1384 – Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, although she is a woman.
Jadwiga ([jadˈvʲiɡa]), also known as Hedwig (Hungarian: Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death. She was the youngest daughter of Louis the Great, King of Hungary and Poland, and his wife Elizabeth of Bosnia. Jadwiga was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, but had more close ancestors among the Polish Piasts. She was canonized in the Roman Catholic Church in 1997.
Her marriage to William of Austria was planned in 1375 and she lived in Vienna between 1378 and 1380. Jadwiga and William were allegedly regarded as her father’s favoured successors in Hungary after her eldest sister Catherine’s death in 1379, since the Polish noblemen had paid homage to Louis’ second daughter, Mary, and Mary’s fiancé, Sigismund of Luxemburg, that same year. However, Louis died and Mary was crowned “King of Hungary” on the demand of her mother in 1382. Sigismund of Luxemburg tried to seize Poland, but the Polish noblemen countered that they would only obey a daughter of King Louis if she settled in their country. Queen Elizabeth then nominated Jadwiga to reign in Poland, but did not send her to Kraków to be crowned. During the interregnum, Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia, became a candidate for the Polish throne. The nobles of Greater Poland especially favoured him, proposing he marry Jadwiga. However, the noblemen of Lesser Poland opposed his election and persuaded Queen Elizabeth to send Jadwiga to Poland.
Jadwiga was crowned “king” in Kraków on 16 October 1384. Her crowning either reflected the Polish lords’ opposition to her intended future husband, William, adopting the royal title without a further Act or only emphasized that she was a queen regnant. With her mother’s consent, Jadwiga’s advisors opened negotiations with Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, who was still a heathen, about his marriage to Jadwiga. Jogaila signed the Union of Krewo, promising to convert to Roman Catholicism and to promote his ‘pagan’ subjects’ conversion. Meanwhile, William of Habsburg hurried to Kraków to demand the consummation of his pre-arranged marriage with Jadwiga, but the Polish lords expelled him in late August 1385. Jogaila, who received the baptismal name Władysław, married Jadwiga on 15 February 1386. Legend says that she had only agreed to marry him after long prayers, seeking divine inspiration.
Władysław-Jogaila was crowned king on 4 March. As her co-ruler, Władysław closely cooperated with his wife. After rebellious lords had imprisoned her mother and sister, she marched into Ruthenia, which had been under Hungarian rule, and persuaded most local inhabitants to become subjects of the Polish Crown without resistance. She acted as mediator between her husband’s quarreling kinsmen, and between Poland and the Teutonic Knights. After her sister Mary died in 1395, Jadwiga and Władysław-Jogaila laid claim to Hungary against the widowed Sigismund of Luxemburg, but the Hungarian lords did not support them.
1908 – Olivia Coolidge, English-American author and educator (d. 2006)
Margaret Olivia Ensor Coolidge (October 16, 1908 − December 10, 2006) was a British-born American writer and educator. She published 27 books, many for young adults, including The Greek Myths (1949), her debut; The Trojan War (1952); Legends of the North (1951); Makers of the Red Revolution (1963); Men of Athens, one runner-up for the 1963 Newbery Medal; Lives of Famous Romans (1965); and biographies of Eugene O’Neill, Winston Churchill, Edith Wharton, Gandhi, and Tom Paine. Olivia Coolidge was born in London to Sir Robert Ensor, a journalist and historian. She earned a degree in Classics and Philosophy at Somerville College, Oxford, in 1931 and a Master’s degree in 1940. In Germany, England and the U.S. she taught Greek, Latin, and English. In 1946 she married Archibald C. Coolidge of Connecticut, who had four children. 
By Patrick Lucas Austin: Your Wi-Fi is Vulnerable to Attack—Update Your Devices to Fix It
The US Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) has compiled a list of manufacturers that have been notified about the vulnerability, as well as whether or not they have provided information concerning updated devices. Be sure to check if your wireless router’s manufacturer is on the list, and update your router following their instructions.
As always, you should steer clear of public Wi-Fi networks if you can help it, and continue to use WPA2 encryption on your devices, as it’s still the most secure option available.
Updated at 5:00 p.m., 10/16/17 ET: Apple confirmed its vulnerability patch would arrive “within the next few weeks.”
Condolences. The money will not bring their son back but it might put a stop to “hazing” and other forms of abuse by military personnel. “No hazing the recruits, we can’t afford it.”
By Atoz: Family of Muslim Marine recruit who died in boot camp sues for $100M
By Jonathan Drew: Army Sgt. Bowe Bergdahl Pleads Guilty to Desertion, Misbehavior
By Binoy Prabhakar: One of India’s most famous newspapermen is turning to digital with a political journalism platform
One of India’s most famous newspapermen is turning to digital with a political journalism platform
Shekhar Gupta said he named his new venture The Print to signal to readers that its standards would be high: “We feel there is a belief that once you go digital, the bar is lowered.”
By Brittany Jezouit: David Bowie, ELO, and The National: 5 Fonts Inspired by Music
By Associated Press: After 883 years, Cistercian monastery to close in Germany
Himmerod Abbey (Kloster Himmerod) is a Cistercian monastery in the community of Großlittgen in the Verbandsgemeinde of Manderscheid in the district of Bernkastel-Wittlich, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, located in the Eifel, in the valley of the Salm.
This sounds like a good idea. Romance versus reality might show some flaws in the plan. Maybe CA should have a list of reputable breeders, not puppy mills, and allow folks to have the option of purchasing from them thru a pet store? If you get a shelter animal, you might not have any health/personality background on it. If people report puppy mills,that is a step in the direction of shutting them down.
By Megan Reynolds: All Pets in Pet Stores Must Come From Shelters or Rescue Agencies, Says New California Law
By David Tracy: How A North Carolina Mechanic Home-Brewed A Cadillac Seville Into An Epic Car Hauler
By Melanie Ehrenkranz: Australia Launches First Nation-Wide Reporting System for Revenge Porn
By Noel Murray: A very special 1970s nightmare, starring Vincent Price, H.R. Pufnstuf, and the Brady Bunch
The Alexander Piano
One of my most interesting achievements has been to build the Alexander piano. Here is a brief history of the making of this piano. There’s much much more to the full story
Looking back I recognise the task I had. At the age of 15 a question to my piano teacher sparked a curiosity enough to do an experiment in the back yard. In conclusion after seeing the length of string needed and hearing the sound I was convinced that I was going to build a piano with very long and deep sounding bass strings. In my 16th year I was lucky enough to have been given access to the space in our neighbour’s garage. I had no idea what I was doing at the beginning.I just knew what I wanted the outcome to be.
I needed to learn something that was not able to be taught, in the respect that such a piano with a string scale this different had never been built. The project unlocked a lot of intuitive problem solving with discovery, experiment after experiment, theories guess work, the known and the unknown. There were so many technical problems that had never been addressed that I was facing just because of the physical dimensions.
Knowing very little at the beginning and the ignorance of youth meant I ‘knew’ it was possible and I carried that notion through the entire project even when many said I was wasting my time.
Uh, don’t hate all rich people. They’re not all awful. Believe me, I know some evil poor people, too. We need some rich people: Who else is going to back our movies or buy our art? I’m rich! I don’t mean money-wise. I mean that I have figured out how to never be around assholes at any time in my personal and professional life. That’s rich. And not being around assholes should be the goal of every graduate here today.
It’s OK to hate the poor, too, but only the poor of spirit, not wealth. A poor person to me can have a big bank balance but is stupid by choice – uncurious, judgemental, isolated and unavailable to change.
By Patrick Lucas Austin: Before Buying a Kindle, Consider the Physical Book’s Benefits
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