2] In 1816, after four years service, Whiting was sent to patrol the Irish Sea for smugglers. She grounded on the Doom Bar. When the tide rose, she was flooded and deemed impossible to refloat.[3]

Arrow
Built for speed, Arrow served as a cargo vessel trading between the USA and France.[4] This was risky, as in 1807 Britain had introduced restrictions on American trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The U.S. considered these restrictions illegitimate.[5]

On 8 May 1812, six months after being commissioned, Arrow was on a return voyage from Bordeaux to Baltimore fully laden with goods such as brandy, champagne, silk, nuts and toys, when the 38-gun frigate HMS Andromache, commanded by Captain George Tobin, seized Arrow and her cargo. Barely a month later the instruments allowing the seizure were repealed,[4] two days before the United States Congress had voted a declaration of war on Britain, which President Madison approved on 18 June 1812.[6]

Tobin sent Arrow to Plymouth as a prize, with six of his seamen and two marines on board, and under escort of HMS Armide, commanded by Captain Lucius Handyman. As her original crew arrived in England before the declaration of war, they were released.[4] Arrow was taken to Plymouth Dockyard where between June 1812 and January 1813 she was re-fitted to be used by the Royal Navy.[4]

HMS Whiting
In full, Whiting’s new name was “His Majesty’s schooner Whiting”, and not “His Majesty’s ship”.[7] She succeeded the Bermudian-built Ballyhoo schooner, Whiting, which a French privateer had captured outside a US harbour at the start of the American War of 1812. In January 1813 Lieutenant George Hayes RN,[1] took command and on 25 February 1813 she sailed for the Bay of Biscay to join Surveillante, Medusa, Bramble, Iris, Scylla, and Sparrow in the blockade of trade between the U.S. and France.[4]

Whiting was in service with the Royal Navy for almost four years. During that time, while under the command of Hayes, she captured or recaptured several vessels. On 22 March 1813, Whiting shared in the capture of the American schooner Tyger with Medusa, Scylla and Iris. Tyger, of 263 tons (bm), was armed with four guns and had a crew of 25 men. She was sailing from Bordeaux to New York with a cargo of brandy, wine, and silks.[8]

One month later, on 23 April, Whiting was in company with Scylla and Pheasant. After a chase of over 100 miles (90 nmi; 160 km), they captured the American 8-gun brig Fox, which threw two of her guns overboard during the chase. Fox and her 29-man crew was underway from Bordeaux to Philadelphia.[9]

Then on 15 July, Whiting recaptured the ship Friends, in company with Reindeer.[7] Whiting, in company with Helicon, also recaptured the Colin, on 25 October.[10]

By 26 August 1814, Whiting was under the command of Lieutenant John Little. On that day she recaptured the brig Antelope.[11][Note 1]

Whiting was also one of ten British vessels that took part in the Battle of Fort Peter, a successful British attack in January 1815 on an American fort .[13] This battle was one of the skirmishes of the War of 1812 that happened after the US and Britain had signed the Treaty of Ghent, but before the US Senate had ratified it.

Wreck on Doom Bar
On 18 August 1816, Whiting, under the command of Lieutenant John Jackson, was ordered to leave Plymouth and sail around Land’s End to the Irish Sea to counter smuggling in the area. On 15 September 1816, to escape a gale, Jackson took his vessel into harbour at Padstow on the north coast of Cornwall. The wind dropped as they came around Stepper Point, and the ship ran aground on the Doom Bar as the tide was ebbing, stranding her.[3]

According to the court-martial transcripts, an attempt to move Whiting was made at the next high tide, but she was taking on water and it became impossible to save her. Her abandonment happened over the next few days. The court martial board reprimanded Lieutenant Jackson for having attempted to enter the harbour without a pilot and for his failure to lighten her before trying to get her off; as punishment he lost one year’s seniority.[14] Five crewmen took advantage of the opportunity to desert; three were recaptured and were given “50 lashes with nine tails”.[3][15] Whiting was eventually sold and despite correspondence requesting her move eleven years later, the Navy took no further interest in her.[16]

Legacy
In May 2010, ProMare and the Nautical Archaeology Society, with the help of Padstow Primary School, mounted a search to find Whiting.[17] They conducted a geophysical survey that recorded a number of suitable targets that divers subsequently investigated. One target is located only 27 yards (25 m) from the calculated position of the wreck but sand completely covers the site, preventing further investigation at this time.[18]

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1897 – Merle Curti, American historian and author (d. 1997)
Merle Eugene Curti (September 15, 1897 in Papillion, Nebraska – March 9, 1996 in Madison, Wisconsin) was a leading American historian, who taught many graduate students at Columbia University and the University of Wisconsin, and was a leader in developing the fields of social history and intellectual history. He directed 86 finished PhD dissertations and had an unusually wide range of correspondents. As a Progressive historian he was deeply committed to democracy, and to the Turnerian thesis that social and economic forces shape American life, thought and character. He was a pioneer in peace studies, intellectual history, and social history, and helped develop quantitative methods based on census samples as a tool in historical research.

Life
Curti was born in Papillion, Nebraska, a suburb of Omaha, on September 15, 1897. His parents were John Eugene Curti, an immigrant from Switzerland, and Alice Hunt, a Yankee from Vermont. Curti attended high school in Omaha then obtained a bachelor’s degree in 1920 from Harvard University, graduating summa cum laude. He then spent a year studying in France where he met Margaret Wooster, 1898–1963, who had a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago and was a pioneer in research on child psychology.[1] They married in 1925 and had two daughters. Curti received his Ph.D. in 1927 from Harvard as one of the last students of Frederick Jackson Turner.

Curti taught at Beloit College, Smith College, and Columbia University, then in 1942 he joined the faculty of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he taught for 25 years. He also taught in Japan, Australia, and India, and lectured throughout Europe.

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Though, honestly, getting out in the front yard with a chainsaw fits pretty nicely with popular stereotypes about the nuns who run parochial schools.
 
 
 
 
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