FYI November 11, 2018

On This Day

1215 – The Fourth Council of the Lateran meets, defining the doctrine of transubstantiation, the process by which bread and wine are, by that doctrine, said to transform into the body and blood of Christ.
Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.

The Roman Catholic Church teaches that in the Eucharistic offering bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ.[1] The reaffirmation of this doctrine was expressed, using the word “transubstantiate”, by the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215.[2][3] It was later challenged by various 14th-century reformers—John Wycliffe in particular.[4]

The manner in which the change occurs, the Roman Catholic Church teaches, is a mystery: “The signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ.”[5]:1333 The precise terminology to be used to refer to the nature of the Eucharist and its theological implications has a contentious history, especially in the Protestant Reformation.[6]

In the Greek Orthodox Church, the doctrine has been discussed under the term of metousiosis, coined as a direct loan-translation of transsubstantiatio in the 17th century. In Eastern Orthodoxy in general, the Sacred Mystery (Sacrament) of the Eucharist is more commonly discussed using alternative terms such as “trans-elementation” (μεταστοιχείωσις, metastoicheiosis), “re-ordination” (μεταρρύθμισις, metarrhythmisis), or simply “change” (μεταβολή, metabole).


Born On This Day

1891 – Grunya Sukhareva, Ukrainian-Russian psychiatrist and university lecturer (d. 1981)
Grunya Efimovna Sukhareva (Груня Ефимовна Сухарева, alternative transliteration Suchareva) (November 11, 1891 – April 26, 1981[1]) was a Soviet child psychiatrist. She was the first to publish a detailed description of autistic symptoms in 1925.[2] The original paper was in Russian and published in German a year later. Sula Wolff translated it in 1996 for the English-speaking world.[3]

She initially used the term “schizoid psychopathy”, “schizoid” meaning “eccentric” at the time, but later replaced it with “autistic (pathological avoidant) psychopathy” to describe the clinical picture of autism. The article was created almost two decades before the case reports of Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner, which were published while Sukhareva’s pioneering work remained unnoticed.

Sukhareva was born in Kiev to the Jewish family of Chaim Faitelevich and Rachil Iosifovna Sukhareva.[4] Between 1917 and 1921, she worked in a psychiatric hospital in Kiev. From 1921, she worked in Moscow, and from 1933 to 1935 she was leading the department of Psychiatry in Kharkov University (Kharkov Psychoneurological Institute).[2]

In 1935, Sukhareva founded a Faculty of Pediatric Psychiatry in the Central Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education. In 1938, she led a clinic of childhood psychosis under the Russian SFSR Ministry of Agriculture and Food. For many years, she worked as a councillor and leader of the Psychiatric Hospital of Kashchenko in Moscow.[5]



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By Emily Alford: Woman Arrested After Months of Stashing Needles in Australian Strawberries
After months of panic, Australian police have finally caught the woman who may be responsible for hiding sewing needles in supermarket strawberries.

The 50-year-old woman was arrested in Queensland, though there were 100 cases of needled-infused strawberries reported across the country. At least one man was hospitalized after eating a strawberry that contained a sewing needle.
By Dennis Perkins: SNL’s Pete Davidson eats crow for mocking wounded vet Dan Crenshaw, who delivers more in person
On last night’s Weekend Update, Davidson sheepishly came out to apologize to Crenshaw, joking that his bad taste joke was certainly “a huge shock for people who know me,” and noting that at least Americans of all political persuasions came together to call him a dick. To surprised applause, Crenshaw himself then came out and rather graciously forgave Davidson, noting that the comedian’s dad Scott was an American hero (the NYC firefighter died on 9/11, when Davidson was 7), and calling for people of all persuasions to come together—and not just to agree that Pete Davidson is a dick. Urging respect for all veterans of the armed forces, Crenshaw accepted Davidson’s apology—but not before giving back some personal appearance smack of his own.
Vector’s World: Thank you for your service, Excessive Bling and Scooter pals!
By Sean Braswell: When America Forgot All About its Black WWI Soldiers
Why you should care
Because America’s goal of “making the world safe for democracy” did not apply to the treatment of many of its own soldiers.

By Heather Chapman: Tyler Childers became a voice of Appalachia partly from his negative reaction to Diane Sawyer’s 2009 documentary

By Heather Chapman: Charter school advocate: Rural schools can better succeed with freedom to choose different educational goals
“What we can do is try to collect and disseminate as much information as possible so that those families, schools, and communities can make informed decisions about what courses and programs to offer,” McShane writes. “We can create flexibility in funding streams that allow schools to offer as broad a range of courses and programs as they can so that each student can find the path most appropriate to his or her goals and abilities. And, we can work with both industry and institutions of higher education to make better links between K-12 schools and the opportunities that follow them so that fewer students fall through the cracks.”

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Maria Popova’s Brain Pickings: Margaret Fuller on What Makes a Great Leader: Timeless Political Wisdom from the Founding Mother of American Feminism, Dawn: A Vintage Watercolor Serenade to the World Becoming Conscious of Itself, Elizabeth Gilbert Reads “The Early Hours” by Adam Zagajewski



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