FYI March 30, 2021

On This Day

1867 – Alaska is purchased from Russia for $7.2 million, about 2-cent/acre ($4.19/km2), by United States Secretary of State William H. Seward.
The Alaska Purchase (Russian: Продажа Аляски, romanized: Prodazha Aliaski, meaning “Sale of Alaska”) was the United States’ acquisition of Alaska from the Russian Empire. Alaska was formally transferred to the United States on October 18, 1867, through a treaty ratified by the United States Senate.

Russia had established a presence in North America during the first half of the 18th century, but few Russians ever settled in Alaska. In the aftermath of the Crimean War, Russian Tzar Alexander II began exploring the possibility of selling Alaska, which would be difficult to defend in any future war from being conquered by Russia’s main archrival, the United Kingdom. Following the end of the American Civil War, U.S. Secretary of State William Seward entered into negotiations with Russian minister Eduard de Stoeckl for the purchase of Alaska. Seward and Stoeckl agreed to a treaty on March 30, 1867, and the treaty was ratified by the United States Senate by a wide margin.

The purchase added 586,412 square miles (1,518,800 km2) of new territory to the United States for the cost of $7.2 million 1867 dollars (2 cents per acre). In modern terms, the cost was equivalent to $132 million in 2019 dollars or $0.37 per acre.[1] Reactions to the purchase in the United States were mostly positive, as many believed possession of Alaska would serve as a base to expand American trade in Asia. Some opponents labeled the purchase as “Seward’s Folly”, or “Seward’s Icebox”,[2] as they contended that the United States had acquired useless land. Nearly all Russian settlers left Alaska in the aftermath of the purchase; Alaska would remain sparsely populated until the Klondike Gold Rush began in 1896. Originally organized as the Department of Alaska, the area was renamed the District of Alaska (1884) and the Alaska Territory (1912) before becoming the modern State of Alaska in 1959.

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1961 – The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is signed in New York City.

The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under license for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research. As noted below, its major effects included updating the Paris Convention of 13 July 1931 to include the vast number of synthetic opioids invented in the intervening thirty years and a mechanism for more easily including new ones. From 1931 to 1961, most of the families of synthetic opioids had been developed, including drugs related to methadone, pethidine (meperidine/Demerol), morphinans and dextromoramide (Palfium, Palphium, Jetrium, Dimorlin, marketed solely in the Netherlands). Research on fentanyls and piritramide (R-3365, Pirium, Dipidolor, Piridolan, among others) was also nearing fruition at that point.

Earlier treaties had only controlled opium, coca, and derivatives such as morphine, heroin and cocaine. The Single Convention, adopted in 1961, consolidated those treaties and broadened their scope to include cannabis and drugs whose effects are similar to those of the drugs specified. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the World Health Organization were empowered to add, remove, and transfer drugs among the treaty’s four schedules of controlled substances. The International Narcotics Control Board was put in charge of administering controls on drug production, international trade, and dispensation. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) was delegated the Board’s day-to-day work of monitoring the situation in each country and working with national authorities to ensure compliance with the Single Convention. This treaty has since been supplemented by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, which controls LSD, MDMA, and other psychoactive pharmaceuticals, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, which strengthens provisions against money laundering and other drug-related offenses.

As of February 2018, the Single Convention has 186 state parties. The Holy See, the State of Palestine plus all member states of the United Nations are state parties, with the exception of Chad, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Nauru, Samoa, South Sudan, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.[2]

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Born On This Day

1863 – Mary Calkins, American philosopher and psychologist (d. 1930)
Mary Whiton Calkins (/ˈkɔːlkɪnz, ˈkæl-/; 30 March 1863 – 26 February 1930[1]) was an American philosopher and psychologist. As a psychologist, she taught at Wellesley College for many years and conducted research on dreams and memory. Calkins was the first woman to become president of the American Psychological Association and the American Philosophical Association.

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FYI

Trigger wranings.
Excellent video for those who are or know someone who isn’t “normal.”

 
 
 
 
Tony Schinella, Patch Staff: Concord, Manchester Police, NH State Troopers Honor War Hero
 
 
 
 
By Colin Marshall, Open Culture: The Louvre’s Entire Collection Goes Online: View and Download 480,00 Works of Art
 
 
By Ted Mills, Open Culture: Jean-Luc Godard’s Breathless: How World War II Changed Cinema & Helped Create the French New Wave
 
 
By Josh Jones, Open Culture: Hear the Beautiful Isolated Vocal Harmonies from the Beatles’ “Something”
 
 
 
 
CutterLight: Hokkaido Bicycle Tour Redux: Thank You Adventure Cyclist Magazine
 
 
CutterLight: Birds of Chignik Lake: Glaucous-winged Gull – So… What’s Up with the Red Dot?
 
 
CutterLight: Birds of Chignik Lake: Mew Gull – The Gull of The Lake
 
 
 
 
Matt Goff, Sitka Nature: Show #233 – Rachel Lauer (encore)
 
 
 
 
One bullet each.

 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
NSFW

Ideas

By FrauMartina: Personalized Coffee Mug With Oven Baked Clay
 
 
By Creative D2H: Concrete Tree Log Waterfall Fountain
 
 

Recipes

The Spruce Eats: 45 Fast and Easy Dinner Ideas for Busy Weeknights No Complicated Cooking, No Big Messes
 
 
Gastro Obscura: The 250-year-old cupcake recipe still baked in Bangkok; Rediscovering a cookbook from the Harlem Renaissance; Growing a Dye Garden With Aaron Sanders Head and more ->


 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 

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Stacy, Carol RT Book Reviews

Welcome to the Stump the Bookseller blog!

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