On This Day
1277 – The University of Paris issues the last in a series of condemnations of various philosophical and theological theses.
The Condemnations at the medieval University of Paris were enacted to restrict certain teachings as being heretical. These included a number of medieval theological teachings, but most importantly the physical treatises of Aristotle. The investigations of these teachings were conducted by the Bishops of Paris. The Condemnations of 1277 are traditionally linked to an investigation requested by Pope John XXI, although whether he actually supported drawing up a list of condemnations is unclear.
Approximately sixteen lists of censured theses were issued by the University of Paris during the 13th and 14th centuries. Most of these lists of propositions were put together into systematic collections of prohibited articles. Of these, the Condemnations of 1277 are considered particularly important by those historians who consider that they encouraged scholars to question the tenets of Aristotelian science. From this perspective, some historians maintain that the condemnations had positive effects on the development of science, perhaps even representing the beginnings of modern science.
1917 – International Women’s Day protests in Petrograd mark the beginning of the February Revolution (February 23 in the Julian calendar).
International Women’s Day (IWD) is a global holiday celebrated annually on March 8 to commemorate the cultural, political, and socioeconomic achievements of women. It is also a focal point in the women’s rights movement, bringing attention to issues such as gender equality, reproductive rights, and violence and abuse against women.
Spurred on by the universal female suffrage movement that had begun in New Zealand, IWD originated from labor movements in North America and Europe during the early 20th century. The earliest version was purportedly a “Women’s Day” organized by the Socialist Party of America in New York City February 28, 1909. This inspired German delegates at the 1910 International Socialist Women’s Conference to propose “a special Women’s Day” be organized annually, albeit with no set date; the following year saw the first demonstrations and commemorations of International Women’s Day across Europe. After women gained suffrage in Soviet Russia in 1917 (the beginning of the February Revolution), IWD was made a national holiday on March 8; it was subsequently celebrated on that date by the socialist movement and communist countries. The holiday was associated with far-left movements and governments until its adoption by the global feminist movement in the late 1960s. IWD became a mainstream global holiday following its adoption by the United Nations in 1977.
International Women’s Day is commemorated in a variety of ways worldwide; it is a public holiday in several countries, and observed socially or locally in others. The UN observes the holiday in connection with a particular issue, campaign, or theme in women’s rights. In some parts of the world, IWD still reflects its political origins, being marked by protests and calls for radical change; in other areas, particularly in the West, it is largely sociocultural and centered on a celebration of womanhood.
Born On This Day
1811 – Increase A. Lapham, American botanist and author (d. 1875)
Increase Allen Lapham (March 7, 1811 – September 14, 1875) was an American author, scientist, and naturalist, whose work focused primarily on the what is now the U.S. state of Wisconsin. He made maps of the area and published numerous books on the archaeology, biology, and geology of the region, and discovered both the Panther Intaglio Effigy Mound and Milwaukee Formation. He founded the Wisconsin Natural History Association, and served as the state’s Chief Geologist for two years. He also lobbied Congress and the Smithsonian Institution to establish an agency to predict the weather around the Great Lakes and this became the National Weather Service.
1836 – Harriet Samuel, English businesswoman and founder the jewellery retailer H. Samuel (d. 1908)
Harriet Samuel (née Wolfe) (8 March 1836 – 6 February 1908) was an English businesswoman and the founder of H. Samuel, one of the United Kingdom’s best-known high street jewellery retailers.
Life and career
Harriet Wolfe was born on 8 March 1836 in London, the daughter of Schreiner Wolfe of Great Yarmouth and his wife Matida. When her husband Walter Samuel (1829–1863) died, she took over her father-in-law’s Liverpool clock- and watch-making business and moved it to Manchester, where Edgar, her son, took over the firm’s retailing side, while she headed its mail order business. The first H. Samuel shop opened in Preston in 1890. The business then developed into one of Britain’s best-known high street jewellery retailers. After Samuel’s death, the headquarters of H. Samuel was moved to Birmingham and, as of 2019, it has over 300 branches throughout the UK.
She married Walter Samuel and they had four children together: Evelyn, Arthur, Florence and Edgar.
Samuel died on 6 February 1908 and is buried at Willesden Jewish Cemetery.
By Clint Carter, Bloomberg Businessweek: Six Ways to Stop the Internet from Ruining Your Day The web is full of distractions that make it hard to concentrate on the job. This Georgetown computer science professor thinks he can help.
By Paul Anthony Jones, Mental Floss: 25 Words That Don’t Mean What They Used To It’s inevitable that words will change over time. In some instances, words gain new meanings entirely different from their original definition.
By Robert Sanchez, 5280: 24 Hours in Denver’s Historic Crime Wave August 14, 2020, wasn’t particularly special or noteworthy. It was just another day—1,440 long minutes—during the crime epidemic that has engulfed Denver since the COVID-19 outbreak began.
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