On This Day
1018 – Poland and the Holy Roman Empire conclude the Peace of Bautzen.
The Peace of Bautzen (German: Frieden von Bautzen; Polish: Pokój w Budziszynie; Upper Sorbian: Budyski měr) was a treaty concluded on 30 January 1018, between the Ottonian Holy Roman Emperor Henry II and the Piast duke of the Polans Bolesław I Chrobry which ended a series of Polish-German wars over the control of Lusatia and Upper Lusatia (Milzenerland or Milsko, the eastern part of the margraviate of Meissen (Miśnia)) as well as Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia.
Bolesław had enjoyed the close friendship of the emperor Otto III and after his death supported one of Otto’s followers, Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen for the position of Holy Roman Emperor, against the claims of Henry II. After both emperor Otto III and Eckard’s death in 1002, Bolesław conquered Eckard’s domain of Meissen, as well as the march of Lusatia. Once Henry secured his position within Germany, an agreement was reached which left Bolesław with Lusatia and Upper Lusatia while the Polish duke in turn recognized Henry as Holy Roman Emperor.
Fighting soon resumed, however, after an unsuccessful assassination attempt against Bolesław—which he believed had been ordered by Henry, who denied the charge—occurred soon after the peace was concluded. Bolesław took control of Bohemia, having previously acquired Moravia and Slovakia. In the ensuing struggle Bolesław allied himself with the Holy Roman Empire’s noble opposition to Henry, while the emperor sought support among the Lutici, a Slavic pagan Polabian tribe. An intermediate peace was concluded in Merseburg in 1013 which preserved the territorial status quo, with Bolesław holding on to Moravia and Slovakia, while Jaromir was made the ruler of Bohemia (though he was soon deposed by his brother Oldrich). Bolesław however agreed to support the Emperor’s Italian campaign. Open warfare continued when Bolesław I did not comply with this condition, and instead supported Henry II’s Italian adversaries. Henry II was however unable to defeat Bolesław I, and agreed on a peace in Bautzen (1018) which left the Duke of Poland in charge of the Lusatian march and Upper Lusatia. The two rulers also strengthened the dynastic bonds between them through Bolesław’s marriage with Oda, first daughter of Margrave Eckard. The emperor also promised to aid Bolesław in his expedition against Ruthenia in the summer of 1018 with contingents of German and Hungarian troops which enabled the Polish ruler to capture Kiev and annex a part of Red Ruthenia.
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Born On This Day
1912 – Barbara W. Tuchman, American historian and author (d. 1989)
Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (/ˈtʌkmən/; January 30, 1912 – February 6, 1989) was an American historian and author. She won the Pulitzer Prize twice, for The Guns of August (1962), a best-selling history of the prelude to and the first month of World War I, and Stilwell and the American Experience in China (1971), a biography of General Joseph Stilwell.
Tuchman focused on writing popular history.
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