1929 – Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin orders the “liquidation of the kulaks as a class”.
Dekulakization (Russian: раскулачивание, raskulachivanie, Ukrainian: розкуркулення, rozkurkulennia) was the Soviet campaign of political repressions, including arrests, deportations, and executions of millions of the better-off peasants and their families in 1929–1932. The Soviet authorities labeled the richer peasants ‘kulaks’ and portrayed them as class enemies.
More than 1.8 million peasants were deported in 1930–1931. The campaign had the stated purpose of fighting counter-revolution and of building socialism in the countryside. This policy, carried out simultaneously with collectivization in the Soviet Union, effectively brought all agriculture and all the peasants in Soviet Russia under state control.
A combination of dekulakization and collectivization led to mass starvation in many parts of the Soviet Union and the death of an estimated 11 million peasants in the period between 1929 and 1933, including 4 million deaths during the dekulakization campaign. The results soon became known outside the Soviet Union. In 1941, the American journalist H. R. Knickerbocker wrote: “It is a conservative estimate to say that some 5,000,000 [kulaks] … died at once, or within a few years.”
1946 – Janet Street-Porter, English journalist and producer
Janet Street-Porter, CBE (née Bull; born 27 December 1946) is an English media personality, journalist and broadcaster. She was editor for two years of The Independent on Sunday, but relinquished the job to become editor-at-large in 2002.
She has made numerous television appearances on discussion programmes including Question Time, reality shows including I’m a Celebrity… Get Me Out of Here! and Celebrity MasterChef and on panel games including Have I Got News for You. Since 2011, she has been a regular panellist on the ITV lifestyle and chat show Loose Women.
Street-Porter was born in Brentford, Middlesex, the daughter of Stanley W G Bull, an electrical engineer who had served as a sergeant in the Royal Corps of Signals in World War II and Cherry Cuff Ardern (née Jones) who was Welsh and worked as a school dinner lady and in the civil service as a clerical assistant in a tax office. Her mother was still married to her first husband, George Ardern, at the time, and was not to marry Stanley until 1954, hence her name being recorded thus in the birth records. She was later to take her father’s surname.
Street-Porter grew up in Fulham, west London and Perivale, Greater London after the family moved there when she was 14 and the family would stay in her mother’s home town of Llanfairfechan in North Wales for their holidays. She attended Peterborough Primary and Junior Schools in Fulham and Lady Margaret Grammar School for Girls (now Lady Margaret School) in Parsons Green from 1958 to 1964 where she passed 8 O-levels and 3 A-levels in English, History and Art. She also took an A-level in pure mathematics but did not pass the exam. Whilst studying A-levels, she had an illegal abortion. She then spent two years at the Architectural Association School of Architecture, where she met her first husband, photographer Tim Street-Porter.
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