FYI August 24 & 25, 2022

On This Day

394 – The Graffito of Esmet-Akhom, the latest known inscription in Egyptian hieroglyphs, is written.[2]
The graffito of Esmet-Akhom, also known by its designation Philae 436 or GPH 436, is the last known inscription written in Egyptian hieroglyphs, carved on 24 August AD 394. The inscription, carved in the temple of Philae in southern Egypt, was created by a priest named Nesmeterakhem (or Esmet-Akhom)[a] and consists of a carved figure of the god Mandulis as well an accompanying text wherein Nesmeterakhem hopes his inscription will last “for all time and eternity”. The inscription also contains a text in the demotic script, with similar content.

The temple at Philae was a prominent site of worship for the ancient Egyptian religion, as it was believed to be one of the burial places of the god Osiris. The primary deity of worship was Isis, the sister-wife of Osiris, though several other deities are also recorded to have been worshipped at the temple. Several deities originally from Nubia in the south, including Mandulis, were also worshipped. The inscription by Nesmeterakhem is from after the pagan temples of Egypt were closed by the Roman emperor Theodosius I in 391 or 392; the Philae temple survived as it was just outside the borders of the Roman Empire.

Nesmeterakhem belonged to a family of priests who staffed the temple; due to the Christianization of Egypt, it is possible that belief in the old Egyptian gods by Nesmeterakhem’s time did not extend far beyond his own immediate family. Shortly after the 394 inscription was made, it is likely that there was no longer anyone alive who could read the hieroglyphs. Later graffiti and inscriptions are known from Philae, but they were written in either demotic or Greek. The Philae temple, seemingly continually staffed by members of Nesmeterakhem’s family, was finally closed on the orders of Emperor Justinian I between 535 and 537, marking the end of the last vestige of the ancient Egyptian culture.

1543 – António Mota and a few companions become the first Europeans to visit Japan.

António da Mota was a Portuguese trader and explorer, who in 1543 became one of the first Europeans to set foot in Japan.

While traveling to Ningbo with a Chinese junk in 1543 (some sources say 1542), Mota and the rest of the crew were swept off course from a bad storm. Among the crew were around one hundred East Asians, and several Portuguese. The Portuguese included were Francisco Zeimoto, António Peixoto, and Mota himself. Fernão Mendes Pinto claimed that he was on the voyage as well, but this claim is unlikely due to the fact that he also claims he was (more accurately) in Burma at the same time. Driven from the storm, the ship lands on the island of Tanegashima on 25 August 1543. António Mota and Francisco Zeimoto are officially the first Europeans on Japanese soil.[1] António Peixoto is not recorded as having landed, and presumably died at sea prior to the landing.

Mota and Zeimoto introduced handheld guns to Japan, which the Japanese found fascinating. From then on the Japanese would have a mass production on firearms in the decades that followed.[2] The ship was then soon repaired and António Mota departed from Japan. The rest of his life is unknown.

Born On This Day

1113 – Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou (d. 1151)[28]
Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151), called the Handsome, the Fair (French: le Bel) or Plantagenet, was the count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine by inheritance from 1129, and also Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. His marriage to Empress Matilda, daughter of King Henry I of England, led to the centuries-long reign of the Plantagenet dynasty in England. The name “Plantagenet” was taken from Geoffrey’s epithet. Geoffrey’s ancestral domain of Anjou gave rise to the name Angevin, and what became known as the Angevin Empire in the 12th century.

1467 – Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 2nd Duke of Alburquerque, Spanish duke (d. 1526)
Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 2nd Duke of Alburquerque (in full, Spanish: Don Francisco Fernández de la Cueva y Mendoza, segundo duque de Alburquerque, segundo conde de Ledesma, segundo conde de Huelma, señor de los estados de Cuéllar, Mombeltrán y Pedro Bernardo) (25 August 1467 – 4 June 1526) was a Spanish nobleman.

He was the son of Don Beltrán de la Cueva, 1st Duke of Alburquerque, by first wife Doña Mencía Hurtado de Mendoza y Luna. He served the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand V of Castile in the Wars of Granada along with his father.

He married before January 1485 Dona Francisca Alvarez de Toledo, daughter of García Álvarez de Toledo, 1st Duke of Alba and sister of his first stepmother, and among two other sons and two other daughters he had the oldest daughter Dona Mencía de la Cueva y Alvarez de Toledo, who married as his second wife Don Pedro Fajardo y Chacón Manrique de Lara, 1st Marquess of los Vélez.

He was the paternal grandfather of the 1st Marquess of Cuéllar in 1562, Don Francisco de la Cueva y Téllez-Girón, Alvarez de Toledo y de la Vega.



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