FYI May 22 & 23, 2022

On This Day

1246 – Henry Raspe is elected anti-king of the Kingdom of Germany in opposition to Conrad IV.
Henry Raspe (German: Heinrich Raspe; c. 1204 – 16 February 1247) was the Landgrave of Thuringia from 1231 until 1239 and again from 1241 until his death. In 1246, with the support of the Papacy, he was elected King of Germany in opposition to Conrad IV, but his contested reign lasted a mere nine months.

1846 – Mexican–American War: President Mariano Paredes of Mexico unofficially declares war on the United States.
The Mexican–American War,[a] also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the Intervención estadounidense en México (U.S. intervention in Mexico),[b] was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848. It followed the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered Mexican territory since the Mexican government did not recognize the Velasco treaty signed by Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna when he was a prisoner of the Texian Army during the 1836 Texas Revolution. The Republic of Texas was de facto an independent country, but most of its citizens wished to be annexed by the United States.[4] Domestic sectional politics in the U.S. were preventing annexation since Texas would have been a slave state, upsetting the balance of power between Northern free states and Southern slave states.[5] In the 1844 United States presidential election, Democrat James K. Polk was elected on a platform of expanding U.S. territory in Oregon and Texas. Polk advocated expansion by either peaceful means or armed force, with the 1845 annexation of Texas furthering that goal by peaceful means.[6] However, the boundary between Texas and Mexico was disputed, with the Republic of Texas and the U.S. asserting it to be the Rio Grande and Mexico claiming it to be the more-northern Nueces River. Both Mexico and the U.S. claimed the disputed area and sent troops. Polk sent U.S. Army troops to the area; he also sent a diplomatic mission to Mexico to try to negotiate the sale of territory. U.S. troops’ presence was designed to lure Mexico into starting the conflict, putting the onus on Mexico and allowing Polk to argue to Congress that a declaration of war should be issued.[7] Mexican forces attacked U.S. forces, and the United States Congress declared war.[8]

Beyond the disputed area of Texas, U.S. forces quickly occupied the regional capital of Santa Fe de Nuevo México along the upper Rio Grande, which had trade relations with the U.S. via the Santa Fe Trail between Missouri and New Mexico. U.S. forces also moved against the province of Alta California and then moved south. The Pacific Squadron of the U.S. Navy blockaded the Pacific coast farther south in the lower Baja California Territory. The Mexican government refused to be pressured into signing a peace treaty at this point, making the U.S. invasion of the Mexican heartland under Major General Winfield Scott and its capture of the capital Mexico City a strategy to force peace negotiations. Although Mexico was defeated on the battlefield, politically its government’s negotiating a treaty remained a fraught issue, with some factions refusing to consider any recognition of its loss of territory. Although Polk formally relieved his peace envoy, Nicholas Trist, of his post as negotiator, Trist ignored the order and successfully concluded the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It ended the war, and Mexico recognized the Mexican Cession, areas not part of disputed Texas but conquered by the U.S. Army. These were northern territories of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo México. The U.S. agreed to pay $15 million for the physical damage of the war and assumed $3.25 million of debt already owed by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens. Mexico acknowledged the independence of what became the State of Texas and accepted the Rio Grande as its northern border with the United States.

The victory and territorial expansion Polk envisioned[9] inspired patriotism among some sections of the United States, but the war and treaty drew fierce criticism for the casualties, monetary cost, and heavy-handedness,[10][11] particularly early on. The question of how to treat the new acquisitions also intensified the debate over slavery in the United States. Although the Wilmot Proviso that explicitly forbade the extension of slavery into conquered Mexican territory was not adopted by Congress, debates about it heightened sectional tensions. Some scholars see the Mexican–American War as leading to the American Civil War, with many officers trained at West Point, who saw action in Mexico, playing prominent leadership roles on each side during the conflict.

In Mexico, the war worsened domestic political turmoil. Since the war was fought on home ground, Mexico suffered a large loss of life of both its soldiers and its civilian population. The nation’s financial foundations were undermined, territory was lost, and national prestige left it in what a group of Mexican writers including Ramón Alcaraz and José María del Castillo Velasco called a “state of degradation and ruin…” This group did not acknowledge Mexico’s refusal to admit the independence of Texas as a cause of the war, instead proclaiming “[As for] the true origin of the war, it is sufficient to say that the insatiable ambition of the United States, favored by our weakness, caused it.”[12]



Born On This Day

1828 – Albrecht von Graefe, German ophthalmologist and academic (d. 1870)
Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Albrecht von Gräfe,[1] often Anglicized to Graefe[2] (22 May 1828 – 20 July 1870), was a Prussian pioneer of German ophthalmology. Graefe was born in Finkenheerd, Brandenburg, the son of Karl Ferdinand von Graefe (1787–1840). He was the father of the far right politician Albrecht von Graefe (1868–1933).



1837 – Anatole Mallet, Swiss mechanical engineer and inventor (d. 1919)
Jules T. Anatole Mallet (23 May 1837 – 10 October 1919) was a Swiss mechanical engineer, who was the inventor of the first successful compound system for a railway steam locomotive, patented in 1874.[1] He is known for having invented three important forms of compound locomotive.

In 1876 he introduced a series of small two-cylinder compound 0-4-2T tank locomotives for the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz Railway in France.[2]

He subsequently designed an articulated compound system with a rigid chassis at the rear carrying two high-pressure cylinders, and two low-pressure ones mounted on a swivelling front truck. This was patented in 1884[1] with full rights granted in 1885.[3] This was first used for a series of 600 mm (1 ft 11+5⁄8 in) narrow gauge locomotives specially built by the Decauville Company in 1888 for the Paris Exposition of 1889.[3] This arrangement became known as the Mallet locomotive. The final developments of these in the USA were some of the largest steam locomotives ever built.

A third compound locomotive, less well-known, was a tandem compound developed in 1890 for SACM as a collaboration with Alfred de Glehn and the Russian A. Borodine.[4] The high and low pressure cylinders were mounted on a common axis, with the high pressure ahead. Unlike the US tandem compounds, the high and low pressure cylinders were cross-connected between sides, which also required them to be receiver compounds with an intermediate reservoir as a pair of curved pipes passing through the smokebox. Large numbers of these, mostly a 2-8-0 derivative, were built for Russian and Hungarian railways making them the most-produced type of tandem compound locomotive. Z. Kordina’s design for Hungarian State Railways was a similar 4-4-0, although outside-framed and with the low-pressure cylinders ahead of the high pressure.[4]

He was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal of The Franklin Institute in 1908.

See more ->



NASA: Astronomy Picture of the Day

The only cure for grief is time. Not one to forget but time to figure out, “How do we live now that our loved one is gone?”

By La’Tasha Givens, 11 Alive: Church holds service for beloved pastor who was murdered while ministering to former inmate Members at Connections at Metropolitan UMC church said it was their faith helped them to still wake up and praise this Sunday.

Rare Historical Photos: Stunning color photos of Egypt from the 1920s
Rare Historical Photos: Adhesive Bras: The stick-on bra swimsuit that was quite distinctive, 1949
Rare Historical Photos: A weird relic from the past: The 1979 Cocaine Calendar
Rare Historical Photos: Colorful photographs from the 1972 Texas State Fair show people sampling a wide variety of the products of their state
By MessyNessy 13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. DCIV): Abandoned Wine Cellars in Southern Italy; Jazz Age Yiddish Drag King: Pepi Litman; Delores Costello, Drew Barrymore’s grandmother, 1928; Virginia Woolf and her cat; Six month old grapes, still fresh, preserved by farmers in Afghanistan; All the pretty drawings in this Iconographic Encyclopaedia of Science, Literature & Art; The Remarkable Printing Process of the English Poet, Artist & Visionary, William Blake and more ->

Creative Caffeine: Getting the Most out of Managing Creative Talent Without Micromanaging Them

Our neighbor’s went to Talkeenta this wknd and their coolant connector failed. The part is plastic, gets old and brittle… Fortunately the store up there had both the part and tool to fix things. Paul went over to CarQuest this morning and picked up parts for our trucks. Connection is Dorman 809-400 and tool set is Lisle 39400 (Green one works on Chevy’s).

Neighbor’s truck showing the part replacement.


Connection part






By Amy Maoz, Pocket: How to Make Better Coffee A handy guide to upping your coffee game, from weighing different prep methods to troubleshooting your process.

Just the Recipe: Paste the URL to any recipe, click submit, and it’ll return literally JUST the recipe- no ads, no life story of the writer, no nothing EXCEPT the recipe.




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The Book Blogger List


The Book Junction: Where Readers Go To Discover Great New Fiction!

Books A Million

Digital Book Spot


eBooks Habit


Indie Bound

Love Swept & The Smitten Word

Mystery & Thriller Most Wanted

Pixel of Ink

The Rock Stars of Romance

Book Blogs & Websites:

Alaskan Book Cafe

Stacy, Carol RT Book Reviews

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