Category: FYI


FYI June 19, 2019

On This Day

1978 – Garfield, holder of the Guinness World Record for the world’s most widely syndicated comic strip, makes its debut.
Garfield is an American comic created by Jim Davis. Published since 1978, it chronicles the life of the title character, Garfield, the cat; Jon Arbuckle, the human; and Odie, the dog. As of 2013, it was syndicated in roughly 2,580 newspapers and journals, and held the Guinness World Record for being the world’s most widely syndicated comic strip.[1]

Though this is rarely mentioned in print, Garfield is set in Muncie, Indiana, the home of Jim Davis, according to the television special Happy Birthday, Garfield. Common themes in the strip include Garfield’s laziness, obsessive eating, coffee, and disdain of Mondays and diets. The strip’s focus is mostly on the interactions among Garfield, Jon, and Odie, but other recurring minor characters appear as well. Originally created with the intentions to “come up with a good, marketable character”,[2] Garfield has spawned merchandise earning $750 million to $1 billion annually. In addition to the various merchandise and commercial tie-ins, the strip has spawned several animated television specials, two animated television series, two theatrical feature-length live-action/CGI animated films, and three fully CGI animated direct-to-video movies.

Part of the strip’s broad pop cultural appeal is due to its lack of social or political commentary; though this was Davis’s original intention, he also admitted that his “grasp of politics isn’t strong,” joking that, for many years, he thought “OPEC was a denture adhesive”.[3][4]



Born On This Day

1926 – Erna Schneider Hoover, American mathematician and inventor
Dr. Erna Schneider Hoover (born June 19, 1926) is an American mathematician notable for inventing a computerized telephone switching method which “revolutionized modern communication” according to several reports.[1][4] It prevented system overloads by monitoring call center traffic and prioritizing tasks[4] on phone switching systems to enable more robust service during peak calling times.[1] At Bell Laboratories where she worked for over 32 years,[5] Hoover was described as an important pioneer for women in the field of computer technology.[2]




The Alaska Parkinson’s Rag Peter Dunlap-Shohl: 17 Year Search for Credible Hope
Lyndsey Parker Editor-in-Chief, Music: Happiness begins: Jonas Brothers give recovering addict Able Heart his big break on ‘Songland’
My New Orleans Chris Rose: Tribute Writers
By Marie Mustel Google Arts & Culture: Art Zoom: Masterpieces up close through the eyes of famous musicians
By Scott Myers: The Persistent Writers Hall of Fame: Adrian McKinty
By Alina Selyukh, NPR: Why The American Shoe Disappeared And Why It’s So Hard To Bring It Back
By Liz Seegert: Tip sheet highlights program addressing older adults’ mental health
As reporter Phyllis Hanlon explains in the tip sheet, the effort has resulted in numerous positive outcomes, including lower rates of rehospitalization, improved quality of life, and better overall health. It’s been implemented or is in development in 45 states and the District of Columbia.

This is an opportune time for journalists to report on the specific mental health needs of older adults. In addition to looking at the COAPS initiative, Hanlon’s tip sheet also offers plenty of ideas, experts and resources to get started.
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PETAPIXEL BY Michael Zhang: Hasselblad X1D II 50C is a Faster and Cheaper Medium Format Mirrorless
The Hasselblad X1D II 50C is available to order now with a price tag of $5,750 and will begin shipping in July 2019. By comparison, the original X1D was priced at $8,995 when it was announced.
By Elizabeth Pennisi: This rock-eating ‘worm’ could change the course of rivers
The rock-eating shipworm does have one big thing in common with its wood-eating counterparts, however: Its burrowing may cause harm, in this case by changing a river’s course. But its burrowing does have an upside: The crevices it creates provide great homes for crabs, snails, and fish.
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FYI June 18, 2019

On This Day

1940 – Appeal of 18 June by Charles de Gaulle.
The Appeal of 18 June (French: L’Appel du 18 juin) was a speech by Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces, in 1940. The appeal is often considered to be the origin of the French Resistance to the German occupation during World War II. De Gaulle spoke to the French people from London after the fall of France. He declared that the war for France was not yet over, and rallied the country in support of the Resistance. It is regarded as one of the most important speeches in French history.

In spite of its reputation as the beginning of the Resistance and Free French, historians have shown that the appeal was heard only by a minority of French people. De Gaulle’s 22 June 1940 speech on the BBC was more widely heard.[1]



Born On This Day

1900 – Vlasta Vraz, Czech-American relief worker, editor, and fundraiser (d. 1989)
Vlasta Adele Vraz (June 18, 1900 — August 22, 1989) was a Czech American relief worker, editor, and fundraiser. She was director of American Relief for Czechoslovakia, and president of the Czechoslovak National Council of America. In 1949 she was arrested by Czech authorities on espionage charges, but quickly released after pressure from the United States.

Early life

Vlasta Adele Vraz was born in Chicago and raised in Czech California, South Lawndale, Chicago. Her father was Enrique Stanko Vraz (1860-1932), a naturalist and explorer born in Bulgaria to Czech parents.[1] Her mother was also called Vlasta Vraz (1875-1961).[2] Her maternal grandfather August Geringer (1842-1930) published a Czech-language Daily, Svornost, in the United States, starting in 1875.[3]

She lived in Prague as a young woman, from 1919 to 1939, at first helping her father who was lecturing there before he died in 1932. During World War II she returned to the United States with her widowed mother, and was a secretary in Washington, D. C. for the Czech government in exile. In 1945, she was back in Prague, directing American Relief for Czechoslovakia.[4] She was responsible for distributing $4 million in food, medicine, clothing and other supports. She was inducted into the Order of the White Lion by Jan Masaryk in 1946, for her relief work. But in 1949, Vraz was arrested by the Communist authorities, on espionage charges, sparking protests from the United States.[5]

Upon release after a week in custody,[6] Vraz returned to the United States,[7] where she became president of the Czechoslovak National Council of America, and edited two national publications for the Czechoslovak-American community.[3] She was called upon for reactions during the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia.[8]

Personal life
Vlasta Vraz died in 1989, aged 89 years.[3] Her remains were buried in the Bohemian National Cemetery in Chicago, near those of her mother and her brother, Victor E. Vraz, an economics professor at Northwestern University. Some of her papers are in the Geringer Family Papers, archived at the Chicago History Museum.[9] The rest of her papers was bequeathed to the Náprstek Museum in Prague, Czech Republic. The same institution owns extensive personal papers of her father Enrique Stanko Vráz.



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By Megan Marples and Brian Ries, CNN: Wanted: Someone to eat ribs and travel the country. Salary: $5,000 a week
Those interested in applying need to submit a photo of themselves grilling along with 100 words about why they would be the best fit for the position. Apply by Wednesday, June 19, at midnight CT on the Reynolds Wrap website.
Fox News: Teen who posted ‘terrorist’ image of Prince Harry sentenced to prison
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FYI June 17, 2019

On This Day

1885 – The Statue of Liberty arrives in New York Harbor.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886.

The Statue of Liberty is a figure of Libertas, a robed Roman liberty goddess. She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed in Roman numerals with “JULY IV MDCCLXXVI” (July 4, 1776), the date of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. A broken shackle and chain lay at her feet as she walks forward, commemorating the recent national abolition of slavery.[7] The statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, and a national park tourism destination. It is a welcoming sight to immigrants arriving from abroad.

Bartholdi was inspired by a French law professor and politician, Édouard René de Laboulaye, who is said to have commented in 1865 that any monument raised to U.S. independence would properly be a joint project of the French and U.S. peoples. Because of the post-war instability in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the U.S. provide the site and build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions.

The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from 1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar. The statue was built in France, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe’s Island. The statue’s completion was marked by New York’s first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland.

The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has been maintained by the National Park Service as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred since 1916.



Born On This Day

1900 – Evelyn Irons, Scottish journalist and war correspondent (d. 2000) [3]
Evelyn Graham Irons (17 June 1900 – 3 April 2000)[1] was a Scottish journalist, the first female war correspondent to be decorated with the French Croix de Guerre.[2][3][4]

Early life
Irons was born in Govan, Glasgow to Joseph Jones Irons, a stockbroker, and Edith Mary Latta or Irons.[5] She graduated from Somerville College, Oxford.[1]

Irons’s career in journalism began at the Daily Mail, where the editor assigned her to the beauty page even though she herself had never worn makeup. She was ultimately fired for “looking unfashionable”.[2] At the Evening Standard she edited the “women’s interest” pages, but when World War II broke out she informed the news editor “From now on I’m working for you.”[6] Though General Montgomery objected to women reporters on the battlefield, she gained the support of French General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny and became one of the first journalists to reach liberated Paris.[2] She was the first woman journalist to reach Hitler’s Eagle’s Nest after its capture; after climbing there through the snow she helped herself to a bottle of Hitler’s “excellent Rhine wine”.[7]

Irons travelled to the United States in 1952 to cover the presidential election and stayed on afterward, settling near Brewster, New York.[6] In 1954 she broke a news embargo on the overthrow of Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán by hiring a mule to take her to Chiquimula while other journalists, forbidden to cross the border, waited in a bar in Honduras. She became the first reporter to reach the headquarters of the Provisional Government; a reporter for a rival paper received a telegram from his editor ordering him to “offget arse onget donkey”.[8]

Personal life

Irons’s relationship with the writer Vita Sackville-West was well-known – months before her death, an Evening Standard headline identified her as the “war correspondent who broke Vita’s heart” – but the romance was brief.[2]

According to biographer Victoria Glendinning, in 1931 Irons went as editor of the Daily Mail women’s page to interview Sackville-West at Sissinghurst where she was designing and shaping the famous gardens. Sackville-West was married to Harold Nicolson (and had already had several extra-marital affairs, including with Violet Trefusis), while Irons was involved with Olive Rinder.[1][9] As if this were not complex enough, Rinder also became a lover of Sackville-West, forming a menage-a-trois during 1932 that ended when Irons met a fellow journalist, Joy McSweeney.[1]

Joy McSweeney
Joy McSweeney (1885-1988) was an English journalist. McSweeney married and divorced twice before meeting Irons at a party in July 1931.[10] Irons left Vita Sackville-West to stay with McSweeney;[11] According to Sue Fox, Irons’ biographer, “It was love at first sight. […] Right from the start, they were meant to be together. It was a relaxed, natural relationship.”[12]

McSweeney and Irons bought Lodge Hill Cottage, a 16th-century Grade II listed cottage in Medmenham, Buckinghamshire. McSweeney found the cottage in 1935 and pushed Irons to first lease and then buy it. When McSweeney and Irons moved to Brewster, New York, in 1952, they rented the cottage to several tenants, including the American cookbook writer Sylvia Vaughn Thompson.[12]

McSweeney died in 1988,[10][13] although one source reports 1978.[12]

Sackville-West’s 1931 love poems are addressed to Irons, though the “more erotic ones” were never published.[1] Irons and Sackville-West remained lifelong friends who “corresponded warmly”.[1]

In 1935, Irons won the Royal Humane Society’s Stanhope Gold Medal “for the bravest deed of 1935”. She “rescued a woman from drowning under very courageous circumstances at Tresaith Beach, Cardiganshire.” It was the first time the medal had been awarded to a woman.[14]

Irons and McSweeney lived together until McSweeney’s death in 1978.[8] Irons died in Brewster, New York, on 3 April 2000, at the age of 99, two months short of her 100th birthday.[1]

Glendinning, Victoria. Vita: The Life of V. Sackville-West. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1983.



By Maria Pasquini: Everything Anderson Cooper Has Said About His Relationship with ‘Amazing’ Mom Gloria Vanderbilt

Gloria Laura Vanderbilt (February 20, 1924 – June 17, 2019) was an American artist, author, actress, fashion designer, heiress, and socialite. She was a member of the Vanderbilt family of New York and the mother of CNN television anchor Anderson Cooper.

During the 1930s, she was the subject of a high-profile child custody trial in which her mother, Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt, and her paternal aunt, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, each sought custody of her and control over her trust fund. Called the “trial of the century” by the press, the court proceedings were the subject of wide and sensational press coverage due to the wealth and prominence of the involved parties, and the scandalous evidence presented to support Whitney’s claim that Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt was an unfit parent.

As an adult in the 1970s, Vanderbilt became known in connection with a line of fashions, perfumes, and household goods bearing her name. She was particularly noted as an early developer of designer blue jeans. In 1974, Paul McCartney released “Mrs. Vandebilt”, a song inspired by and loosely based on the life of Gloria.


MessyNessy 13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. CCCLVI): Extreme tree pruning in the late 1800s; Square Ocean Waves; This Tiny French Village, Owned by the Knights Templar; A Tumblr Dedicated to Control Panels and more-> Weekly Newsletter 6-17-19: Inspiring Girls Expeditions has organized science excursions for young girls since 1999. Its Canadian program just got a major boost for 2019. More ->





FYI June 16, 2019

On This Day

1836 – The formation of the London Working Men’s Association gives rise to the Chartist Movement.
The London Working Men’s Association was an organisation established in London in 1836.[1] It was one of the foundations of Chartism. The founders were William Lovett, Francis Place and Henry Hetherington. They appealed to skilled workers rather than the mass of unskilled factory labourers. They were associated with Owenite socialism and the movement for general education.


Born On This Day

1915 – Marga Faulstich, German glass chemist (d. 1998)
Marga Faulstich (16 June 1915 – 1 February 1998) was a German glass chemist. She worked for Schott AG for 44 years. During this time, she worked on more than 300 types of optical glasses. Forty patents were registered in her name. She was the first woman executive at Schott AG.

Life and work
Marga Faulstich was born in Weimar in 1915. She had two siblings. In 1922, the family moved to Jena, where Faulstich attended secondary school. After graduating from high school in 1935, she began training as a graduate assistant at Schott AG, one of the leading manufacturers of optical and technical specialty glasses in Europe. In her early years there, she worked on the development of thin films. The findings from the basic research performed then are still used in the manufacture of sunglasses, anti-reflective lenses, and glass facades.

A talented young woman, Faulstich quickly advanced in her career – from graduate assistant to technician, then to scientific assistant, and finally to scientist. Her fiancé died in the Second World War, and from then on, she focused only on her career. In 1942 she studied chemistry while continuing to work at Schott. She could not finish her studies because the situation changed after the Second World War. Jena belonged to the Soviet occupation zone; however, the most advanced glassmaking facility in the world was located in Jena and the Western Allies wanted to obtain and use this know-how. Therefore, 41 specialists and managers of Schott AG were brought to the western sector, including Marga Faulstich.

A new research laboratory was built in Landshut in 1949 for the people from Schott AG to continue their work. However, after the plant in Jena was expropriated in 1948 and the division of Germany was firmly established in 1949, it was decided that a new plant would be built in Mainz for the “41 glassmakers” of Schott AG.

The new plant on the outskirts of Mainz-Neustadt (‘new town’) was opened in 1952. Here Marga Faulstich continued working on research and development of new optical glasses, with a particular focus on lenses for microscopes and binoculars. In addition to her research, Faulstich managed a crucible melt.

Marga Faulstich received international recognition for the invention of the lightweight lens SF 64, for which she was honored in 1973. In 1979 she retired after working at Schott AG for 44 years. She spent the following years travelling to distant lands, but still gave lectures and presentations at glass conferences. She died on 1 February 1998 in Mainz, at age 82.

Google honored her in a doodle on its homepage on 16 June 2018.[1]



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FYI June 15, 2019

On This Day

1300 – The city of Bilbao is founded.
Bilbao (/bɪlˈbaʊ, -ˈbɑːoʊ/, also US: /-ˈbeɪoʊ/,[3][4][5] Spanish: [bilˈβao]; Basque: Bilbo [bilβo]) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is also the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015.[6] The Bilbao metropolitan area has roughly 1 million inhabitants,[7][8][9] making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain; with a population of 875,552[10] the comarca of Greater Bilbao is the fifth-largest urban area in Spain. Bilbao is also the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region.

Bilbao is situated in the north-central part of Spain, some 16 kilometres (10 mi) south of the Bay of Biscay, where the economic social development is located, where the estuary of Bilbao is formed. Its main urban core is surrounded by two small mountain ranges with an average elevation of 400 metres (1,300 ft).[11] Its climate is shaped by the Bay of Biscay low-pressure systems and mild air, moderating summer temperatures by Iberian standards, with low sunshine and high rainfall. The annual temperature range is low for its latitude.

After its foundation in the early 14th century by Diego López V de Haro, head of the powerful Haro family, Bilbao was a commercial hub of the Basque Country that enjoyed significant importance in Green Spain. This was due to its port activity based on the export of iron extracted from the Biscayan quarries. Throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Bilbao experienced heavy industrialisation, making it the centre of the second-most industrialised region of Spain, behind Barcelona.[12][13] At the same time an extraordinary population explosion prompted the annexation of several adjacent municipalities. Nowadays, Bilbao is a vigorous service city that is experiencing an ongoing social, economic, and aesthetic revitalisation process, started by the iconic Bilbao Guggenheim Museum,[12][14][15][16] and continued by infrastructure investments, such as the airport terminal, the rapid transit system, the tram line, the Azkuna Zentroa, and the currently under development Abandoibarra and Zorrozaurre renewal projects.[17]

Bilbao is also home to football club Athletic Club de Bilbao, a significant symbol for Basque nationalism[18] due to its promotion of only Basque players and one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history.

On 19 May 2010, the city of Bilbao was recognised with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, awarded by the city state of Singapore, in collaboration with the Swedish Nobel Academy.[19] Considered the Nobel Prize for urbanism, it was handed out on 29 June 2010. On 7 January 2013, its mayor, Iñaki Azkuna, received the 2012 World Mayor Prize awarded every two years by the British foundation The City Mayors Foundation, in recognition of the urban transformation experienced by the Biscayan capital since the 1990s.[20][21] On 8 November 2017, Bilbao was chosen the Best European City 2018 at The Urbanism Awards 2018, awarded by the international organisation The Academy of Urbanism.[22]



Born On This Day

1878 – Margaret Abbott, Indian-American golfer (d. 1955)
Margaret Ives Abbott (June 15, 1878 – June 10, 1955)[2] was the first American woman to win an Olympic event. She won the women’s golf tournament, consisting of nine holes, with a score of 47, at the 1900 Paris Games.

Early life
Born in Calcutta, Abbot was the daughter of Charles and Mary Abbott.[3] Charles died when Margaret was very young and after his death, the family moved to Boston.[3]

When Abbott was a teenager, her mother took a job as the literary editor of The Chicago Herald and the family moved to Illinois.[3] In Illinois, Abbott began playing golf and soon began winning local championships.[3] After moving to Illinois, she joined the Chicago Golf Club and took up the game, winning local tournaments and was reported to have a two handicap.[3]

Paris Olympics
Mary and Margaret Abbott lived in Paris from 1899 to 1902.[4] While in Paris, Mary researched a travel guide and Margaret studied art with Rodin and Degas.[3]

At the 1900 Paris Olympics, 22 women competed out of a total 997 athletes.[5] It was the first time women were allowed to compete in the Olympic Games.[6] The 1900 Olympics stretched over six months and were something of a sideshow of the Paris Exhibition.[5] The events were referred to as the Championnats Internationaux, or International Championship, instead of the Olympic Games.[7] The women’s golf tournament was held on October 4, 1900 at a nine-hole course at Compiègne, north of Paris.[8] Golf Illustrated referred to the medal event as “The international golf competition recently held … in connection with the Paris Exhibition.”[9] The games were so poorly organized and publicized that many competitors, including Abbott, did not realize that the events they entered were part of the Olympics.

Historical research did not establish that the game was on the Olympic program until after Abbott’s death, so she herself never knew it.[3] Additionally, Abbott’s victory was not well known until University of Florida professor and member of the Olympic Board of Directors Paula Welch researched the golfer and began to put together pieces of Abbott’s life. She examined newspaper articles that mentioned Abbott’s successes in various golfing competitions in an attempt to gain more information. She also located Abbott’s children and informed them of their mother’s victory.[10]

Part of the reason she was not widely known was due to the fact that she had not originally been an official member of the U.S. Olympic team. This is due to the fact she had been residing in France to study art. Abbott competed because she played golf and happened to be in France.[3][5] In the 1890s, Abbott played as a member of the Chicago Golf Club, where she initially learned to play the sport.[5]

She won the Olympics with a 9-hole score of 47.[8] Abbott was awarded a porcelain bowl for first place in golf.[11] The 1900 Games were the only Olympics at which winners received valuable artifacts instead of medals.[12]

All the competitors played in long skirts and fashionable hats,[3] but according to Abbott, some “apparently misunderstood the nature of the game scheduled for the day and turned up to play in high heels and tight skirts.”[4]

Mary Abbott also entered the competition. She shot a 9-hole score of 65 and finished seventh.[6][13] This was the only time in Olympic history that a mother and daughter competed in the same sport in the same event at the same Olympics.[5]

Women’s golf would not be seen again at the Olympics until the 2016 Games in Rio.[3]

Later life and legacy
Margaret Abbott married the writer Finley Peter Dunne on December 10, 1902. They had four children together: Finley Peter Dunne Jr., Peggy Dunne, Leonard Dunne, and Phillip Dunne, who later became a noted screenwriter. Abbott continued to play golf as she helped raise her children.[3] Abbott died at age 76 on June 10, 1955 in Greenwich, Connecticut.[3]

In 1996, Abbot was the featured athlete of the 1900 Olympic Games in the official Olympic program of the Atlanta games.[13]

In 2018, The New York Times published a belated obituary for her.[3]



By Associated Press: ‘Romeo and Juliet’ director Franco Zeffirelli dies at 96 His 1968 “Romeo and Juliet” brought Shakespeare”s story to a new and appreciative generation.

Gian Franco Corsi Zeffirelli KBE, Grande Ufficiale OMRI (Italian: [ˈfraŋko ddzeffiˈrɛlli]; 12 February 1923 – 15 June 2019),[1] best known as Franco Zeffirelli, was an Italian director and producer of operas, films and television. He was also a senator (1994–2001) for the Italian centre-right Forza Italia party.

Some of his operatic designs and productions have become worldwide classics.[2][3][4][5]

He was also known for several of the movies he directed, especially the 1968 version of Romeo and Juliet, for which he received an Academy Award nomination. His 1967 version of The Taming of the Shrew with Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton remains the best-known film adaptation of that play as well. His miniseries Jesus of Nazareth (1977) won acclaim and is still shown on Christmas and Easter in many countries.

A Grande Ufficiale OMRI of the Italian Republic since 1977, Zeffirelli also received an honorary knighthood from the British government in 2004 when he was created a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.[6] He was awarded the Premio Colosseo in 2009 by the city of Rome.

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By Molly Fosco: This Former Sex Crimes Prosecutor Keeps Harassment Out of Her Kitchens
Why you should care
Because she’s taking the “bro culture”’ out of the food industry.


Literary Hub: Lit Hub Weekly June 10 – 14, 2019
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NPR: New York City And The Strand Bookstore Are Not On The Same Page
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Chronic Warrior Women Podcast: Episode 1- How the podcast came to be…
Welcome to Episode 1 of the Chronic Warrior Women podcast! Let us explain to you what we’re doing and why. Buckle up, because living life above the condition involves real talk, awkward stories, and lots of personal nonsense.

In episode one we talk about why we started this podcast and what our hopes are for it. As well as a brief introduction to each of our personal chronic health issues.


By Sahara Foley: JUNE 2019 Free and Discounted Ebooks Multi-Genre–16th to 30th





FYI June 14, 2019

On This Day

1158 – Munich is founded by Henry the Lion on the banks of the river Isar.
Munich (/ˈmjuːnɪk/; German: München [ˈmʏnçn̩] (About this soundlisten);[2] Austro-Bavarian: Minga [ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ] or more common Minna [ˈmɪna]; Latin: Monachium) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million,[3] it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city’s metropolitan region is home to 6 million people.[4] Straddling the banks of the River Isar (a tributary of the Danube) north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany (4,500 people per km²). Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna.

The city is a global centre of art, science, technology, finance, publishing, culture, innovation, education, business, and tourism and enjoys a very high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey,[5] and being rated the world’s most liveable city by the Monocle’s Quality of Life Survey 2018.[6] According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.[7] Munich is a major international center of engineering, science, innovation, and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, and world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.[8]. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, automobiles, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology, engineering and electronics among many others.

The name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning “by the monks”. It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place that was later to become the Old Town of Munich; hence the monk depicted on the city’s coat of arms. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich strongly resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years’ War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes.[9][citation needed] Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture, culture and science. In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared.

In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP. The first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis’ rise to power, Munich was declared their “Capital of the Movement”. During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or “economic miracle”. Unlike many other German cities which were heavily bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics. The 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, and population growth. The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde, Allianz and MunichRE.

Munich is home to many universities, museums and theatres. Its numerous architectural attractions, sports events, exhibitions and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism.[10] Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany. It is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, making up 37.7% of its population.[11]



Born On This Day

1900 – Ruth Nanda Anshen, American writer, editor, and philosopher (d. 2003)
Ruth Nanda Anshen (June 14, 1900 – December 2, 2003) was an American philosopher, author and editor. She was the author of several books including The Anatomy of Evil, Biography of An Idea, Morals Equals Manners and The Mystery of Consciousness: A Prescription for Human Survival.

Anshen was born on June 14, 1900 in Lynn, Massachusetts to Jewish Russian immigrants.[1] She studied at Boston University under Alfred North Whitehead. During her education, she developed a desire to unite scholars from all over the world from varying fields. In 1941, she put together the Science of Culture Series, hoping to develop a “unitary principle under which there could be subsumed and evaluated the nature of man and the nature of life, the relationship of knowledge to life.” This series continued on for two decades and included Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Thomas Mann, and Whitehead on its board of editors.

She was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts of London, a member of the American Philosophical Association, the History of Science Society, the International Philosophical Society and the Metaphysical Society of America. In 1958, she established the Anshen-Columbia University Seminars on the Nature of Man. Anshen died at age 103.[1]

In the 1990s the Council for the Anshen Transdisciplinary Lectureships in Art, Science and the Philosophy of Culture included Noam Chomsky, Fred Hoyle, Paul O. Kristeller, Edith Porada, Meyer Schapiro, Hugh Thomas, John A. Wheeler, and C. N. Yang.[2]

Anshen was the editor of several series of books, including the World Perspectives Series, published by Harper & Row, of which two volumes were by Erich Fromm: The Art of Loving (Volume 9)[3] and To Have or to Be? (Volume 50). Another notable was Deschooling Society (Volume 44) by Ivan Illich.[4] She also edited the Religious Perspectives Series, published by Harper & Row, Credo Perspectives Series, published by Pocket Books/Simon & Schuster, The Perspectives in Humanism Series, published by World Publishing Company, The Tree of Life Series published by Seabury Press, and The Convergence Series published by Columbia University Press.

Selected works
Freedom: Its Meaning (1940)
Beyond Victory (1943)
The Family: Its Function and Destiny (1949)
Moral Principles of Action: Man’s Ethical Imperative (1952)
Language : an enquiry into its meaning and function (1957)
The Reality of the Devil: The Evil in Man (1974)
The Anatomy of Evil (1985), Revised edition of The Reality of the Devil: Evil in Man (1974)
Biography of An Idea (1986)
Morals Equals Manners (1992)
The Mystery of Consciousness: A Prescription for Human Survival (1994)



One bullet each for those who participated in this horrible crime.

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FYI June 13, 2019

On This Day

313 – The Edict of Milan, signed by Constantine the Great and co-emperor Valerius Licinius granting religious freedom throughout the Roman Empire, is posted in Nicomedia.
The Edict of Milan (Latin: Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.[1] Western Roman Emperor Constantine I and Emperor Licinius, who controlled the Balkans, met in Mediolanum (modern-day Milan) and, among other things, agreed to change policies towards Christians[1] following the Edict of Toleration issued by Emperor Galerius two years earlier in Serdica. The Edict of Milan gave Christianity a legal status, but did not make Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire; this took place under Emperor Theodosius I in 380 AD with the Edict of Thessalonica.

The document is found in Lactantius’ De Mortibus Persecutorum and in Eusebius of Caesarea’s History of the Church with marked divergences between the two.[2] Whether or not there was a formal ‘Edict of Milan’  is debated by some.[1]

The version found in Lactantius is not in the form of an edict.[2] It is a letter from Licinius to the governors of the provinces in the Eastern Empire he had just conquered by defeating Maximinus[3] later in the same year and issued in Nicomedia.[1]



Born On This Day

1910 – Mary Whitehouse, English activist, founded the National Viewers’ and Listeners’ Association (d. 2001)
Constance Mary Whitehouse CBE (née Hutcheson; 13 June 1910 – 23 November 2001), known as Mary Whitehouse, was an English social activist who opposed social liberalism and the mainstream British media, both of which she accused of encouraging a more permissive society. She was the founder and first president of the National Viewers’ and Listeners’ Association, through which she led a longstanding campaign against the BBC. A social conservative, she was disparagingly termed a reactionary by her socially liberal opponents. Her motivation derived from her traditional Christian beliefs, her aversion to the rapid social and political changes in British society of the 1960s and her work as a teacher of sex education.[2]

Born in Nuneaton, Warwickshire, Whitehouse became an art teacher, at the same time becoming involved in evangelical Christian groups such as the Student Christian Movement (which became increasingly more liberal leading up to and after a 1928 split with the Universities and Colleges Christian Fellowship) and Moral Re-Armament. She became a public figure via the Clean-Up TV pressure group, established in 1964, in which she was the most prominent figure. The following year she founded the National Viewers’ and Listeners’ Association, using it as a platform to criticise the BBC for what she perceived as a lack of accountability, and excessive use of bad language and portrayals of sex and violence in its programmes. As a result, she became an object of mockery in the media.

During the 1970s she broadened her activities, and was a leading figure in the Nationwide Festival of Light, a Christian campaign that gained mass support for a period. She initiated a successful private prosecution against Gay News on the grounds of blasphemous libel, the first such case for more than 50 years. Another private prosecution was against the director of the play The Romans in Britain, which had been performed at the National Theatre.

Whitehouse’s campaigns continue to divide opinion. Her critics have accused her of being a highly censorious figure, and her traditional moral convictions brought her into direct conflict with advocates of the sexual revolution, feminism and gay rights. Others see her more positively and believe she was attempting to halt a decline in what they perceived as Britain’s moral standards. According to Ben Thompson, the editor of an anthology of Whitehouse-related letters published in 2012: “From … feminist anti-pornography campaigns to the executive naming and shaming strategies of UK Uncut, her ideological and tactical influence has been discernible in all sorts of unexpected places in recent years.”[3]

Read more->



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FYI June 12, 2019

On This Day

910 – Battle of Augsburg: The Hungarians defeat the East Frankish army under King Louis the Child, using the famous feigned retreat tactic of the nomadic warriors.
The Battle of Lechfeld in 910, was an important victory by a Magyar army over Louis the Child’s united Frankish Imperial Army.[1][2] Located south of Augsburg, the Lechfeld is the flood plain that lies along the Lech River. At this time the Grand Prince of Hungary was Zolta, Zoltán of Hungary, but there is no record of him taking part in the battle.

This battle is one of the greatest examples of the success of the famous feigned retreat tactic used by nomadic warriors, and an example of how psychological warfare can be used effectively.

The battle appears as the first Battle of Augsburg[3] in Hungarian historiography.



Born On This Day

1802 – Harriet Martineau, English sociologist and author (d. 1876)
Harriet Martineau (/ˈmɑːrtənˌoʊ/; 12 June 1802 – 27 June 1876) was a British social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.[1]

Martineau wrote many books and a multitude of essays from a sociological, holistic, religious, domestic, and perhaps most controversially, feminine perspective; she also translated various works by Auguste Comte.[2] She earned enough to support herself entirely by her writing, a rare feat for a woman in the Victorian era.[citation needed]

The young Princess Victoria enjoyed reading Martineau’s publications. She invited Martineau to her coronation in 1838 — an event which Martineau described, in great and amusing detail, to her many readers.[3][4]

Martineau said of her own approach to writing: “when one studies a society, one must focus on all its aspects, including key political, religious, and social institutions”. She believed a thorough societal analysis was necessary to understand women’s status under men.[citation needed] The novelist Margaret Oliphant said “as a born lecturer and politician [Martineau] was less distinctively affected by her sex than perhaps any other, male or female, of her generation”.[2]




By Lindsay Crouse: Gabriele Grunewald, Runner Who Chronicled Journey With Cancer, Dies at 32

Gabriele Grunewald (née Anderson; June 25, 1986 – June 11, 2019) was an American professional middle-distance runner who competed in distances from 800 meters to 5000 meters. She represented the United States at the 2014 IAAF World Indoor Championships and finished in ninth place in the 3000 meters. She was the national champion in the 3000 meters at the 2014 USA Indoor Track and Field Championships.

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One bullet each.
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FYI June 11, 2019

On This Day

1748 – Denmark adopts the characteristic Nordic Cross flag later taken up by all other Scandinavian countries.
The Nordic cross flag is any of certain flags bearing the design of the Nordic or Scandinavian cross, a cross symbol in a rectangular field, with the center of the cross shifted towards the hoist.

All of the Nordic countries except Greenland have adopted such flags in the modern period, and while the Scandinavian cross is named for its use in the national flags of the Scandinavian nations, the term is used universally by vexillologists, in reference not only to the flags of the Nordic countries but to other flags with similar designs.[1]

The cross design represents Christianity,[2][3][4] and the characteristic shift of the center to the hoist side is early modern, first described the Danish civil ensign (Koffardiflaget) for merchant ships in a regulation of 11 June 1748, which specified the shift of the cross center towards the hoist as “the two first fields must be square in form and the two outer fields must be ​6⁄4 lengths of those”. The Danish design was adopted for the flags of Norway (civil ensign 1821) and Sweden (1906), both derived from a common ensign used during the Union between Sweden and Norway 1818–1844, as well as Iceland (1915) and Finland (1917); some of the subdivisions of these countries used this as inspiration for their own flags. The Norwegian flag was the first Nordic cross flag with three colours. All Nordic flags may be flown as gonfalons as well.[citation needed]



Born On This Day

1909 – Natascha Artin Brunswick, German-American mathematician and photographer (d. 2003)
Natascha Artin Brunswick, née Jasny (June 11, 1909 – February 3, 2003) was a German-American mathematician and photographer.

St. Petersburg and Hamburg
Natascha Artin Brunswick was the daughter of Naum Jasny [ru], a Russian Jewish economist from Kharkiv. Her mother was a Russian orthodox aristocrat and dentist. Since at the time Russian orthodox Christians were prohibited from marrying Jews, she converted to Protestantism. They were married in Finland.

Naum Jasny was an adherent of the Mensheviks and fled to Tbilisi after the October Revolution in 1917. Natascha, her sister, and her mother followed in 1920. After the Bolsheviks took control of Georgia, the family lived in Austria from 1922 to 1924, for a brief period in 1924 in Berlin, and finally moved to Langenhorn, Hamburg, where they remained until 1937. Natascha Jasny attended the progressive Lichtwark school. While still in school, she photographed with a simple box camera and processed her own pictures in the bathroom at home, which served as a makeshift darkroom.

Natascha graduated in 1928. She hoped to study architecture at the Bauhaus Dessau, but the family’s financial situation made this impossible. She instead studied mathematics at the University of Hamburg, where she also took courses in art history from Aby Warburg and Erwin Panofsky. She graduated from the university in 1930 with a Magister degree.

On August 29, 1929 she married her mathematics professor Emil Artin, who had been teaching in Hamburg since 1923. In 1933, the Artins had a daughter, Karin, and in 1934 a son, Michael.

Because his wife was half Jewish, Emil Artin was forced into early retirement from his teaching position under the Nazi Party Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service. On September 27, 1934, Artin already had to sign a declaration that his wife was not “Aryan”.[1] The Artin family managed to leave Germany for the United States on October 21, 1937. Since they were prohibited from taking larger sums of money with them, the Artins shipped their entire household, which reflected their modernist sensibilities.

Life in the United States
Natascha’s husband first obtained a teaching position at the University of Notre Dame, and in 1938 moved to Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. The Artins had their third child, son Thomas (Tom), in 1938. During World War II, Natascha Artin was classified an enemy alien. The United States Army nevertheless hired her in 1942 to teach Russian to soldiers under Army Specialized Training Program at Indiana University.

In 1946, Emil was hired by Princeton University, and the Artins moved to Princeton, New Jersey. They divorced in 1958, after which Emil Artin returned to Hamburg. Natasha Artin remarried in 1960. Her second husband was composer Mark Brunswick.

Artin Brunswick returned to Hamburg as an official guest of the City of Hamburg in 1998, on the occasion of Emil Artin’s 100th birthday. She lived in Princeton until her death in 2003.
Work as a mathematician

After her move to Princeton, Natascha Artin joined the group around Richard Courant at the mathematics department of New York University. She became the technical editor of the journal Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, founded at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in 1948, and in 1956 became the primary translation editor for the journal Theory of Probability and Its Applications, a position she held until 1989.[2] In recognition of her long-standing membership of over 50 years, she was made an Honorary Member of the American Mathematical Society.

Work as photographer
Artin Brunswick never saw herself as a professional photographer. She considered it a “private passion, nevertheless, it was a bit more than just taking snapshots.”[3]

After they married in 1929, Emil Artin, who shared her passion for photography, gave her a Leica compact camera. She was encouraged in her photography by the painter Heinrich Stegemann, a family friend. She first took pictures of family members, friends, and landscapes, but later explored Hamburg and photographed scenes such as the Port of Hamburg, the Jungfernstieg, and the main railway station. She was particularly interested in architecture, and, influenced by the ideas of the Bauhaus, preferred clear, bright lines in her photographs.

As she was classified an enemy alien during World War II, her camera was provisionally confiscated by police in 1942. By the time it was returned to her, she had lost her passion for photography. Her prints from the time in Hamburg, however, survived through her emigration. Her son Tom rediscovered them about forty years later in a cabinet. He recognized their importance and contacted galleries in Hamburg. Artin Brunswick’s photographs were first shown at the Kunstgenuss gallery in Hamburg-Eppendorf in 1999. In 2001, the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe organized an exhibition of 227 original prints under the title Hamburg, As I Saw It. Photographs from the 1920s and 30s.[4] Despite her advanced age of 91 years, Natascha Brunswick took the trip from New York to attend the opening. The museum now holds 230 original prints; the negatives are in the possession of the Artin family.



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William D. Wittliff (January 1940 – June 9, 2019), [1] sometimes credited as Bill Wittliff, was an American screenwriter, author and photographer who wrote the screenplays for The Perfect Storm (2000), Barbarosa (1982), Raggedy Man (1981), and many others.


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FYI June 10, 2019

On This Day

1624 – Signing of the Treaty of Compiègne between France and the Netherlands.
The Treaty of Compiègne of 10 June 1624 was a peace treaty between France and the Netherlands. It allowed France to subsidize the Dutch war effort against Spain in the Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) after the end of the Twelve Years’ Truce. France offered an immediate loan of 480,000 thalers, to be followed by more instalments over a period of three years in which the Dutch would continue the fight against Spain.[1] This move was part of the general effort of France to undermine the Habsburg Empire. It led to the revival of a Franco-Dutch alliance which had been enfeebled since the execution of Oldenbarnevelt in 1619.[1]

This treaty permitted to France to pursue this opposition through indirect means, much as the Treaty of Bärwalde in 1631 between France and Sweden would finance Sweden’s war effort in Germany.[2] The treaty was masterminded by Richelieu in order to prevent a Habsburg revival.[2]

Through the treaty, the Dutch requested financial help in their fight against Spain, in exchange for naval support to France. In particular the foundation of a French West India Company was suggested, that could receive the support of the Dutch West India Company in opposition to Spain.[3] A definite agreement on cooperation on the high seas was not found however, but it was agreed that France would provide a loan to be repaid once the Netherlands had a truce or peace with Spain, and that if the French king was to go to war the Dutch should return half of the money to him or help him with men and ships.[3] The Dutch also agreed to intervene in the Western Mediterranean against pirates based in the Barbary States, and to generally support French shipping there.[3]

Under the terms of this treaty, the Dutch had to supply a fleet of 20 warships for the French king’s fight against the Protestants in the Capture of Ré island, thereby infamously providing military support against their coreligionaries.[4] The fleet was under the command of Admiral Willem Haultain de Zoete. It was withdrawn from French service in February 1626 after a resolution of the States-General in December 1625.[4]

With the Treaty of Compiègne, Richelieu also got the Dutch to stop fighting the French in East Asia, thereby facilitating French commercial ventures.[5]


Born On This Day

1854 – Sarah Grand, Irish feminist writer (d. 1943)
Sarah Grand (10 June 1854 – 12 May 1943) was an Irish feminist writer active from 1873 to 1922. Her work revolved around the New Woman ideal.

Early life and influences
Sarah Grand was born Frances Elizabeth Bellenden Clarke in Rosebank House, Donaghadee, County Down, Northern Ireland of English parents. Her father was Edward John Bellenden Clarke (1813–1862) and her mother was Margaret Bell Sherwood (1813–1874). When her father died, her mother took her and her siblings back to Bridlington, England to be near her family who lived at Rysome Garth near Holmpton in East Yorkshire.[1]

Grand’s education was very sporadic, yet she managed with perseverance to make a career for herself as an activist and writer, drawing on her travels and life experiences.

In 1868 Grand was sent to the Royal Naval School, Twickenham, but was soon expelled for organizing groups that supported Josephine Butler’s protests against the Contagious Diseases Act, which persecuted prostitutes as infected women, as the sole cause of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, subjecting them to indignities such as inspection of their genitals and enclosure in locked hospital wards.

Grand was then sent to a finishing school in Kensington, London. In August 1870, at the age of sixteen, she married widowed Army surgeon David Chambers McFall, who was 23 years her senior and had two sons from his previous marriage: Chambers Haldane Cooke McFall and Albert William Crawford McFall. Grand and McFall’s only child, David Archibald Edward McFall, was born in Sandgate, Kent, on 7 October 1871. He became an actor and took the name Archie Carlaw Grand.

From 1873 to 1878 the family travelled in the Far East, providing Grand with more material for her fiction. In 1879 they moved to Norwich, and in 1881 to Warrington, Lancashire where her husband retired.[2]

Upon returning to England, she and her husband became sexually estranged by her husband’s bizarre sexual appetites. Grand felt constrained by her marriage. She turned to writing, but her first novel, Ideala, self-published in 1888, enjoyed limited success and some negative reviews. Nevertheless, she trusted in her new career to support her in her decision to leave her husband in 1890 and move to London. Recently enacted laws that allowed women to retain their personal property after marriage were an encouraging factor in her decision.[3]

She used her experience of suffocation in marriage and the joy of consequent liberation in her fictional depictions of pre-suffrage women with few political rights and options, trapped in oppressive marriages. Later works would have a more sympathetic stance to males, such as Babs the Impossible in which the single noble women would feel resurgence in their worth encouraged by an idealistic self-made man.

Through her husband’s work as an army surgeon, Grand learned of the anatomical physiology of the nature of sexually transmitted diseases. She used this knowledge in her 1893 novel The Heavenly Twins, warning of the dangers of syphilis, advocating sensitivity rather than condemnation for the young women infected with this disease.[4]

Rebirth as Sarah Grand and her later life and death
Clarke renamed herself Sarah Grand in 1893 with the publication by Heinemann of her novel The Heavenly Twins. This feminine pen name represented the archetype of the “New Woman” developed by her and her female colleagues. Grand established the phrase “New Woman” in a debate with Ouida in 1894.[5][6]

She lived briefly in London, then, after her husband’s sudden death in February 1898, moved to Tunbridge Wells, Kent (Royal Tunbridge Wells),[7] during which time she took an active part in the local women’s suffrage societies, as well as travelling extensively, particularly to the United States on a lecture tour in the wake of the notoriety of her novel The Heavenly Twins. Although it gained her mixed and often angry criticism, her work was well received by notable authors as George Bernard Shaw.[8] In 1920 she moved to Crowe Hall at Widcombe in Bath, Somerset where she served from 1922 to 1929 as Lady Mayoress alongside Mayor Cedric Chivers.[9] When her home was bombed in 1942, Grand was persuaded to move to Calne in Wiltshire, where she died the following year on 12 May 1943, a month before her 89th birthday.[10][11] She is buried in Lansdown Cemetery, Bath, Somerset, alongside her sister, Nellie. Her son Archie outlived her by only a year, dying in a London air raid in 1944.[12]

Her work dealt with the New Woman in fiction and also in fact; Grand wrote treatises on the subject of the failure of marriage, and her novels may be considered anti-marriage polemics. Grand holds out the hope of marriage as the holiest and perfect state of union between a man and woman, but deplores the inequality and disadvantages intended to keep young women ignorant, and insists that women should rebel against entrapment in a loveless marriage.[13]

The New Woman novel was a development of the late 19th century. New Woman novelists and characters encouraged and supported several types of political action in Britain. For some women, the New Woman movement provided support for women who wanted to work and learn for themselves, and who started to question the idea of marriage and the inequality of women. For other women, especially Sarah Grand, the New Woman movement allowed women to speak out not only about the inequality of women, but about middle-class women’s responsibilities to the nation.[14] In The Heavenly Twins Grand demonstrates the dangers of the moral double standard which overlooked men’s promiscuity while punishing women for the same acts. More importantly, however, Grand argues in The Heavenly Twins that in order for the British nation to grow stronger, middle-class women must choose mates with whom they might produce strong, well-educated children.

The Berg Collection of the New York Public Library keeps Mark Twain’s copy of The Heavenly Twins. Twain filled the margins of the book with increasingly critical comments, writing after one chapter, “A cat could do better literature than this.”[15]

Ideala, 1888
The Heavenly Twins, 1893
Our Manifold Nature, 1894
The Beth Book, 1897
Babs the Impossible,1901
Adnam’s Orchard, 1912
The Winged Victory, 1916
Variety, 1922



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Norman Dewis OBE (3 August 1920 – 8 June 2019)[1] was a British car test driver, who was the chief test driver and development engineer for Jaguar Cars from 1952 to 1985.[2]

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