FYI March 21, 2018


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On This Day

1921 – The New Economic Policy is implemented by the Bolshevik Party in response to the economic failure as a result of war communism.
The New Economic Policy (NEP, Russian новая экономическая политика, НЭП) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin, who described it as a progression towards “state capitalism” within the workers’ state of the USSR.[1] Lenin characterized “state capitalism” and his NEP policies in 1922 as an economic system that would include “a free market and capitalism, both subject to state control” while socialized state enterprises were to operate on “a profit basis”.[2]

The NEP represented a more market-oriented economic policy, deemed necessary after the Russian Civil War of 1918 to 1922, to foster the economy of the country, which was almost ruined. The complete nationalization of industry, established during the period of War Communism, was partially revoked and a system of mixed economy was introduced, which allowed private individuals to own small enterprises,[3] while the state continued to control banks, foreign trade, and large industries.[4] In addition, the NEP abolished prodrazvyorstka (forced grain requisition)[3] and introduced prodnalog: a tax on farmers, payable in the form of raw agricultural product.[5] The Bolshevik government adopted the NEP in the course of the 10th Congress of the All-Russian Communist Party (March 1921) and promulgated it by a decree on 21 March 1921 “On the Replacement of Prodrazvyorstka by Prodnalog”. Further decrees refined the policy.

Other policies included the monetary reform (1922–1924) and the attraction of foreign capital.

The NEP policy created a new category of people called NEPmen (нэпманы), nouveau riches due to NEP.

Joseph Stalin abolished the New Economic Policy in 1928.



Born On This Day

1931 – Catherine Gibson, Scottish swimmer (d. 2013)
Catherine Gibson (21 March 1931 – 25 June 2013), later known by her married name Catherine Brown, was a Scottish swimmer. During a 16-year career she won three European Championships medals and a bronze medal at the 1948 Summer Olympics, Britain’s sole swimming trophy in the home-based Games. In 2008, she was inducted into the Scottish Sports Hall of Fame.[2]

Early life
A native of Motherwell Gibson received exposure to swimming at a young age: her father was employed at the town’s swimming pool and her two brothers played water polo. In 1947, at the age of 16, as a member of the British swimming team at the European Championships, she won silver medals in the 400 m freestyle and the 100 m backstroke and a bronze in the 100 m freestyle relay. With the Olympics a year away, she continued an 8-hour daily training regimen, despite the family’s low finances, which required her to work full-time as a clerk.

At the start of the Olympics, four months past her seventeenth birthday, Gibson travelled to London without her family who could not afford the cost of the trip. She competed in the 100 m backstroke, 400 m individual medley, 4×100 m freestyle relay and the 400 m freestyle in which she won the bronze medal in a time of 5 minutes 22.5 seconds. Reporting from the Olympics on 9 July 1948, a Guardian reporter wrote that “Miss Gibson, Britain’s hope, was at or near the rear and she did not begin to come up until 300 metres had been swum. Then how she went!”[3] Having lost by a tiny measure, she noted, in passing, during an interview conducted in July 2008, near the medal win’s 60th anniversary, her persistent feeling that had her father been able to cheer her on at the Wembley Empire Pool, she might have done better.[4] It was Britain’s sole medal in swimming at the 1948 Summer Olympics and she was the only British woman to win a bronze. Among the 23 medals Britain won (3 gold, 14 silver and 6 bronze), five were awarded to female athletes, with the other four medals, all of them silver, and all in track and field, bestowed upon Dorothy Tyler-Odam (born 1920), Audrey Williamson (born 1926), Dorothy Manley (born 1927) and Maureen Gardner (born 1928). Gibson was Britain’s youngest 1948 medalist — the next-youngest being silver medal winner boxer Johnny Wright (born 1929). The oldest was speed walker Tebbs Lloyd Johnson (born 1900), who won a bronze in 50 kilometres race walk.

After the Olympics
Gibson persevered with competitive swimming through the 1950s and, in the sixteen years of pursuing the sport, managed to achieve 29 UK records.[5] Retiring after marriage, she became a hotelkeeper,[5] and remained widowed after the death of her second husband in 1995.[4] With publicity surrounding London’s 2012 Summer Olympics, Brown (the name she has used since her marriage), along with the small number of athletes in their eighties and nineties remaining from the event held 64 years earlier, continued to evoke nostalgic tributes.[6]

During the London 2012 Olympic Games, Brown was united with the original portrait of herself. The portrait was painted by artist Kristina Macaulay and was originally commissioned by North Lanarkshire City Council in 2006 to commemorate unique talent local to the area. The image of the painting featured as part of one of the largest local open air galleries in the UK.[7]



PA Pundits – International: “the relentless pursuit of common sense” A Variety of Opinions From Various Writers Don’t Tax The Net
By Kay Coles James (President of The Heritage Foundation) ~
“Creative destruction.” When I first heard the term in school, I thought it must have been a mistake. How can creation destroy? And how can destruction be creative?

The phrase seemed so at odds with itself as to sound like a contradiction.

Thank God for teachers. Mine explained the term, and everything became clear. Creation can destroy, and destruction can be creative.

By Richard Whittaker: A Conversation with John Wehrle: First, Do No Harm
By Heather Chapman: Biologists fear Asian carp invasion of Southeastern rivers
By Heather Chapman: Communities worry that drug treatment centers attract crime
By Lucia Moses: The Atlantic’s new family section is built for the post-news feed era
By Colin Marshall: Play a Collection of Classic Handheld Video Games at the Internet Archive: Pac-Man, Donkey Kong, Tron and MC Hammer

By Josh Jones: Watch the Original Black Panther Animated Series Online: All Six Episodes Now Available Thanks to Marvel

"Grand Canyon" A 4k Time Lapse Film from Daniel Kelly Brown on Vimeo.


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