FYI February 08, 2018


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On This Day

1885 – The first government-approved Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii.
The Japanese in Hawaii (simply Japanese or “Local Japanese”, rarely Kepanī) are the second largest ethnic group in Hawaii. At their height in 1920, they constituted 43% of Hawaii’s population.[2] They now number about 16.7% of the islands’ population, according to the 2000 U.S. Census. The U.S. Census separately categorizes mixed-race individuals, so the proportion of people with some Japanese ancestry is likely much larger.[3]
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1887 – The Dawes Act authorizes the President of the United States to survey Native American tribal land and divide it into individual allotments.
The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887),[1][2] adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted United States citizenship. The Dawes Act was amended in 1891, in 1898 by the Curtis Act, and again in 1906 by the Burke Act.

The Act was named for its creator, Senator Henry Laurens Dawes of Massachusetts. The objectives of the Dawes Act were to abolish tribal and communal rights of Native Americans in order to stimulate assimilation of them into mainstream American society, and thereby lift Native Americans out of poverty. Individual household ownership of land and subsistence farming on the European-American model was seen as an essential step. The act provided that the government would classify as “excess” those Indian reservation lands remaining after allotments, and sell those lands on the open market, allowing purchase and settlement by non-Native Americans.

The Dawes Commission, set up under an Indian Office appropriation bill in 1893, was created to try to persuade the Five Civilized Tribes to agree to allotment plans. (They had been excluded from the Dawes Act by their treaties.) This commission registered the members of the Five Civilized Tribes on what became known as the Dawes Rolls.

The Curtis Act of 1898 amended the Dawes Act to extend its provisions to the Five Civilized Tribes; it required abolition of their governments, allotment of communal lands to people registered as tribal members, and sale of lands declared surplus, as well as dissolving tribal courts. This completed the extinguishment of tribal land titles in Indian Territory, preparing it to be admitted to the Union as the state of Oklahoma.

During the ensuing decades, the Five Civilized Tribes lost 90 million acres of former communal lands, which were sold to non-Natives. In addition, many individuals, unfamiliar with land ownership, became the target of speculators and criminals, were stuck with allotments that were too small for profitable farming, and lost their household lands. Tribe members also suffered from the breakdown of the social structure of the tribes.

During the Great Depression, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration supported passage on June 18, 1934 of the US Indian Reorganization Act (also known as the Wheeler-Howard Law). It ended land allotment and created a “New Deal” for Indians, renewing their rights to reorganize and form their self-governments.[3]

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Born On This Day

1850 – Kate Chopin, American author (d. 1904)
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By Assoicated Press: Internet pioneer, songwriter John Perry Barlow dies at 70
John Perry Barlow, an internet activist and former lyricist for the Grateful Dead, has died.
By Hannah Gold: Gerber Announces First ‘Spokesbaby’ With Down Syndrome
By David Tracy: Watch Detroit’s Massive Potholes Send Cars Spinning Out Of Control

By Maddie Stone: We Just Found Out that Deep Sea Vents Are Nurseries
ARKive Blog – Vote: Favorite Unloved Species
By Associated Press: Missouri woman finds neighbor’s dog riding pony
By Gwen Ihnat: Dunkin’ Donuts to stop serving coffee in its iconic foam cups
By Kate Bernot: Ben & Jerry’s piles on the truffles to both fantastic and mediocre results
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The Media School Report: Research colloquium to celebrate electronic bulletin board system’s 30th anniversary
By Jennifer Flynn: Writing from home requires discipline. Here are 10 freelancing resources to keep you on task.
By Chris Eger: New ‘gun’ looks to zap unfriendly drones out to 1km
With more and more weaponized drones on the horizon and the prospect that non-nation states have access to an increasingly serious array of armed RC craft, the drone gun market could be a cash cow in the future.
By Heather Chapman: Lawsuits allege Monsanto forced farmers to buy dicamba-resistant seeds, and that dicamba damaged crops
Also on Feb. 1 a federal judicial panel consolidated nine lawsuits against Monsanto filed in four states, all alleging crop damage from dicamba, into the same eastern Missouri court where the Forest River Farms suit was filed. “Those cases allege that Monsanto marketed dicamba-resistant seeds knowing that would tempt farmers to use dicamba — which has proven destructive to neighboring crops — before Monsanto had regulatory approval to market its low-drift version of the pesticide,” Tyler reports.
By Heather Chapman: Rural Ky. teen hosts popular fishing channel on YouTube

By OZY Editors: Is America Too Patriotic? We Asked, You Answered
By Pablo Esparza Altuna: Welcome to Spanish Lapland, Where (Almost) Nobody Lives
By Colin Marshall: How the Brilliant Colors of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts Were Made with Alchemy

By tatebullrider: How to Build a Car Tire Unicycle

Cold brew.
By Katherine Schwab: Paging Lazy Coffee Snobs: “Instant” Pour-Over Is Here

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By Birdz of a Feather: A New Technique for the Ultimate Mini Gluten-Free Pizzas!

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