Category: FYI


FYI February 23, 2019

On This Day

1905 – Chicago attorney Paul Harris and three other businessmen meet for lunch to form the Rotary Club, the world’s first service club.
Rotary International is an international service organization whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian service and to advance goodwill and peace around the world. It is a non-political and non-sectarian organization open to all people regardless of race, color, creed, religion, gender, or political preference. There are 34,282 member clubs worldwide, and 1.2 million individuals, known as Rotarians, have joined.[2]

Rotarians usually gather weekly for breakfast, lunch, or dinner to fulfill their first guiding principle to develop friendships as an opportunity for service. “It is the duty of all Rotarians,” states their Manual of Procedure,[3] “outside their clubs, to be active as individuals in as many legally constituted groups and organizations as possible to promote, not only in words but through exemplary dedication, awareness of the dignity of all people and the respect of the consequent human rights of the individual.” The Rotarian’s primary motto is “Service Above Self”; its secondary motto is “One profits most who serves best.”[4]



Born On This Day

1923 – Clarence D. Lester, African-American fighter pilot (d.1986)
Clarence D. “Lucky” Lester (February 23, 1923 – March 17, 1986) was an African-American fighter pilot in the 332nd Fighter Group, commonly known as the Tuskegee Airmen, during World War II. He was one of the first African-American military aviators in the United States Army Air Corps, the United States Army Air Forces and later the United States Air Force.[2] [3] Lester was one of two pilots who shot down three Focke-Wulf Fw 190 or Messerschmitt Bf 109 on a single mission; the other pilot was Captain Joseph Elsberry. [4] [5] Lester flew a P-51 Mustang nicknamed “Miss Pelt.”[2]

World War II
The Tuskegee Airmen is the popular name of a group of African-American military pilots (fighter and bomber) who fought in World War II. They formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the United States Army Air Forces. The name also applies to the navigators, bombardiers, mechanics, instructors, crew chiefs, nurses, cooks and other support personnel. Lester recalls that “Being a black pilot in the 1940s was like being a pro athlete today … We knew we were special, that we would have to prove something. This was the first chance blacks had had outside of working in the kitchen or the possiblity [sic] of being a truck driver.” [6] White pilots would fly around 50 combat missions but because there were no replacements, black pilots of the Tuskegee Airmen flew around 70 missions.[7] During the war he flew over 90 combat missions.[8]

After the WWII
While flying an F-84E Thunderjet it experienced mechanical failure and exploded into flames forcing Lester to yank his ejection seat and parachute from the inflamed jet, which made him “only the sixth pilot ever to use the ejection method.” [8] Later in his career he also worked with the infamous “Whiz kids” that Robert McNamara assembled at the Office of the Secretary of Defense.[7] In 1969 Lester retired as a full colonel and was then appointed as associate director of social services in Rockville, Maryland.[7]



By William Hughes: R.I.P. Stanley Donen, co-director of Singin’ In The Rain and legendary innovator of the Hollywood musical

Stanley Donen (/ˈdɒnən/ DON-ən;[1] April 13, 1924 – February 21, 2019) was an American film director and choreographer whose most celebrated works are Singin’ in the Rain and On the Town, both of which he co-directed with actor and dancer Gene Kelly. Other noteworthy films include Royal Wedding, Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, Funny Face, Indiscreet, Damn Yankees!, Charade, and Two for the Road. He began his career in the chorus line on Broadway for director George Abbott, where he befriended Kelly. In 1943 he went to Hollywood and worked as a choreographer before he and Kelly made On the Town in 1949. He then worked as a contract director for MGM under producer Arthur Freed producing hit films amid critical acclaim. In 1952 Donen and Kelly co-directed the musical Singin’ in the Rain, regarded as one of the greatest films ever made. Donen’s relationship with Kelly deteriorated in 1955 during their final collaboration on It’s Always Fair Weather. He then broke his contract with MGM to become an independent producer in 1957. He continued making films throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, often financial successes that were critically acclaimed. His film output became less frequent in the early 1980s and he briefly returned to the stage as a director in the 1990s and again in 2002.

Read more->

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FYI February 22, 2019

On This Day

1819 – By the Adams–Onís Treaty, Spain sells Florida to the United States for five million U.S. dollars.
The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819,[1] also known as the Transcontinental Treaty,[2] the Florida Purchase Treaty,[3] or the Florida Treaty,[4][5] was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain. It settled a standing border dispute between the two countries and was considered a triumph of American diplomacy. It came in the midst of increasing tensions related to Spain’s territorial boundaries in North America against the United States and Great Britain in the aftermath of the American Revolution; it also came during the Latin American wars of independence.

Florida had become a burden to Spain, which could not afford to send settlers or garrisons, so the Spanish government decided to cede the territory to the United States in exchange for settling the boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Spanish Texas. The treaty established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean, in exchange for the U.S. paying residents’ claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5,000,000 and relinquishing the U.S. claims on parts of Spanish Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas, under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase.

The treaty remained in full effect for only 183 days: from February 22, 1821, to August 24, 1821, when Spanish military officials signed the Treaty of Córdoba acknowledging the independence of Mexico; Spain repudiated that treaty, but Mexico effectively took control of Spain’s former colony. The Treaty of Limits between Mexico and the United States, signed in 1828 and effective in 1832, recognized the border defined by the Adams–Onís Treaty as the boundary between the two nations.



Born On This Day

1805 – Sarah Fuller Flower Adams, English poet and hymnwriter (d. 1848)[3]
Sarah Fuller Flower Adams (or Sally Adams[1]) (1805 – 1848) was an English poet and hymnwriter, best known for writing the words of the hymn “Nearer, My God, to Thee”.[2]

Early years and education
Sarah Fuller Flower was born 22 February 1805, at Old Harlow, Essex,[3] and baptised in September 1806 at the Water Lane Independent Chapel in Bishops Stortford.[4] She was the younger daughter of the radical editor Benjamin Flower,[5] and his wife Eliza Gould.[2]

Her father’s mother Martha, sister of the wealthy bankers William Fuller and Richard Fuller, had died the month before Adam’s birth. Her elder sister was the composer Eliza Flower.[2][6] Her uncles included Richard Flower, who emigrated to the United States in 1822 and was a founder of the town of Albion, Illinois;[7] and the nonconformist minister John Clayton.

Her mother died when she was only five years old and initially her father, a liberal in politics and religion,[8] brought the daughters up, taking a hand in their education. The family moved to Dalston in Middlesex, where they met the writer Harriet Martineau, who was struck by the two sisters and used them for her novel “Deerbrook”. In 1823, on a holiday in Scotland with friends of the radical preacher William Johnson Fox, the minister of South Place Unitarian Chapel, London, who was a frequent visitor to their home, Adam broke the female record for climbing up Ben Lomond. Back home, the girls became friends with the young poet Robert Browning, who discussed his religious doubts with Adam.[2]

After the father’s death, about 1825, the sisters became members of the Fox household.[9] Both sisters began literary pursuits, and Adam first fell ill with what became tuberculosis. Soon after, the sisters moved to Upper Clapton, a suburb of London. They attached themselves to the religious society worshipping in South Place, Finsbury, under the pastoral care of Fox. He encouraged and sympathized with the sisters, and they in turn helped him in his work. Eliza, the elder, devoted herself to enriching the musical part of the Chapel service, while Adams contributed hymns.[9] Fox was one of the founders of the Westminster Review.[8] and his Unitarian magazine, the Monthly Repository, printed essays, poems and stories by William Bridges Adams, polemicist and railway engineer, who Adam met at the house of her friend, the feminist philosopher Harriet Taylor Mill. The two married in 1834,[2] setting up house at Loughton in Essex. In 1837, he distinguished himself as the author of an elaborate volume on English Pleasure Carriages, and another on The Construction of Common Roads and Railroads. He was also a contributor to some of the principal reviews and newspapers.[8]

Encouraged by her husband, Adams turned to acting and in the 1837 season at Richmond played Lady Macbeth, followed by Portia and Lady Teazle, all successes. Though offered a role at Bath, then a springboard for the West End, her health broke down and she returned to literature.[2]

In 1841, she published her longest work, Vivia Perpetua, A Dramatic Poem. In it, a young wife who refuses to submit to male control and renounce her Christian beliefs is put to death. She contributed to the Westminster Review, including a critique of Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s poetry, and wrote political verses, some for the Anti-Corn Law League. Her work often advocated equal treatment for women and for the working class.[citation needed] At the solicitation of her pastor, she also contributed thirteen hymns to the compilation prepared by him for the use of his chapel, published 1840-41, in two parts, six in the first and seven in the second part. Of these, the two best known —” Nearer, my God! to Thee,” and “He sendeth sun, he sendeth shower”— are in the second part. For this work, her sister, Eliza, wrote sixty-two tunes. Her only other publication, a catechism for children, entitled “The Flock at the Fountain,” appeared in 1845.[10] Her hymn, “Nearer, my God! to Thee”, was introduced to American Christians in the “Service Book,” published (1844) by Rev. James Freeman Clarke, D.D., of Boston, Massachusetts, from where it was soon transferred to other collections.[7] A selection of hymns she wrote, published by Fox, included her best-known piece, “Nearer, My God, to Thee”, reportedly played by the band as the RMS Titanic sank in 1912.[2][11]

Personal life
A Unitarian in belief, her career was hampered by deafness she had inherited from her father and, inheriting their mother’s feebleness, both sisters yielded to disease in middle age. Eliza, after a lingering illness, died in December 1846 and, worn down by caring for her invalid sister, Adam’s health gradually declined. She died on 14 August 1848 at the age of 43 and was buried beside her sister and parents in the Forest Street cemetery near Harlow.[10][7][2][5] At her grave was sung the only other hymn of hers which was widely known, “He sendeth sun, he sendeth shower”.[9]

A blue plaque honouring the husband and wife was placed at their Loughton home: they had no children. Richard Garnett wrote of her:— “All who knew Mrs. Adams personally speak of her with enthusiasm; she is described as a woman of singular beauty and attractiveness, delicate and truly feminine, high-minded, and in her days of health playful and high-spirited.”[1]

Selected works

“Nearer, my God, to Thee”
“He sendeth sun, he sendeth shower”
“Creator Spirit! Thou the first.”[12]
“Darkness shrouded Calvary.”
“Gently fall the dews of eve.”
“Go, and watch the Autumn leaves.”
“O hallowed memories of the past.”
“O human heart! thou hast a song.”
“O I would sing a song of praise.”
“O Love! thou makest all things even.”
“Part in Peace! is day before us?”
“Sing to the Lord! for His mercies are sure.”
“The mourners came at break of day.”



By Larry Grady: On PR Newswire: Tooth Fairy Payouts Plunge, Millennials Taking on More Mortgages, Americans Divided by Party on Ideals of Religious and Ethnic Pluralism
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By Harold Maass: 10 things you need to know today: February 22, 2019
By Farnoush Amiri: Indiana state trooper shot inside his home as son, 11, detained on attempted murder charge The trooper underwent surgery and is in stable condition.
By WFTS Digital Staff: Port Richey Mayor arrested for attempted murder for firing at SWAT team serving warrant at his home Massad arrested for practicing medicine without license
One bullet each.
By Amy Taxin: California parents of 13 plead guilty to torture, abuse
The children, who ranged in age from 2 to 29 at the time, were severely underweight and hadn’t bathed for months. They described being beaten, starved and put in cages.

David Turpin appeared stoic as he pleaded guilty, but Louise Turpin’s face turned red and she began crying and dabbed her eyes with a tissue.

The two face prison terms of 25 years-to-life when they are sentenced April 19, Riverside District Attorney Mike Hestrin said.

“The defendants ruined lives so I think it’s just and fair that the sentence be equivalent to first-degree murder,” Hestrin said.
The Rural Blog: Quick hits: Pope urges lawmakers to consult rural people; town launches ‘Goat Fund Me’; how to catch the super bloom; Rural Arizona town marshal disciplined after threatening 12-year-old reporter; Some rural sheriffs in Washington state refuse to enforce new gun laws passed mostly by urban voters; Farmers forced to hire more legal immigrants as illegal immigration drops and more ->
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Maria Popova’s Brain Pickings: How Bach Will Save Your Soul: German Philosopher Josef Pieper on the Hidden Source of Music’s Supreme Power







FYI February 21, 2019

On This Day

1828 – Initial issue of the Cherokee Phoenix is the first periodical to use the Cherokee syllabary invented by Sequoyah.
The Cherokee Phoenix (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩ ᏧᎴᎯᏌᏅᎯ, translit. Tsalagi Tsulehisanvhi) was the first newspaper published by Native Americans in the United States and the first published in a Native American language.[1][2] The first issue was published in English and Cherokee on February 21, 1828, in New Echota, capital of the Cherokee Nation (present-day Georgia). The paper continued until 1834. The Cherokee Phoenix was revived in the 20th century, and today it publishes both print and Internet versions.



Born On This Day

921 – Abe no Seimei, Japanese astrologer (d. 1005)
Abe no Seimei (安倍 晴明, February 21, 921 A.D. – October 31, 1005 A.D.) was an onmyōji, a leading specialist of onmyōdō during the middle of the Heian period in Japan.[2] In addition to his prominence in history, he is a legendary figure in Japanese folklore and has been portrayed in a number of stories and films.

Seimei worked as onmyōji for emperors and the Heian government, making calendars and advising on the spiritually correct way to deal with issues. He prayed for the well-being of emperors and the government as well as advising on various issues. He was also an astrologer and predicted astrological events. He enjoyed an extremely long life, free from any major illness, which contributed to the popular belief that he had mystical powers.

The Seimei Shrine, located in Kyoto, is a popular shrine dedicated to him. The Abeno train station and district, in Osaka, are sometimes said to be named after him, as it is one of the locations where legends place his birth.




By Chloe Melas: Peter Tork, Monkees guitarist, dead at 77

Peter Halsten Thorkelson'[1] (February 13, 1942 – February 21, 2019), better known as Peter Tork, was an American musician and actor, best known as the keyboardist and bass guitarist of the Monkees.


By Farnoush Amiri: Ohio man punches lawyer in court after receiving 47-year sentence “All I remember is waking up on the floor underneath the table,” the attorney said.
Chislton had pleaded guilty to domestic abuse, aggravated arson, felonious assault and cruelty against a companion animal, according to

He now faces more charges after Tuesday’s assault, according to NBC affiliate WKYC.
By Raphael Orlove: That Could Have Gone Worse
By Luis Paez-Pumar: Wisconsin High School Will Retire “Big Boobie” And “Big Booty” Awards For Its Cheerleaders
Again, these awards were for high school girls, in front of a room that included fellow students, parents, and coaches. Despite initial protestations from school principal Steve Knecht and cheerleading coach Patti Uttech, who responded with a shrug when contacted by a former track coach after the 2018 banquet, the Kenosha Unified School District decided to retire the practice.
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The Chicago Police Superintendent Eddie T. Johnson, visibly angry at a morning news conference, said Mr. Smollett had taken advantage of the pain and anger of racism, draining resources that could have been used to investigate other crimes for which people were actually suffering.

“I just wish that the families of gun violence in this city got this much attention,” he said, referring to the news media.

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A self-described hustler, De La Rosa says her life has always been centered around money—or the lack thereof. At age 9, she immigrated to the U.S. from the Dominican Republic with her mother, settling into her grandmother’s small two-bedroom apartment in the Bronx along with ten other relatives. De La Rosa picked up English quickly (through school and the Cartoon Network) but had to retreat to the apartment’s one bathroom for needed quiet to finish her homework. And finish she did. She was valedictorian of her public elementary and middle schools and of Cardinal Spellman High School in the Bronx—the alma mater of Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor.
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By Justin Higginbottom: Can a Comics App With 130M Users Become China’s Marvel?
Why you should care
Because the future of comics may come from China.

By Eugene S. Robinson: The Day Jazz Great Max Roach Flipped Out
Why you should care
Because where there’s an ass-kicking will, there’s an ass-kicking way.

I used to work at the New York Jazz Museum, just yards from the old Studio 54. The museum is long gone, but it had put the teenage me in a place not only to refine a pre-existing interest in jazz but also to learn how to navigate celebrity. Essentially, don’t be a pain in the ass, and make yourself useful. Good life lessons that have withstood the test of time.
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By FOOD By Lyds: Carrot Fries



FYI February 20, 2019

On This Day

1685 – René-Robert Cavelier establishes Fort St. Louis at Matagorda Bay thus forming the basis for France’s claim to Texas.
The French colonization of Texas began with the establishment of a fort in present-day southeastern Texas. It was established in 1685 near Arenosa Creek and Matagorda Bay by explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle. He intended to found the colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River, but inaccurate maps and navigational errors caused his ships to anchor instead 400 miles (640 km) to the west, off the coast of Texas. The colony survived until 1688. The present-day town of Inez is near the fort’s site.

The colony faced numerous difficulties during its brief existence, including Native American raids, epidemics, and harsh conditions. From that base, La Salle led several expeditions to find the Mississippi River. These did not succeed, but La Salle did explore much of the Rio Grande and parts of east Texas. During one of his absences in 1686, the colony’s last ship was wrecked, leaving the colonists unable to obtain resources from the French colonies of the Caribbean. As conditions deteriorated, La Salle realized the colony could survive only with help from the French settlements in Illinois Country to the north, along the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. His last expedition ended along the Brazos River in early 1687, when La Salle and five of his men were murdered during a mutiny.

Although a handful of men reached Illinois Country, help never made it to the fort. Most of the remaining members of the colony were killed during a Karankawa raid in late 1688, four children survived after being adopted as captives. Although the colony lasted only three years, it established France’s claim to possession of the region that is now Texas. The United States later claimed, unsuccessfully, this region as part of the Louisiana Purchase because of the early French colony.

Spain learned of La Salle’s mission in 1686. Concerned that the French colony could threaten Spain’s control over the Viceroyalty of New Spain and the unsettled southeastern region of North America, the Crown funded multiple expeditions to locate and eliminate the settlement. The unsuccessful expeditions helped Spain to better understand the geography of the Gulf Coast region. When the Spanish finally discovered the remains of the French colony at the fort in 1689, they buried the cannons and burned the buildings. Years later, Spanish authorities built a presidio at the same location. When the presidio was abandoned, the site of the French settlement was lost to history.

The fort was rediscovered by historians and excavated in 1996, and the area is now an archaeological site. In 1995, researchers located the ship La Belle in Matagorda Bay, with several sections of the hull remaining virtually intact. They constructed a cofferdam, the first to be used in North America to excavate the ship as if in dry conditions. In 2000, excavations revealed three of the original structures of the fort, as well as three graves of Frenchmen.



Born On This Day

1784 – Judith Montefiore, British linguist, travel writer, philanthropist (d. 1862)[4]
Judith, Lady Montefiore (née Barent Cohen; 20 February 1784 – 24 September 1862) was a British linguist, musician, travel writer, and philanthropist. A keen traveller, she noted the distress and suffering around her, more particularly in the “Jewish Quarters” of the towns through which she passed, and was ever ready with some plan of alleviation. Her privately printed journals, threw light upon her character, and showed her to be cultureed, imbued with a strong religious spirit, true to the teachings and observances of the Jewish faith, yet exhibiting the widest catholicity to those of other beliefs. She was quick to resent any indignity or insult that might be offered to her religion or her people.[1] Montefiore authored the first Jewish cook book written in English.[2]

Early years
Judith Barent Cohen, fourth daughter of Levy Barent Cohen and his wife, Lydia Diamantschleifer,[3][4] was born in London in 1784. The father, of Angel Court, Throgmorton Street, was a wealthy Ashkenazi or German Jew.[5]

She married Sir Moses Montefiore on 10 June 1812. Marriages between Sephardim and Ashkenazim were not approved by the Portuguese Synagogue; but Moses believed that this caste prejudice was hurtful to the best interests of Judaism, and was desirous of abolishing it. There is little doubt that that marriage did more than anything else to pave the way for the present union of English Jews. They were married on 10 June 1812, and took a house in New Court, St. Swithin’s Lane, next door to one Nathan Maier Rothschild, living there for 13 years.[5][6] This was likely Nathan Mayer Rothschild, founder of the Rothschild banking family of England, whom one of her sisters, Hannah (1783–1850), had married in 1806.

Her prudence and intelligence influenced all her husband’s undertakings, and when he retired from business, the administration of his fortune in philanthropic endeavours was largely directed by her. Lady Montefiore accompanied her husband in all his foreign missions up to 1859, and was the beneficent genius of his memorable expeditions to the Holy Land, Damascus, Saint Petersburg, and Rome. By her linguistic abilities, she was enabled to materially assist her husband in his self-imposed tasks. During the journey to Russia, in 1846, she was indefatigable in her efforts to alleviate the misery she saw everywhere around her. The wife and daughter of the Russian governor paid her a ceremonious visit and expressed the admiration she had inspired among all classes. Her sympathies were greatly widened by travel; two journals of some of these travels were published anonymously by her. The last years of her life were spent alternately in London and Ramsgate.[6]

Later years
For some years her health had been so bad that they had spent much of their time in Europe in the hope of improving it, but she had at last become too weak to undertake the journeys, and her last days were spent in England. Only a few months prior to her decease, the couple had celebrated their golden wedding anniversary, and this period was marked by what seemed a partial restoration of her health. On 24 September 1862, after exchanging blessings with her husband, she fell into her last sleep.[1] Lady Judith died 24 September 1862.[7] At her death, Sir Moses founded in her memory the Judith Lady Montefiore College at Ramsgate.[8] [9]



By Dave McKenna: Skip Groff, Founder Of D.C.’s Coolest Record Store, Is Dead
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By Andrew P. Collins: Discover the Lost Art of In-Car Aerobics
By Jennings Brown: Bored Pilot Writes ‘I’m Bored’ and Draws Two Dicks in the Sky
A pilot based in Adelaide, Australia, took an artistically inspired flight path on Tuesday morning.

Australia’s ABC News reported that between 8:53am and 11:57am a flight training pilot in a Diamond Star plane followed a course that drew two penises then spelled out “I’M BORED”—all of which could only be detected by a flight tracker.
By Justin T. Westbrook: A Commercial Flight Hit an Absurdly Fast 801 MPH While Flying Over the United States
By Allison Shoemaker: Some dairy farmers would rather you call it “nut juice” than almond milk

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By Elizabeth Cohen and John Bonifield, CNN: FDA chief: Federal government might step in if states don’t change lax vaccine laws
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By Alex fox: How secret, late-night experiments transformed two scientists into master cartoonists

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By Alicia W Hometalker Middletown, PA: New Life for an Old Chair
Amanda C, Hometalk Team Hometalker Brooklyn, NY: DIY Essential Oil Dish Soap
By Hometalk Highlights: See How 15 People Magically Transformed Their Ripped T-Shirts You might want to dig all those old t-shirts out of your closet when you see these practical ideas!
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FYI February 19, 2019

On This Day

1674 – England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. A provision of the agreement transfers the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam to England, and it is renamed New York.
The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Signed by the Netherlands and England, it provided for the return of the colony of New Netherland (New York) to England and renewed the Treaty of Breda of 1667. It also provided for a mixed commission for the regulation of commerce, particularly in the East Indies.

It was signed on 19 February 1674 (Old Style: 9 February 1674) by Charles II of England and ratified by the States General of the Netherlands on 5 March 1674. England was forced to sign the treaty as Parliament would not allow more money to be spent on the war and had become aware of the secret Treaty of Dover in which Charles had promised Louis XIV of France to convert to Catholicism at an opportune moment. The English were dismayed by the unexpected fact that Dutch raiders managed to capture more English ships than vice versa and that New Amsterdam had been retaken by the Dutch in 1673.

Most of the initial peace conditions demanded by the English in the Accord of Heeswijk of 1672 were not met, but the Dutch paid two million guilders (down from an original demand of ten million) to be paid over a period of three years (basically to compensate for the loss of French subsidies) and again affirmed the English right of salute, their Dominium Marium, now extended from “Lands End” at the Bay of Biscay northward to “Staten Land” on the Norwegian coast.[1] This was qualified by the condition that Dutch fishery would in no way be impeded by this right. The treaty conditions of 1668, regulating trade and shipping, were reconfirmed. As regards territorial disputes, the treaty was a typical status quo ante arrangement:

That whatsoever countries, islands, towns, ports, castles, or forts have or shall be taken on both sides, since the time the late unhappy war broke out, either in Europe or elsewhere, shall be restored to the former lord or proprietor, in the same condition they shall be in when the peace itself shall be proclaimed

Peace was proclaimed at Whitehall on 27 February (New Style) at 10:00 AM. The condition implied that New Netherland, retaken by Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest in 1673, would henceforth again be an English possession and that Suriname, captured by the Dutch in 1667, would remain their colony, legalising the status quo of 1667. These issues had been left undecided by the Peace of Breda of that year, an uti possidetis agreement. Also the islands of Tobago, Saba, St Eustatius and Tortola, taken by the English in 1672, would have to be returned.

As the peace could not be communicated quickly to all parts of the world, different dates had been determined upon which legal hostilities would end. From the Soundings of England, i.e. its southwes


Born On This Day

1497 – Matthäus Schwarz, German fashion writer (d. 1574)
Matthäus Schwarz (19 February 1497 – c.1574) was a German accountant, best known for compiling his Klaidungsbüchlein or Trachtenbuch (usually translated as “Book of Clothes”), a book cataloguing the clothing that he wore between 1520 and 1560. The book has been described as “the world’s first fashion book”.[1]




Donald Newcombe (June 14, 1926 – February 19, 2019), nicknamed Newk, was an American professional baseball pitcher who played for the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers (1949–51 and 1954–58), Cincinnati Reds (1958–60), and Cleveland Indians (1960) of Major League Baseball.
Newcombe was the first pitcher to win the Rookie of the Year, Most Valuable Player, and Cy Young Awards during his career. This distinction would not be achieved again until 2011, when Detroit Tigers pitcher Justin Verlander accomplished the feat. In 1949, he became the first black pitcher to start a World Series game. In 1951, Newcombe was the first black pitcher to win twenty games in one season.[1] In 1956, the inaugural year of the Cy Young Award, he became the first pitcher to win the National League MVP and the Cy Young in the same season.[2]

Newcombe compiled a career batting average of .271 with 15 home runs and was used as a pinch hitter, a rarity for pitchers.[3]


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FYI February 18, 2019

On This Day

1229 – The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy.
The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem. It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade and involved very little actual fighting. The diplomatic maneuvering of the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, Frederick II, resulted in the Kingdom of Jerusalem regaining some control over Jerusalem for much of the ensuing fifteen years (1229–39, 1241–44)[1] as well as over other areas of the Holy Land.



Born On This Day

1745 – Alessandro Volta, Italian physicist, invented the battery (d. 1827)
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (Italian: [alesˈsandro ˈvɔlta]; 18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,[2][3][4] who is credited as the inventor of the electric battery and the discoverer of methane. He invented the Voltaic pile in 1799, and reported the results of his experiments in 1800 in a two-part letter to the President of the Royal Society.[5][6] With this invention Volta proved that electricity could be generated chemically and debunked the prevalent theory that electricity was generated solely by living beings. Volta’s invention sparked a great amount of scientific excitement and led others to conduct similar experiments which eventually led to the development of the field of electrochemistry.[6]

Alessandro Volta also drew admiration from Napoleon Bonaparte for his invention, and was invited to the Institute of France to demonstrate his invention to the members of the Institute. Volta enjoyed a certain amount of closeness with the Emperor throughout his life and he was conferred numerous honours by him.[1] Alessandro Volta held the chair of experimental physics at the University of Pavia for nearly 40 years and was widely idolised by his students.[1]

Despite his professional success, Volta tended to be a person inclined towards domestic life and this was more apparent in his later years. At this time he tended to live secluded from public life and more for the sake of his family until his eventual death in 1827 from a series of illnesses which began in 1823.[1] The SI unit of electric potential is named in his honour as the volt.





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FYI February 17, 2019

On This Day

1913 – The Armory Show opens in New York City, displaying works of artists who are to become some of the most influential painters of the early 20th century.
The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many exhibitions that have been held in the vast spaces of U.S. National Guard armories.

The three-city exhibition started in New York City’s 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets, from February 17 until March 15, 1913.[1] The exhibition went on to show at the Art Institute of Chicago and then to The Copley Society of Art in Boston,[2] where, due to a lack of space, all the work by American artists was removed.[3]

The show became an important event in the history of American art, introducing astonished Americans, who were accustomed to realistic art, to the experimental styles of the European avant garde, including Fauvism, Cubism, and Futurism. The show served as a catalyst for American artists, who became more independent and created their own “artistic language.”

The origins of the show lie in the emergence of progressive groups and independent exhibitions in the early 20th century (with significant French precedents), which challenged the aesthetic ideals, exclusionary policies, and authority of the National Academy of Design, while expanding exhibition and sales opportunities, enhancing public knowledge, and enlarging audiences for contemporary art.[4]



Born On This Day

1881 – Mary Carson Breckinridge, American nurse-midwife, founded Frontier Nursing Service (d. 1965)
Mary Carson Breckinridge (February 17, 1881 – May 16, 1965) was an American nurse-midwife and the founder of the Frontier Nursing Service.

Family and early life
Born in Memphis, Tennessee, into a prominent family, Breckinridge was a daughter of Arkansas Congressman, US Minister to Russia Clifton Rodes Breckinridge and a granddaughter of Vice President John C. Breckinridge. She was educated by private tutors in Washington, D.C., Switzerland and in St. Petersburg, Russia. She obtained a degree from St Lukes Hospital New York in Nursing in 1910 and advanced Midwife Training at a Hospital in London, England.

In 1894, Breckinridge and her family moved to Russia when President Grover Cleveland appointed her father to serve as the U.S. minister to that country. They returned to the United States in 1897.

Breckinridge’s mother disapproved of her cousin Sophonisba Breckinridge’s going to college and starting a career. She helped to ensure that her daughter followed a more traditional path. Breckinridge was married in 1904 to a lawyer, Henry Ruffner Morrison, of Hot Springs, Arkansas. He died only two years later; the couple had no children.

As a young widow, Breckinridge entered a nursing class at New York City’s St. Luke’s Hospital. She remained there three years, taking a degree in nursing in 1910 before returning to the South.

In 1912 she married Richard Ryan Thompson, a Kentucky native who was serving as the president of Crescent College and Conservatory in Eureka Springs, Arkansas. The couple had two children. Their daughter Polly was born prematurely in 1916 and did not survive. Two years later, their beloved four-year-old son, Clifford Breckinridge (“Breckie”) Thompson, died of appendicitis. Breckinridge’s husband was unfaithful; they were divorced in 1920 and Breckinridge resumed the use of her maiden name

Breckinridge turned to nursing to overcome the travails of her children’s deaths and her divorce, joining the American Committee for Devastated France. It was during this time that she served as volunteer director of Child Hygiene and District Nursing.[1] While in Europe she met French and British nurse-midwives and realized that people with similar training could meet the health care needs of rural America’s mothers and babies. Breckinridge travelled to the Hebrides, Scotland, in 1924 to look at models of health service in remote rural areas.[2] Breckinridge also recognized that the organizational structure of decentralized outposts in France could be mimicked in other rural areas. She would implement these ideas in her later work with the Frontier Nursing Service.[3] A deeply religious woman, Breckinridge considered this path to be her life’s calling.

Since no midwifery course was then offered in the United States, Breckinridge returned to England to receive the training she needed at the British Hospital for Mothers and Babies. She was then certified by the Central Midwives Board. She returned to the U.S. in 1925 and on May 28 of that year founded the Kentucky Committee for Mothers and Babies, which soon became the Frontier Nursing Service. She was joined by two midwives she met in London, Edna Rockstroh (1899-1982) and Freda Caffin.

Mary Breckinridge, her father Colonel Breckinridge (took care of the horses), nurses Edna, Freda set up the first nurses clinic and lived together in Hyden in 1925. They delivered the first baby in September 1925. The nurses traveled by horseback to deliver babies day and night, in all weather. There are actual recordings of Edna’s memories of the difficulties frontier nursing and the leadership of Mary Breckinridge online at She worked closely with Ann MacKinnon in setting up the Kentucky State Association of Midwives in 1930.[4]

Breckinridge had a large log house, called the Big House, built in Wendover, Kentucky to serve as her home and the Frontier Nursing Service headquarters. In 1939 she started her own midwifery school. There, Breckinridge conducted Sunday afternoon services using the Episcopal prayer book. In 1952 she completed her memoir “Wide Neighborhoods” which is still available from the University of Kentucky Press.

She continued to lead the Frontier Nursing Service until her death on May 16, 1965, at Wendover.[5]

In 1995, Mary Breckinridge was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.[6]

In 1998, she was honored by the United States Postal Service with a 77¢ Great Americans series postage stamp.

See also
Breckinridge family
Marvin Breckinridge Patterson
The Forgotten Frontier



Vector’s World: Last rides; Golden Bridge, Da Nang, Vietnam and more ->
What to Do When Something Someone Says Gets Under Your Skin
Some words or small collections of them can lift you up for minutes, hours or sometimes even days.

Other words can poke and stab and quickly tear you down.

These are the words that really get under your skin and hurt you.

What can you do when that happens?

Well, let me share what has worked for me.

Let it out.

The first thing I often do after I notice that something did actually get under my skin is to talk it over with someone close to me.

By just letting it out and venting you can release a lot of inner tension and the two of you can find a more helpful and healthier perspective on what has gotten under your skin.

Ask yourself: is the person having a bad day or year?

When my self-esteem was lower than it is today then I used to think that pretty much all the negative things people said to me was in some way my fault.

However, that is often not the case.

People can verbally attack you or nag or criticize harshly because they may have had an awful day or week. Or simply because they do not like their lives very much at all.

So don’t think this is all about you. There are two of you in this situation.

Ask yourself: could there be something here that could help me?

This question is not always fun to ask yourself. And it doesn’t always lead anywhere at all. But after you have calmed down by using the steps above it can be helpful.

Especially if this is the fifth or tenth time you have heard the same thing from people.

Then there might be something here you would like to work on and something valuable in the long run.

So at least take a minute or two to think about it.

Take care and have a self-kind Sunday!

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Nest box access for egg collection is gained through the two 4′ hinged roofs over the nest area. This is where the flexible tape came into play to waterproof the hinge side.

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FYI February 16, 2019

On This Day

2006 – The last Mobile army surgical hospital (MASH) is decommissioned by the United States Army.
The Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) refers to a United States Army medical unit serving as a fully functional hospital in a combat area of operations. The units were first established in August 1945, and were deployed during the Korean War and later conflicts. The term was made famous in the television series M*A*S*H, which depicted a fictional MASH unit. The U.S. Army deactivated the last MASH unit on February 16, 2006. The successor to the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital is the Combat Support Hospital.



Born On This Day

1878 – Pamela Colman Smith, English occultist and illustrator (d. 1951)
Pamela Colman Smith (16 February 1878 – 18 September 1951), also nicknamed Pixie, was a British artist, illustrator, writer and occultist. She is best known for illustrating the Rider-Waite tarot deck of divinatory tarot cards (also called the Rider-Waite-Smith deck, Waite-Smith deck, Waite-Colman Smith deck or simply the Rider deck or Waite deck) for Arthur Edward Waite.




Bruno Ganz (German: [ˈbruːno ˈɡant͡s] (About this soundlisten); 22 March 1941 – 15 February 2019) was a Swiss actor who appeared in German language film and television for more than fifty years.[1] He collaborated several times with filmmakers Werner Herzog, Éric Rohmer, Francis Ford Coppola and Wim Wenders, with the latter first as Jonathan Zimmerman in The American Friend (1977) and again as Damiel the Angel in both Wings of Desire (1987) and Faraway, So Close! (1993).[2]

Ganz was internationally noted for portraying Adolf Hitler in the Academy Award-nominated film Downfall (2004). He also had roles in several English language films, including The Boys from Brazil (1978), Strapless (1989), The Manchurian Candidate (2004), The Reader (2008), Unknown (2011) and Remember (2015). On stage, Ganz portrayed Dr. Heinrich Faust in Peter Stein’s staging of Faust, Part One and Faust, Part Two in 2000.[3]

From 1996 until his death in 2019, Ganz held the Republic of Austria’s Iffland-Ring, which passes from actor to actor — each bequeathing the ring to the next holder, judging that actor to be the “most significant and most worthy actor of the German-speaking theatre”.[4][5]


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FYI February 15, 2019

On This Day

1113 – Pope Paschal II issues Pie Postulatio Voluntatis, recognizing the Order of Hospitallers.[1]

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Latin: Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani; Italian: Cavalieri dell’Ordine dell’Ospedale di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval and early modern Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, on the island of Rhodes, in Malta and St Petersburg.

The Hospitallers arose in the early 11th century, at the time of the great monastic reformation, as a group of individuals associated with an Amalfitan hospital in the Muristan district of Jerusalem, dedicated to John the Baptist and founded around 1023 by Gerard Thom to provide care for sick, poor or injured pilgrims coming to the Holy Land. Some scholars, however, consider that the Amalfitan order and hospital were different from Gerard Thom’s order and its hospital.

After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, the organisation became a military religious order under its own Papal charter, charged with the care and defence of the Holy Land. Following the conquest of the Holy Land by Islamic forces, the knights operated from Rhodes, over which they were sovereign, and later from Malta, where they administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily. The Hospitallers were the smallest group to briefly colonise parts of the Americas: they acquired four Caribbean islands in the mid-17th century, which they turned over to France in the 1660s.

The knights were weakened in the Protestant Reformation, when rich commanderies of the order in northern Germany and the Netherlands became Protestant and largely separated from the Roman Catholic main stem, remaining separate to this day, although ecumenical relations between the descendant chivalric orders are amicable. The order was disestablished in England, Denmark, Sweden and elsewhere in northern Europe, and it was further damaged by Napoleon’s capture of Malta in 1798, following which it became dispersed throughout Europe and Russia.



Born On This Day

1471 – Piero the Unfortunate, Italian ruler (d. 1503)[4]
Piero di Lorenzo de’ Medici (15 February 1472 – 28 December 1503),[1] called Piero the Unfortunate, was the gran maestro of Florence from 1492 until his exile in 1494.[2]

Life and death
Piero di Lorenzo de’ Medici was the eldest son of Lorenzo de’ Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) and Clarice Orsini. He was raised alongside his younger brother Giovanni, who would go on to become Pope Leo X, and his cousin Giulio, who would later become Pope Clement VII. [1]

He was educated to succeed his father as head of the Medici family and de facto ruler of the Florentine state, under figures such as Angelo Poliziano or Ficino.[3] However, his feeble, arrogant, and undisciplined character was to prove unsuited to such a role. Poliziano later died poisoned by Piero on 24 September 1494.[4]

Piero took over as leader of Florence in 1492, upon Lorenzo’s death. After a brief period of relative calm, the fragile Pacific equilibrium between the Italian states, laboriously constructed by Piero’s father, collapsed in 1494 with the decision of King Charles VIII of France to cross the Alps with an army in order to assert hereditary claims to the Kingdom of Naples. Charles had been lured to Italy by Ludovico Sforza (Ludovico il Moro), ex-regent of Milan, as a way to eject Ludovico’s nephew Gian Galeazzo Sforza and replace him as duke.

After settling matters in Milan, Charles moved towards Naples. He needed to pass through Tuscany, as well as leave troops there to secure his lines of communication with Milan. Piero attempted to stay neutral, but this was unacceptable to Charles, who intended to invade Tuscany. Piero attempted to mount a resistance, but received little support from members of Florentine elites who had fallen under the influence of the fanatical Dominican priest Girolamo Savonarola; even his cousins defected to Charles’s side.

Piero quickly gave up as Charles’s army neared Florence and surrendered the chief fortresses of Tuscany to the invading army, giving Charles everything he demanded. His poor handling of the situation and failure to negotiate better terms led to an uproar in Florence, and the Medici family fled. The family palazzo was looted, and the substance as well as the form of the Republic of Florence was re-established with the Medici formally exiled. A member of the Medici family was not to rule Florence again until 1512, after Giovanni de’ Medici was elected Pope Leo X.

Piero and his family fled at first to Venice with the aid of the French diplomat Philippe de Commines, a retainer of Charles VIII. In 1503, as the French and Spanish continued their struggle in Italy over the Kingdom of Naples, Piero was drowned in the Garigliano River while attempting to flee the aftermath of the Battle of Garigliano, which the French (with whom he was allied) had lost.

Marriage and children
In 1486, Piero’s uncle Bernardo Rucellai negotiated for Piero to marry the Tuscan noblewoman Alfonsina Orsini and stood in for him in a marriage by proxy.[5] Piero and Alfonsina met in 1488. She was a daughter of Roberto Orsini, Count of Tagliacozzo, and Caterina Sanseverino. They had two children:

Lorenzo II, Duke of Urbino (1492-1519).[1]
Clarice de’ Medici (1493-1528). She married Filippo Strozzi the Younger.[1].




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FYI February 14, 2019

On This Day

1852 – Great Ormond St Hospital for Sick Children, the first hospital in England to provide in-patient beds specifically for children, is founded in London.
Great Ormond Street Hospital (informally GOSH or Great Ormond Street, formerly the Hospital for Sick Children) is a children’s hospital located in the Bloomsbury area of the London Borough of Camden, and a part of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust.

The hospital is the largest centre for child heart surgery in the UK and one of the largest centres for heart transplantation in the world. In 1962 they developed the first heart and lung bypass machine for children. With children’s book author Roald Dahl, they developed an improved shunt valve for children with water on the brain (hydrocephalus), and non-invasive (percutaneous) heart valve replacements. They did the first UK clinical trials of the rubella vaccine, and the first bone marrow transplant and gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency.[1]

It is closely associated with University College London (UCL) and in partnership with the UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, which is adjacent to it, is the largest centre for research and postgraduate teaching in children’s health in Europe.[2]

In 1929, J. M. Barrie donated the copyright to Peter Pan to the hospital.



Born On This Day

1838 – Margaret E. Knight, American inventor (d. 1914)

Margaret Eloise Knight (February 14, 1838 – October 12, 1914[1]) was an American inventor, notably of the flat-bottomed paper bag. She has been called “the most famous 19th-century woman inventor”.[2]

Early life
Margaret Knight was born on February 14, 1838, in York, Maine to James Knight and Hannah Teal. After her father died when she was young, Knight’s family moved to Manchester, New Hampshire. She received a basic education, but left school with her siblings to work at a cotton mill. At the age of 12, Knight witnessed an accident at the mill where a worker was stabbed by a steel-tipped shuttle that shot out of a mechanical loom. Within weeks she invented a safety device for the loom that was later adopted by other Manchester mills. The device was never patented and the exact nature of it is unknown, though it may have been either a device to stop the loom when the shuttle thread broke or a guard to physically block a flying shuttle.[3] Health problems precluded Knight from continuing work at the cotton mill and in her teens and early 20s she held several jobs, including home repair, photography and engraving.[3]

Knight moved to Springfield, Massachusetts in 1867 and was hired by the Columbia Paper Bag Company.[3] In 1868, Knight invented a machine that folded and glued paper to form the flat-bottomed brown paper bags familiar to shoppers today. Knight built a wooden model of the device, but needed a working iron model to apply for a patent. Charles Annan, who was in the machine shop where Knight’s iron model was being built, stole her design and patented the device. Knight filed a successful patent interference lawsuit and was awarded the patent in 1871.[4] With a Massachusetts business partner, Knight established the Eastern Paper Bag Co. and received royalties.

Her many other inventions included lid removing pliers, a numbering machine, a window frame and sash, patented in 1894, and several devices relating to rotary engines, patented between 1902 and 1915.[5]

Later life and legacy
Knight never married and died on October 12, 1914, at the age of 76.

A plaque recognizing her as the “first woman awarded a U.S. patent” and holder of 87 U.S. patents hangs on the Curry Cottage at 287 Hollis St in Framingham. However, Knight was not actually the first: either Mary Kies or Hannah Slater has that honour.[6][7][8][9]

Knight was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2006.[1] The original bag-making machine is in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D.C.

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Why you should care
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Sad day? How about the pledges that have died or been eternally messed up by going through these abusive hazing processes? Sad that it has taken so long to shut these abusive fraternities down.
By Doha Madani: 9 Louisiana State frat members arrested and chapter closed over alleged hazing incident “This is a sad day for the university, but one that illustrates the cultural shift occurring at LSU,” the university said.
Cade Rain Duckworth, 23, is facing felony charges of attempted battery, battery, and false imprisonment as well as three misdemeanor counts of criminal hazing.

Gaston Thomas Eymard, 23; Shakti P. Gilotra, 22; and Malcolm Richard McNiece, 23, are facing charges of battery and criminal hazing.

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