FYI February 03, 2018


 
 

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On This Day

1870 – The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, guaranteeing voting rights to male citizens regardless of race.

The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”. It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments.

In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress repeatedly debated the rights of the millions of black former slaves. By 1869, amendments had been passed to abolish slavery and provide citizenship and equal protection under the laws, but the election of Ulysses S. Grant to the presidency in 1868 convinced a majority of Republicans that protecting the franchise of black male voters was important for the party’s future. On February 26, 1869, after rejecting more sweeping versions of a suffrage amendment, Congress proposed a compromise amendment banning franchise restrictions on the basis of race, color, or previous servitude. After surviving a difficult ratification fight, the amendment was certified as duly ratified and part of the Constitution on March 30, 1870.

United States Supreme Court decisions in the late nineteenth century interpreted the amendment narrowly. From 1890 to 1910, most black voters in the South were effectively disenfranchised by new state constitutions and state laws incorporating such obstacles as poll taxes and discriminatory literacy tests, from which white male voters were exempted by grandfather clauses. A system of whites-only primaries and violent intimidation by white groups also suppressed black participation.

In the twentieth century, the Court began to interpret the amendment more broadly, striking down grandfather clauses in Guinn v. United States (1915) and dismantling the white primary system in the “Texas primary cases” (1927–1953). Along with later measures such as the Twenty-fourth Amendment, which forbade poll taxes in federal elections, and Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections (1966), which forbade poll taxes in state elections, these decisions significantly increased black participation in the American political system. To enforce the amendment, Congress enacted the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided federal oversight of elections in discriminatory jurisdictions, banned literacy tests and similar discriminatory devices, and created legal remedies for people affected by voting discrimination.

The amendment created a split within the women’s suffrage movement over the amendment not prohibiting denying the women the right to vote on account of sex.

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1913 – The Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect an income tax.
The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census. This amendment exempted income taxes from the constitutional requirements regarding direct taxes, after income taxes on rents, dividends, and interest were ruled to be direct taxes in the court case of Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & Trust Co. (1895). The amendment was adopted on February 3, 1913.


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Born On This Day

1763 – Caroline von Wolzogen, German author (d. 1847)
Caroline von Wolzogen, born Caroline von Lengefeld (February 3, 1763, Rudolstadt – January 11, 1847, Jena[1]), was a German writer in the Weimar Classicism circle. Her best-known works are a novel, Agnes von Lilien, and a biography of Friedrich Schiller, her brother-in-law.

Early life

Caroline von Lengefeld was the oldest child of an aristocratic family in Rudolstadt; she was raised and educated with a younger sister, Charlotte. Though her family belonged to the lower nobility, after her father died the financial situation was somewhat troubled.[2] At 16, Caroline became engaged to Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig von Beulwitz (1755-1829), a prominent local courtier, through the arrangement of both families.[3] Much of her long engagement was spent with her family in Switzerland, a trip paid for by von Beulwitz; they married shortly after Caroline’s return in 1784.[3] Lacking shared interests, the marriage was unhappy from the start.[2]

Caroline’s closest confidante in the early years of her marriage was her cousin Wilhelm von Wolzogen, who, in 1785, introduced her and her sister to his friend Schiller, then a young and rather poor Weimar poet.[3] In 1788, Schiller moved to a nearby town to be closer to the Lengefelds, and both Caroline and her sister became closer to him. Caroline felt a strong attraction toward him, though how far she considered taking it has been disputed by scholars.[2] Schiller became engaged to Charlotte in August, 1789, and credited Caroline for bringing them together.[4] In the early 1790s, inspired by her friendship with Schiller and other literary figures in Weimar, Caroline began writing herself; her first substantial work was a dramatic fragment in classical form, Der leukadische Fels, in 1792.[2]

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FYI

By Associated Press: Jon Huntsman Sr., Utah billionaire and philanthropist, dies at 80
 
 
 
 
By Kyle Swenson, The Washington Post: A Texas man vowed to forgive whoever killed most of his family. Then he learned it was his son.
Bart was convicted of two counts of first-degree murder and sentenced to die. The shooter, Brashear, received life in prison. The getaway driver, Champagne, was sentenced to 15 years in prison.
 
 
 
 
What Are Our Instinctual Gut Feelings?
 
 
 
 
by Gary Price: University of Iowa Libraries: Special Collections: Papers of Tom Brokaw Open to Researchers

 
 
 
 
By Gary Price: Freedom of the Press Foundation is Using Archive-It (From Internet Archive) to Archive “Alternative Press Threatened by Wealthy Buyers”; Gawker.com Collection Now Live
 
 
 
 
By Scott Myers: Saturday Hot Links
 
 
 
 
By Reid Forgrave: Super Bowl LII Is Minnesota’s Chance To Secede From The Midwest
 
 
 
 
By Rina Raphael: Axe-Throwing Bars: Why Mixing Weapons And Beer Is Surprisingly Good Business
“There’s something really primal about it,” says Ginger Flesher-Sonnier, referring to the sensation of throwing an axe. “It’s hard to describe–it just feels good.”

Flesher-Sonnier found the appeal of propelling rustic steel so intoxicating that she opened an entire bar devoted to it this past December. Nestled alongside trendy eateries in the Gowanus section of Brooklyn, you’ll find Kick Axe, a 7,000-square-foot venue filled with 10 axe-throwing ranges, where flannel-wrapped patrons can flex their upper-arm muscles. The point is to hurl axes at bullseye targets within the confines of a cozy lodge setting. A fee of $35 buys you 75 minutes.
 
 
 
 
By Eillie Anzilotti: This Nonprofit Offers Tax Help To Low-Income Parents In Pediatricians’ Waiting Rooms
 
 
 
 
By Kris Gage: 9 Healthy Relationship Habits We Mistake As Toxic
 
 
 
 
By DanColman: “Every Concussion in the NFL This Year” Documented in a Chilling Five Minute Video

 
 
 
 
By Ayun Halliday: “The Artist Project” Reveals What 127 Influential Artists See When They Look at Art: An Acclaimed Video Series from The Metropolitan Museum of Art
 
 
 
 
By David Tracy: What Else Do You Want To Know About The 707 HP Jeep Grand Cherokee Trackhawk?
I’ve got a $99,965 Jeep Grand Cherokee Trackhawk sitting in front of my house right now, and let me tell you up-front: it’s total mechanical madness. But aside from from that, what else were you wanting to know about this 707 horsepower, 6.2-liter supercharged V8 Jeep?
 
 
 
 
By David Tracy: One Thing I Can’t Stand About Off-Road Culture: Hacking Up Perfectly Good Trucks
 
 
 
 
By David Tracy: Chris Harris And Eddie Jordan Fled Alpine A110 Fire During Top Gear Shoot
 
 
 
 
By Ellie Shechet: Arizona House Expels Rep. Don Shooter For Sexual Harassment, Also Confiscates His Gun
 
 
 
 
Four Fun Friday Fifties and Sixties Kodachrome Car Images
 
 
 
 
By Kevin Pang: Our favorite award-eligible stories from The Takeout this week
 
 
 
 
By Famousmods: LED Snowboard Kit

 
 
 
 
by yuriysklyar: Bunk Bed With No Screws
 
 
 
 
by Hometalk Highlights: 15 Fabulous Spring Wreath Ideas That’ll Make Your Neighbors Smile


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