On This Day
1937 – Nine nations attend the Nyon Conference to address international piracy in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Nyon Conference was a diplomatic conference held in Nyon, Switzerland, in September 1937 to address attacks on international shipping in the Mediterranean Sea during the Spanish Civil War. The conference was convened in part because Italy had been carrying out unrestricted submarine warfare, although the final conference agreement did not accuse Italy directly; instead, the attacks were referred to as “piracy” by an unidentified body. Italy was not officially at war, nor did any submarine identify itself. The conference was designed to strengthen non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War. The United Kingdom and France led the conference, which was also attended by Bulgaria, Egypt, Greece, Romania, Turkey, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia.
The first agreement, signed on 14 September 1937, included plans to counterattack aggressive submarines. Naval patrols were established; the United Kingdom and France were to patrol most of the western Mediterranean and parts of the east, and the other signatories were to patrol their own waters. Italy was to be allowed to join the agreement and patrol the Tyrrhenian Sea if it wished. A second agreement followed three days later, applying similar provisions to surface ships. Italy and Germany did not attend, although the former took up naval patrols in November. In marked contrast to the actions of the Non-Intervention Committee and the League of Nations, this conference succeeded in preventing attacks by submarines.
Nyon has been characterised as ‘an appeasers paradise. The fiction that attacks on merchant shipping in the Mediterranean was the fault of ‘pirates unknown’ was fully indulged. [It] preserved the naval status quo in the Mediterranean until the end of the Spanish Civil War: the Francoists received whatever they wanted, the Republicans got very little.'
1776 – British–American peace conference on Staten Island fails to stop nascent American Revolutionary War.
The Staten Island Peace Conference was a brief informal diplomatic conference held between representatives of the British Crown and its rebellious North American colonies in the hope of bringing a rapid end to the nascent American Revolution. The conference took place on September 11, 1776, a few days after the British had captured Long Island and less than three months after the formal American Declaration of Independence. The conference was held at Billop Manor, the residence of loyalist Colonel Christopher Billop, on Staten Island, New York. The participants were the British Admiral Lord Richard Howe, and members of the Second Continental Congress John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and Edward Rutledge.
Upon being placed in command of British land forces in the Colonies, Lord Howe had sought authority to resolve the conflict peacefully. However, his power to negotiate was by design extremely limited, which left the Congressional delegation pessimistic over a summary resolution. The Americans insisted on recognition of their recently-declared independence, which Howe was unable to grant. After just three hours, the delegates retired, and the British resumed their military campaign to control New York City.
Born On This Day
1852 – Alice Brown Davis, American tribal chief (d. 1935)
Alice Brown Davis (September 10, 1852 – June 21, 1935) was the first female Principal Chief of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, and served from 1922–1935, appointed by President Warren G. Harding. She was of Seminole (Tiger Clan) and Scots descent. Her older brother John Frippo Brown had served as chief of the tribe and their brother Andrew Jackson Brown as treasurer.
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1917 – Jessica Mitford, English-American journalist and author (d. 1996)
Jessica Lucy “Decca” Freeman-Mitford (11 September 1917 – 23 July 1996) was an English author, one of the six aristocratic Mitford sisters noted for their sharply conflicting politics.
Jessica married her second cousin Esmond Romilly, who was killed in World War II, and then American civil rights lawyer Robert Treuhaft, with whom she joined the American Communist Party and worked closely in the Civil Rights Congress. Both refused to testify in front of the House Un-American Activities Committee, and later resigned from the party out of disillusion with Stalinism.
Her memoir Hons and Rebels and her book of social commentary The American Way of Death both became classics.
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I always found the boat lift fascinating. The more I learn, the more incredible and humbling it is.
NJ.com True Jersey: The great boat lift of 9/11 The unsung story of how hundreds of thousands were rescued that tragic day
Just A Car Guy: I’ve never heard of the John Deere Gators at the twin towers until now
Just A Car Guy: The cyclist who saved Jews in wartime Italy, Gino Bartali, the most renowned Italian cyclist before the Second World War, having won the Giro d’Italia twice, in 1936 and 1937, and the Tour de France in 1938 and 1948
By Colin Marshall, Open Culture: RIP Jean-Paul Belmondo: The Actor Who Went from the French New Wave to Action Superstardom
Jean-Paul Charles Belmondo (French pronunciation: [ʒɑ̃pɔl ʃaʁl bɛlmɔ̃do]; 9 April 1933 – 6 September 2021) was a French actor, initially associated with the New Wave of the 1960s and a major French film star for several decades from the 1960s. His best known credits include Breathless (1960), That Man from Rio (1964), and Pierrot le Fou (1965). He was most notable for portraying police officers in action thriller films and became known for his unwillingness to appear in English-language films, despite being heavily courted by Hollywood.
During his career, he was called the French counterpart of actors such as James Dean, Marlon Brando, and Humphrey Bogart. Described as an icon and national treasure of France, Belmondo was seen as an influential actor of French cinema and an important figure in shaping European cinema. As Guardian columnist Kim Willsher stated, “The French actor Jean-Paul Belmondo spent almost an entire film – the 1960s classic À Bout du Souffle (Breathless) – with a Gauloise dangling from his lips.”
In 1989, Belmondo won the César Award for Best Actor for his performance in Itinéraire d’un enfant gâté. He was nominated for two BAFTA Awards throughout his career. In 2017, he received a lifetime achievement honor at the 42nd César Awards.
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By Ayun Halliday, Open Culture: Watch Prince Appear on the Muppets Tonight Show & Reveal His Humble, Down-to-Earth Side (1997)
One of my favorites!
By Ted Mills, Open Culture: The Life & Music of the Godmother of Rock and Roll, Sister Rosetta Tharpe
David Camarillo’s research focuses on understanding and preventing traumatic brain injury.
Some positivity for the battles you or loved ones may be fighting:
The Spruce Eats: Bang Bang Cauliflower
By Becca: Cheesy Vegetable Pie
Our Crafty Mom: 25 Best Chicken Wings Recipes Perfect For Tailgating
By Betty Crocker Kicthens: 31 Delicious Dinners for October
Taste of Home: Slow Cooker Recipes
Book Blogs & Websites:
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