On This Day
Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu-tennō) was the first Emperor of Japan, according to legend. His accession is traditionally dated as 660 BC. According to Japanese mythology, he is a descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu, through her grandson Ninigi, as well as a descendant of the storm god Susanoo. He launched a military expedition from Hyuga near the Inland Sea, captured Yamato, and established this as his center of power. In modern Japan, Jimmu’s accession is marked as National Foundation Day on February 11.
Read more ->
1502 – Isabella I issues an edict outlawing Islam in the Crown of Castile, forcing virtually all her Muslim subjects to convert to Christianity.
The forced conversions of Muslims in Spain were enacted through a series of edicts outlawing Islam in the lands of Spain. This effort was overseen by three Spanish monarchies during the early 16th century: the Crown of Castile in 1500–1502, followed by Navarre in 1515–1516, and lastly the Crown of Aragon in 1523–1526.
After Christian kingdoms finished their reconquest of Islamic Spain in 1492, the Muslim population stood between 500,000 and 600,000 people. At this time Muslims who lived under Christian rule were given the status of Mudéjar, legally allowing the open practice of Islam. In 1499, the Archbishop of Toledo, Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros began a campaign in the city of Granada to force religious compliance with Christianity with torture and imprisonment; this triggered a Muslim rebellion. The rebellion was eventually quelled and then used to justify revoking the Muslims’ legal and treaty protections. Conversion efforts were redoubled, and by 1501 officially no Muslim remained in Granada. Encouraged by the success in Granada, the Castile’s Queen Isabella issued an edict in 1502 which banned Islam for all of Castile. With the annexation of the Iberian Navarre in 1515, more Muslims still were forced to observe Christian beliefs under the Castilian edict. The last realm to impose conversion was the Crown of Aragon, whose kings had previously been bound to guarantee the freedom of religion for its Muslims under an oath included in their coronations. In the early 1520s, an anti-Islam uprising known as the Revolt of the Brotherhoods took place, and Muslims under the rebel territories were forced to convert. When the Aragon royal forces, aided by Muslims, suppressed the rebellion, King Charles I (better known as Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire) ruled that those forcible conversions were valid; thus, the “converts” were now officially Christians. This placed the converts under the jurisdiction of the Spanish Inquisition. Finally, in 1524, Charles petitioned Pope Clement VII to release the king from his oath protecting Muslims’ freedom of religion. This granted him the authority to officially act against the remaining Muslim population; in late 1525, he issued an official edict of conversion: Islam was no longer officially extant throughout Spain.
While adhering to Christianity in public was required by the royal edicts and enforced by the Spanish Inquisition, evidence indicated that most of the forcibly converted (known as the “Moriscos”) clung to Islam in secret. In daily public life, traditional Islamic law could no longer be followed without persecution by the Inquisition; as a result, the Oran fatwa was issued to acknowledge the necessity of relaxing sharia, as well as detailing the ways in which Muslims were to do so. This fatwa become the basis for the crypto-Islam practiced by the Moriscos until their expulsions in 1609–1614. Some Muslims, many near the coast, emigrated in response to the conversion. However, restrictions placed by the authorities on emigration meant leaving Spain was not an option for many. Rebellions also broke out in some areas, especially those with defensible mountainous terrain, but they were all unsuccessful. Ultimately, the edicts created a society in which devout Muslims who secretly refused conversion coexisted with former Muslims who became genuine practicing Christians, up until the expulsion.
Born On This Day
1897 – Emil Leon Post, Polish-American mathematician and logician (d.1954)
Emil Leon Post (/poʊst/; February 11, 1897 – April 21, 1954) was an American mathematician and logician. He is best known for his work in the field that eventually became known as computability theory.
Read more ->
528 – Daughter of Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei, nominal empress regnant of Northern Wei
The unnamed daughter of Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei (12 February 528 – ?) was briefly the emperor of Northern Wei (386–534), a Xianbei dynasty that ruled Northern China from the late fourth to the early sixth century AD. She bore the surname Yuan (Chinese: 元; pinyin: Yuán), originally Tuoba.[note 2] Yuan was the only child of Emperor Xiaoming (r. 515–528), born to his concubine Consort Pan. Soon after her birth, her grandmother the Empress Dowager Hu, who was also Xiaoming’s regent, falsely declared that she was a boy and ordered a general pardon. Emperor Xiaoming died soon afterwards. On 1 April 528, Empress Dowager Hu installed the infant on the throne for a matter of hours before replacing her with Yuan Zhao the next day. Xiaoming’s daughter was not recognised as an emperor (huangdi) by later generations. No further information about her is available.
By Matt Novak: 7 More Viral Photos That Are Totally Fake
By Dan Neilan: Gillian Welch shares new, lovely rendition of her Oscar-nominated Buster Scruggs song
Gizmodo Science: Curiosity Rover Says Goodbye to Its Home of a Year With Superb Panoramic; This Man Traveled 10,000 Miles to See America’s Trash Birds—and Loved Every Minute of It; It Looks Like There’s a Second, Bigger Impact Crater Under Greenland’s Ice and more ->
The Rural Blog: Trucker shortage forces companies to get creative in hiring; Columnists offer a Valentine to rural life; Federal hemp legalization opens up new avenues of promotion and protection for growers and sellers; In Maine, the most rural state, deaths outnumber births; the only other state with that demographic is West Virginia and more ->
By Chris Forrester: For faculty and grad students, a small observation can inspire a lifetime of research
By Christine Cube: Blog Profiles: Organization and Decluttering Blogs
Associated Press: ‘Napalm Girl’ Kim Phuc Receives Prize for Peace Work
By Angela Chen: Apple will let military veterans access their health records on the iPhone
By Emanuella Grinberg, CNN: Michelle Carter is going to jail nearly five years after she convinced her boyfriend via text to kill himself
“The Roy family is glad to have this aspect of the case over,” the family’s attorney, Eric S. Goldman, said in a statement. The family continues to pursue a civil claim for damages and hopes to establish a fund in their son’s name to educate people about suicide prevention.
Carter was 17 years old when Roy, 18, died in July 2014. The case hinged on text messages between the two in which Carter urged Roy to kill himself.
Prosecutors argued that Carter listened over the phone as Roy suffocated from carbon monoxide inhalation in his pickup truck and failed to notify his parents or authorities when he died.
Carter’s lawyers argued that her words encouraging Roy’s suicide, “however distasteful to this court, were protected speech.”
By Jennifer Flynn: Hybrid Publishing: The Middle Ground Between Traditional and Self-Publishing
By Jesus Diaz: Here’s All the Options In Gmail’s New Right-Click Menu
Celebrating community leaders bridging the digital divide Aisha Taylor Community Engagement Manager, Grow with Google: Celebrating community leaders bridging the digital divide
By BBC News: Cannabis smoker finds tiger in abandoned house in Texas
The Passive Voice: It’s Clear to Me Now; On the Most Basic Level; The Silence of the Lame: Real Serial Killers Are Dumber Than Their Fictional Equivalents; How Can Museums Copyright the Works of Old Masters?; Almost 40% of hetero and 60% of same-sex couples now meet online for the first time and more ->
By najastrategy: NAJA launches Indigenous Investigative Collective
Open Culture: Michel Foucault Offers a Clear Introduction to His Philosophical Project (1966); Why Should We Read Flannery O’Connor? An Animated Video Makes the Case; Becoming: A Short Timelapse Film Shows a Single Cell Morphing Into a Complete, Complex Living Organism and more ->
Today’s email was written by Nicolas Rivero, edited by Jessanne Collins, and produced by Luiz Romero. Quartz Obsession Lost sounds: The science of listening to history
By Ella Quittner: The Absolute Best Way to Cook Bacon, According to Sooo Many Tests Our office may smell like bacon forever. You’re all welcome.
Dixie Belle Paint Company: How to Use Slick Stick
Zest it Up Hometalker Atascadero, CA: Re-furbished Vases for Valentines Day Bouquets
Claire at Pillarboxblue Hometalker: Pinecone Flower Heart Decoration
By ctstarkdesigns: Hot Stuff! – Building a Wood Fired Oven at Home
Widget not in any sidebars
Widget not in any sidebars
Widget not in any sidebars