FYI August 22, 2017

1711 – Britain’s Quebec Expedition loses eight ships and almost nine hundred soldiers, sailors and women to rocks at Pointe-aux-Anglais.
The Quebec Expedition, or the Walker Expedition to Quebec, was a British attempt to attack Quebec in 1711 in Queen Anne’s War, the North American theatre of the War of Spanish Succession. It failed when seven transports and one storeship were wrecked and some 850 soldiers drowned in one of the worst naval disasters in British history.

The expedition was planned by the administration of Robert Harley, chief minister of the crown, and was based on plans originally proposed in 1708. Harley decided to mount the expedition as part of a major shift in British military policy, emphasizing strength at sea. The expedition’s leaders, Admiral Hovenden Walker and Brigadier-General John Hill, were chosen for their politics and connections to the crown, and its plans were kept secret even from the Admiralty. Despite the secrecy, French agents were able to discover British intentions and warn authorities in Quebec.

The expedition expected to be fully provisioned in Boston, the capital of colonial Massachusetts, but the city was unprepared when it arrived, and Massachusetts authorities had to scramble to provide even three months’ supplies. Admiral Walker also had difficulty acquiring experienced pilots and accurate charts for navigating the waters of the lower Saint Lawrence River. The expedition reached the Gulf of Saint Lawrence without incident, but foggy conditions, tricky currents, and strong winds combined to drive the fleet toward the north shore of the river near a place now called Pointe-aux-Anglais, where the ships were wrecked. Following the disaster, Walker abandoned the expedition’s objectives and returned to England. Although the expedition was a failure, Harley continued to implement his “blue water” policy.

More on wiki:

Pointe-aux-Anglais is a community in the city of Port-Cartier, Quebec, Canada, located halfway between Sept-Îles and Baie-Comeau (232 km), and some 80 kilometres (50 mi) from the town centre of Port-Cartier itself.

Main article: Quebec Expedition

In 1711, a large fleet commanded by Admiral Walker was sent from England to take Quebec. Due to fog on the St. Lawrence, eight ships grounded on the lle-aux-Oeuf reefs and went down with more than 900 men in one of the worst naval disasters in British history. The point of land just across from the reefs was named Pointe-aux-Anglais to commemorate the ill-fated expedition. It comprises the sectors of Pointe-aux-Anglais and Rivière-Pentecôte. An ecomuseum in Pointe-aux-Anglais explains how the English failed in their attempt to attack Quebec.[1]


1647 – Denis Papin, French physicist and mathematician, developed pressure cooking (d. 1712)
Denis Papin (22 August 1647 – c. 1713) was a French physicist, mathematician and inventor, best known for his pioneering invention of the steam digester, the forerunner of the pressure cooker and of the steam engine.[1]

Life in France
Born in Chitenay (Loir-et-Cher, Centre-Val de Loire Région), Papin attended a Jesuit school there, and from 1661 attended University at Angers, from which he graduated with a medical degree in 1669. In 1673, while working with Christiaan Huygens and Gottfried Leibniz in Paris, he became interested in using a vacuum to generate motive power.

First visit to London
Papin first visited London in 1675, and worked with Robert Boyle from 1676 to 1679, publishing an account of his work in Continuation of New Experiments (1680).[2] During this period, Papin invented the steam digester, a type of pressure cooker with a safety valve. He first addressed the Royal Society in 1679 on the subject of his digester, and remained mostly in London until about 1687, when he left to take up an academic post in Germany.

As a Huguenot, Papin found himself greatly affected by the increasing restrictions placed on Protestants by Louis XIV of France and by the King’s ultimate revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. In Germany he was able to live with fellow Huguenot exiles from France.

In 1689, Papin suggested that a force pump or bellows could maintain the pressure and fresh air inside a diving bell. (Engineer John Smeaton utilised this design in 1789.[3][4])

While in Marburg in 1690, having observed the mechanical power of atmospheric pressure on his ‘digester’, Papin built a model of a piston steam engine, the first of its kind.

Papin continued to work on steam engines for the next fifteen years. In 1695 he moved from Marburg to Kassel. In 1705 he developed a second steam engine with the help of Gottfried Leibniz, based on an invention by Thomas Savery, but this used steam pressure rather than atmospheric pressure. Details of the engine were published in 1707.

During his stay in Kassel in Hesse, in 1704, he constructed a ship powered by his steam engine, mechanically linked to paddles. This made him the first to construct a steam-powered boat (or vehicle of any kind). Later, at the iron foundry in Veckerhagen (now Reinhardshagen), he cast the world’s first steam cylinder.

Return to London
Papin returned to London in 1707, leaving his wife in Germany. Several of his papers were put before the Royal Society between 1707 and 1712 without acknowledging or paying him, about which he complained bitterly. Papin’s ideas included a description of his 1690 atmospheric steam engine, similar to that built and put into use by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, thought to be the year of Papin’s death.

The last surviving evidence of Papin’s whereabouts came in a letter he wrote dated 23 January 1712. At the time he was destitute (“I am in a sad case”) [Royal Society Archives, 1894, Vol. 7, 74], and it is believed he died that year and was buried in an unmarked pauper’s pit.

A record exists for the burial of a “Denys Papin” in an 18th-century Register of Marriages & Burials[5] which originally came from St Bride’s Church, Fleet Street, London, but which is now stored in the London Metropolitan Archives. The record states that Denys Papin was buried at St Bride’s on 26 August 1713 – just a few days after his 66th birthday – and that he was laid to rest in the Lower Ground, one of the two burial areas belonging to the church at the time.


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The Badlands StormLapse 4k – Porcupine, SD 8/14/17 from Chad Cowan on Vimeo.


FRACTAL – 4k StormLapse from Chad Cowan on Vimeo.


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