On This Day
683 – Yazid I’s army kills 11,000 people of Medina including notable Sahabas in Battle of al-Harrah.
The Battle of al-Harra (Arabic: يوم الحرة, romanized: Yawm al-Ḥarra lit. ’the day of al-Harra’) was fought between the Syrian army of the Umayyad caliph Yazid I (r. 680–683) led by Muslim ibn Uqba and the defenders of Medina from the Ansar and Muhajirun factions, who had rebelled against the caliph. The battle took place at the lava field of Harrat Waqim in the northeastern outskirts of Medina on 26 August 683 and lasted less than a day.
The elite factions of Medina disapproved of the hereditary succession of Yazid (unprecedented in Islamic history until that point), resented the caliph’s impious lifestyle, and chafed under Umayyad economic acts and policies. After declaring their rebellion, they besieged the Umayyad clan resident in Medina and dug a defensive trench around the city. The expeditionary force sent by Yazid together with the local Umayyads, who had since been released from the siege, encamped at Harrat Waqim where they were confronted by the rebels. Despite an initial advantage, the Medinans were routed as a result of the defection of one of their factions, the Banu Haritha, which enabled Umayyad horsemen led by Marwan ibn al-Hakam to attack them from the rear.
Afterward, the army pillaged Medina for three days, though accounts of the plunder vary considerably. The Syrian army proceeded to besiege the rebel leader Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr in Mecca, though Ibn Uqba died en route. In contrast to Ibn al-Zubayr’s call for a shura to decide the caliphate and his success in resisting the Umayyads, the rebels in Medina lacked a political program and military experience. The Islamic traditional sources list the Battle of al-Harra and its aftermath as one of the Umayyads’ ‘major crimes’ and malign Ibn Uqba for his role in the plunder of Medina.
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1232 – Shikken Hojo Yasutoki of the Kamakura shogunate promulgates the Goseibai Shikimoku, the first Japanese legal code governing the samurai class.
The Goseibai Shikimoku (御成敗式目) or the Formulary of Adjudications was the legal code of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan, promulgated by third shikken Hōjō Yasutoki on 27 August 1232. It is also called Jōei Shikimoku (貞永式目) after the era name.
Before enacting the Goseibai Shikimoku, the Kamakura shogunate conducted trials without formal laws. After the Jōkyū War, an increasing number of land disputes between its vassals, aristocrats and peasants made fair trials indispensable. Thereafter Hōjō Yasutoki compiled the outline with 51 article headings and 13 Hyojoshu (councilors) completed it.
Supplementary articles to the Goseibai Shikimoku, called Tsuika (追加), were issued afterward. The Muromachi shogunate also adopted the Goseibai Shikimoku as the basic law. The Goseibai Shikimoku was largely repealed during the Edo period, though parts of it stayed in used until 1868, but was widely used as a textbook for writing in temple schools.
1524 – The Kaqchikel Maya rebel against their former Spanish allies during the Spanish conquest of Guatemala.
In a protracted conflict during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish colonisers gradually incorporated the territory that became the modern country of Guatemala into the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain. Before the conquest, this territory contained a number of competing Mesoamerican kingdoms, the majority of which were Maya. Many conquistadors viewed the Maya as “infidels” who needed to be forcefully converted and pacified, disregarding the achievements of their civilization. The first contact between the Maya and European explorers came in the early 16th century when a Spanish ship sailing from Panama to Santo Domingo was wrecked on the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in 1511. Several Spanish expeditions followed in 1517 and 1519, making landfall on various parts of the Yucatán coast. The Spanish conquest of the Maya was a prolonged affair; the Maya kingdoms resisted integration into the Spanish Empire with such tenacity that their defeat took almost two centuries.
Pedro de Alvarado arrived in Guatemala from the newly conquered Mexico in early 1524, commanding a mixed force of Spanish conquistadors and native allies, mostly from Tlaxcala and Cholula. Geographic features across Guatemala now bear Nahuatl placenames owing to the influence of these Mexican allies, who translated for the Spanish. The Kaqchikel Maya initially allied themselves with the Spanish, but soon rebelled against excessive demands for tribute and did not finally surrender until 1530. In the meantime the other major highland Maya kingdoms had each been defeated in turn by the Spanish and allied warriors from Mexico and already subjugated Maya kingdoms in Guatemala. The Itza Maya and other lowland groups in the Petén Basin were first contacted by Hernán Cortés in 1525, but remained independent and hostile to the encroaching Spanish until 1697, when a concerted Spanish assault led by Martín de Ursúa y Arizmendi finally defeated the last independent Maya kingdom.
Spanish and native tactics and technology differed greatly. The Spanish viewed the taking of prisoners as a hindrance to outright victory, whereas the Maya prioritised the capture of live prisoners and of booty. The indigenous peoples of Guatemala lacked key elements of Old World technology such as a functional wheel, horses, iron, steel, and gunpowder; they were also extremely susceptible to Old World diseases, against which they had no resistance. The Maya preferred raiding and ambush to large-scale warfare, using spears, arrows and wooden swords with inset obsidian blades; the Xinca of the southern coastal plain used poison on their arrows. In response to the use of Spanish cavalry, the highland Maya took to digging pits and lining them with wooden stakes.
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Born On This Day
1469 – Ferdinand II of Naples (d. 1496)
Ferdinando Trastámara d’Aragona, of the branch of Naples, known to contemporaries especially with the name of Ferrandino (Naples, 26 June 1467 – Naples, 7 October 1496). Acclaimed “the first among all the Kings and Lords of the World” and universally praised for his excellent virtues was King of Naples for just under two years, from 23 January 1495 to 7 October 1496. Prince of Capua from birth until 25 January 1494 and Duke of Calabria from 25 January 1494 to 23 January 1495 as heir to the throne.
From February to July 1495, he was ousted by Charles VIII of France, lowered in Italy to claim the Angevin inheritance. He was the son of Alfonso II and Ippolita Maria Sforza, grandson of King Ferrante, holder of the throne of Jerusalem.
“A man of true beauty, of indomitable courage, so that he seemed born for the struggle, and yet a lover of culture and music and, for the sweetness of the soul, very different from his father, he was sovereign actually loved by the people” (Nino Cortese).
“This prince full of enlightened piety tried to provide tranquility and well-being to his peoples, so much so that he aspired to be called more than king, father of his subjects” (Niccola Morelli).
865 – Rhazes, Persian polymath (d. 925)
Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (full name: أبو بکر محمد بن زکریاء الرازي, Abū Bakr Muḥammad bin Zakariyyāʾ al-Rāzī),[a] c. 864 or 865–925 or 935 CE,[b] often known as (al-)Razi or by his Latin name Rhazes, was a Persian physician, philosopher and alchemist who lived during the Islamic Golden Age. He is widely considered one of the most important figures in the history of medicine, and also wrote on logic, astronomy and grammar.
A comprehensive thinker, al-Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to various fields, which he recorded in over 200 manuscripts, and is particularly remembered for numerous advances in medicine through his observations and discoveries. An early proponent of experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor, and served as chief physician of Baghdad and Ray hospitals. As a teacher of medicine, he attracted students of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor. He was the first to clinically distinguish between smallpox and measles, and suggest sound treatment for the former.
Through translation, his medical works and ideas became known among medieval European practitioners and profoundly influenced medical education in the Latin West. Some volumes of his work Al-Mansuri, namely “On Surgery” and “A General Book on Therapy”, became part of the medical curriculum in Western universities. Edward Granville Browne considers him as “probably the greatest and most original of all the Muslim physicians, and one of the most prolific as an author”. Additionally, he has been described as the father of pediatrics, and a pioneer of obstetrics and ophthalmology. Notably, he became the first human physician to recognize the reaction of the eye’s pupil to light.
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1023 – Go-Reizei, emperor of Japan (d. 1068)
Emperor Go-Reizei (後冷泉天皇, Go-Reizei-tennō, August 28, 1025 – May 22, 1068) was the 70th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Go-Reizei’s reign spanned the years 1045–1068.
This 11th century sovereign was named after the 10th century Emperor Reizei and go- (後), translates literally as “later;” and thus, he is sometimes called the “Later Emperor Reizei”. The Japanese word “go” has also been translated to mean the “second one;” and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as “Reizei, the second,” or as “Reizei II.”
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By Scott Ruoti, The Conversation: How QR Codes Work and What Makes Them Dangerous—a Computer Scientist Explains Here’s what happens when you scan one of those ubiquitous two-dimensional black-and-white patterns.
By Ernie Smith, Tedium: Camper Van Mainframe Why the first “portable” computers, produced before integrated circuits, would really stretch the term today. Some portables needed a truck to move.
By Ernie Smith, Tedium: The Original “Universal” Port The Atari 2600’s joystick port had a history that survived for nearly two decades on a variety of systems, from the Sega Master System to the 3DO. Not that cross-compatibility is exactly perfect.
By Ernie Smith, Tedium: This Is My Shocked Face Discussing power outlets, both very old and in current use, whose charge veers far from the norm. I plug all my devices into EmPower connectors.
By Ernie Smith, Tedium: The Hissing of Vintage Tapes The ongoing fight against tape hiss has proven a useful creative tension for the music industry—even if you’re not into lo-fi music recorded on a four-track.
By Ernie Smith, Tedium: A Blank’s Blank What does it mean to be an actor’s actor? Or a writer’s writer? Or … well, you get the idea. Let’s try to make sense of a phrase that shapes how we think about success.
Hey all, Ernie here with a fresh thought experiment from Andrew Egan, who last hit us with a discussion on class and comedy. This piece looks at success from a different metric than fame and fortune—but rather, the respect you command from your peers. Read on!
Mike McGroarty DIY Hoop House
Rare Historical Photos: Amazing vintage photos show what kitchens looked like between the 1940s and 1950s
The Marginalian by Maria Popova: 3 Things to Learn from a Child, 7 from a Thief: Bob Dylan’s Favorite Hasidic Teaching On the value of remaining resolutely what you are.
Shawn Ryan Show: A look inside China’s Social Credit System | Myth or Reality?
Periscope Film: DORY PREVIN’S “MARY C BROWN AND THE HOLLYWOOD SIGN” 1972 MUSIC VIDEO XD52064
Guillermo Paz: How to land your dream job with the Proximity Principle by Ken Coleman
Mo Reese Delk: Dear black lives matter and antifa!!Go Protest In The Ghetto
By vihaanbhardwaj: Sourdough Strawberry Scones
By In The Kitchen With Matt: Oatmeal Pancakes
By Pavlovafowl: Easy Eggs Florentine With Sweet Potato Leaves
Homemade on a Weeknight: Philly Cheese Pasta
Just the Recipe: Paste the URL to any recipe, click submit, and it’ll return literally JUST the recipe- no ads, no life story of the writer, no nothing EXCEPT the recipe.
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