On This Day
1271 – Kublai Khan renames his empire “Yuan” (元 yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan dynasty of Mongolia and China.
The Yuan dynasty (/juˈɑːn/; Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuán Cháo), officially the Great Yuan (Chinese: 大元; pinyin: Dà Yuán; Middle Mongolian: ᠳᠠᠢ
ᠦᠯᠦᠰ, Dai Ön Ulus, literally “Great Yuan State”[note 2]), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. It followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty. Although the Mongols had ruled territories including modern-day North China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style, and the conquest was not complete until 1279. His realm was, by this point, isolated from the other khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia. It was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China and lasted until 1368, after which the rebuked Genghisid rulers retreated to their Mongolian homeland and continued to rule the Northern Yuan dynasty. Some of the Mongolian Emperors of the Yuan mastered the Chinese language, while others only used their native language (i.e. Mongolian) and the ‘Phags-pa script.
The Yuan dynasty was the khanate ruled by the successors of Möngke Khan after the division of the Mongol Empire. In official Chinese histories, the Yuan dynasty bore the Mandate of Heaven. The dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, yet he placed his grandfather Genghis Khan on the imperial records as the official founder of the dynasty as Taizu.[note 3] In the Proclamation of the Dynastic Name, Kublai announced the name of the new dynasty as Great Yuan and claimed the succession of former Chinese dynasties from the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors to the Tang dynasty.
In addition to Emperor of China, Kublai Khan also claimed the title of Great Khan, supreme over the other successor khanates: the Chagatai, the Golden Horde, and the Ilkhanate. As such, the Yuan was also sometimes referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan. However, while the claim of supremacy by the Yuan emperors was at times recognized by the western khans, their subservience was nominal and each continued its own separate development.
Born On This Day
1849 – Henrietta Edwards, Canadian activist and author (d. 1931)
Henrietta Muir Edwards (18 December 1849 – 10 November 1931) was a Canadian women’s rights activist and reformer. She was the eldest of “The Famous Five”, along with Emily Murphy, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney and Irene Parlby, who fought to have women recognized as “persons” under the law, and for the woman’s right to vote in elections.
She was born Henrietta Louise Muir in Montreal. She grew up in an upper-middle-class family that valued culture and religion. Edwards became active in many religious organizations, where she grew disenchanted with old traditions where the exclusion of women was acceptable.
By Sandra Gonzalez CNN: Penny Marshall, co-star of ‘Laverne & Shirley’ and director of ‘A League of Their Own,’ dead at 75
Carole Penny Marshall (October 15, 1943 – December 17, 2018) was an American actress, director and producer. She was the daughter of Marjorie Marshall, a tap dance teacher, and Tony Marshall, a film director and producer. Her parents’ background in entertainment, along with her brother, Garry Marshall’s, background as a comedy writer and her sister’s background as a casting director and producer, gave rise to Marshall’s career in the industry. She came to notice in the 1970s for her role as Laverne DeFazio on the television sitcom Laverne & Shirley (1976–1983), receiving three nominations for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Musical or Comedy for her portrayal.
Marshall progressed to directing films in the 1980s, making her directorial debut with Jumpin’ Jack Flash (1986) before directing Big (1988), which became the first film directed by a woman to gross more than $100 million at the U.S. box office. Her subsequent directing credits included Awakenings (1990), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, A League of Their Own (1992), Renaissance Man (1994), The Preacher’s Wife (1996), and Riding in Cars with Boys (2001). She also produced Cinderella Man (2005) and Bewitched (2005), as well as episodes of the sitcom According to Jim.
Marshall died in Los Angeles from complications of diabetes on December 17, 2018, at the age of 75.
Following Penny Marshall’s passing her ex-husband Rob Reiner took to twitter to say: “I loved Penny. I grew up with her. She was born with a great gift. She was born with a funnybone and the instinct of how to use it. I was very lucky to have lived with her and her funnybone. I will miss her”.. Broadcaster Dan Rather tweeted “Mourning the loss of a funny, poignant, and original American voice. Penny Marshall was a pioneer in television and the big screen who understood humor comes in many forms and some of life’s deeper truths require a laugh. She will be missed.” Her once co-star and like her actor who went onto to become a c celebrated film director Ron Howard states 
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One bullet for “Dad”
NBC News: Missouri officers save baby after father said he drowned her Jonathon Stephen Zicarelli told investigators that he plotted for more than 24 hours to kill his daughter because he wanted to make things easier for his wife.
GREENWOOD, Mo. — Two Missouri officers saved the life of a 6-month-old girl whose father walked into their police station and said he had just drowned his daughter, authorities say.
By Ron Dicker: Ex-NASA Engineer’s Fart-Laced ‘Glitter Bomb’ Stuns Package Thieves Mark Rober’s ingenious device unwraps a whole lot of humiliation on crooks in a viral video.
By Heather Chapman: Small-town Vermont feud leads to tall middle-finger statue
Pelkey figured he’d be ordered to take it down in a few days, but it turns out that, because the piece is considered public art, the town can’t make him. Arnett sums it up: “The bird, in other words, is free to soar. And it has.”
By Heather Chapman: New photography and story project provides an intimate portrait of the rural South
By Heather Chapman: Rural charter school splits Oklahoma town, may test state’s authority to override local school decisions
Campbell said he met with local school-board leaders several times to discuss how his company could help kids in the system but was rebuffed; board members say that’s not accurate. After that, he said, he began planning his own school and submitted an application to the Seminole School District in August 2016 to open one of the state’s first rural charters, Preston reports. The board twice voted unanimously to reject the application, but the state board overrode it.
Because rural charters are so rare — only about 11 percent of the nation’s 6,747 are rural — it’s been difficult to predict how this one affect the community. So far, “much of what inspired the charter’s supporters, and troubled its opponents, hasn’t yet come to pass,” Preston reports. “The small size is good financial news for the Seminole district, which stands to lose between $3,500 to $9,000 in state funding for every student who departs for the charter. To critics, of course, the small enrollment is evidence that there was never much demand for a charter school in the first place. For his part, Campbell is pointedly unsympathetic to worries over the charter school’s financial impact on the district,” His advice: “Adapt.”
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By Katie Kulzick: Lessons learned from baking 5,000 holiday cookies
NPR Anya Kamenetz: DeVos To Rescind Obama-Era Guidance On School Discipline
By Lucy McConnell: Your entertainment for tonight and a recipe for 2-Minute Fudge
Open Culture Josh Jones: Meet Henry Darger, the Most Famous of Outsider Artists, Who Died in Obscurity, Leaving Behind Hundreds of Unseen Fantasy Illustrations and a 15,000-Page Novel
Lifehack J. S. Wayne: How to Write a Book In Your Spare Time
The Passive Voice: A Painting Given to Eric Clapton Cannot be Used on Album Cover Hubris For tech, 2018 was the first of many very bad years to come The Best BookBub Ads of 2018 ’tis the Season for Spam
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In The Kitchen With Matt: Soft Buttery No-Knead Dinner Rolls
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