On This Day
1564 – The Council of Trent establishes an official distinction between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.
The Council of Trent (Latin: Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.
The Council issued condemnations of what it defined to be heresies committed by proponents of Protestantism, and also issued key statements and clarifications of the Church’s doctrine and teachings, including scripture, the Biblical canon, sacred tradition, original sin, justification, salvation, the sacraments, the Mass, and the veneration of saints. The Council met for twenty-five sessions between 13 December 1545 and 4 December 1563. Pope Paul III, who convoked the Council, oversaw the first eight sessions (1545–47), while the twelfth to sixteenth sessions (1551–52) were overseen by Pope Julius III and the seventeenth to twenty-fifth sessions (1562–63) by Pope Pius IV.
The consequences of the Council were also significant with regard to the Church’s liturgy and practices. During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the 1590s. In 1565, a year after the Council finished its work, Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed (after Tridentum, Trent’s Latin name) and his successor Pius V then issued the Roman Catechism and revisions of the Breviary and Missal in, respectively, 1566, 1568 and 1570. These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass, which remained the Church’s primary form of the Mass for the next four hundred years.
More than three hundred years passed until the next ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council, was convened in 1869.
Born On This Day
1891 – Wilder Penfield, American-Canadian neurosurgeon and academic (d. 1976)
ilder Graves Penfield OM CC CMG FRS (January 26, 1891 – April 5, 1976) was an American-Canadian neurosurgeon. He expanded brain surgery’s methods and techniques, including mapping the functions of various regions of the brain such as the cortical homunculus. His scientific contributions on neural stimulation expand across a variety of topics including hallucinations, illusions, and déjà vu. Penfield devoted much of his thinking to mental processes, including contemplation of whether there was any scientific basis for the existence of the human soul.
By Zachary Cohen, CNN: Pentagon’s vow to protect Vindman against retaliation tested after Blackburn attacks decorated veteran
“That a member of the Senate — at a moment when the Senate is undertaking its most solemn responsibility — would choose to take to Twitter to spread slander about a member of the military is a testament to cowardice,” he continued. “While Senator Blackburn fires off defamatory tweets, Lieutenant Colonel Vindman will continue to do what he has always done: serve our country dutifully and with honor.”
By Ned Rozell, Anchorage Daily News: NASA prepares to launch rocket from Alaska’s Poker Flat range
By Rashika Jaipuriar, NBC News: Truckers fighting human trafficking are trained to be alert to late-night knocks Because traffickers often exploit the transportation system to move their victims, truckers are at an advantage to spot signs and make reports.
Sunday Morning: Calendar: Week of January 27
Maria Popova’s Brain Pickings: A soulful animated short film about loss and the unbreakable bonds of love; Thoreau on the true value of a tree; the stunning photomicroscopy of snow
By Tom Waterman, Towards Data Science: Google just published 25 million free datasets
Here’s what you need to know about the largest data repository in the world
By Jessica Wildfire, Medium: Use This Ancient Technique to Shut Down B.S. Artists It cuts right through the noise.
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Kings River Life: Cat House on the Kings: Senior House/Special Needs/Kittens; Important Things to Know for Caregivers to Help Someone with Dementia; Great Food Search—Best of 2019 and more ->