FYI December 09 & 10, 2020

On This Day

1948 – The Genocide Convention is adopted.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was unanimously adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.[1] The Convention entered into force on 12 January 1951.[2] It defines genocide in legal terms, and is the culmination of years of campaigning by lawyer Raphael Lemkin.[3] All participating countries are advised to prevent and punish actions of genocide in war and in peacetime. As of May 2019, 152 states have ratified or acceded to the treaty, most recently Mauritius on 8 July 2019.[4] One state, the Dominican Republic, has signed but not ratified the treaty.


1508 – The League of Cambrai is formed by Pope Julius II, Louis XII of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand II of Aragon as an alliance against Venice.
The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and several other names,[1] was a major conflict in the Italian Wars of 1494–1559. The main participants of the war, fought from 1508 to 1516, were France, the Papal States, and the Republic of Venice, joined at various times by nearly every significant power in Western Europe, including Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, the Duchy of Milan, the Republic of Florence, the Duchy of Ferrara, and Swiss mercenaries.

Pope Julius II, intending to curb Venetian influence in northern Italy, brought together the League of Cambrai—an anti-Venetian alliance consisting of him, Louis XII of France, Ferdinand II of Aragon, and Maximilian I, the Holy Roman Emperor—in December 1508. Although the League was initially successful, friction between Julius and Louis caused it to collapse by 1510; Julius then allied himself with Venice against France.

The Veneto–Papal alliance eventually expanded into the Holy League, which drove the French from Italy in 1512; disagreements about the division of the spoils, however, led Venice to abandon the alliance in favor of one with France. Under the leadership of Francis I, who had succeeded Louis on the throne of France, the French and Venetians would, through victory at Marignano in 1515, regain the territory they had lost; the treaties of Noyon and Brussels, which ended the war the next year, would essentially return the map of Italy to the status quo of 1508.


Born On This Day

1779 – Tabitha Babbitt, American tool maker and inventor (d. 1853)
Sarah “Tabitha” Babbitt (December 9, 1779 – December 10, 1853) was an early American Shaker purported to be a tool maker and inventor. Inventions credited to her by the Shakers include the circular saw, the spinning wheel head, and false teeth. She was a member of the Harvard Shaker community.



1885 – Elizabeth Baker, American economist and academic (d. 1973)[16]
Elizabeth Faulkner Baker (10 December 1885 – 30 January 1973) was an American economist and academic who specialized in scientific management and the relationship between employment and technological change, especially the role of women.

Personal life and education

Baker was born in Abilene, Kansas, on 10 December 1885 and served as dean of women and instructor in economics at Lewiston State Normal School (1915–17) and then dean of women at Ellensburg State Normal School (1917–18) while earning her Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of California in 1918. She received her M.A. in economics from Columbia University in 1919 and her Ph.D. in economics from the same university in 1925 while teaching at Barnard College.[1]


Baker remained at Barnard for the rest of her career, serving as chair of the Department of Economics from 1940 until her retirement in 1952. During World War II, she served as a hearing officer for the National War Labor Board. She joined the Taylor Society, a group dedicated to the ideas of scientific management as espoused by Frederick Winslow Taylor, in the late 1920s and Baker was director of its New York section in 1944–46.[1]


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