FYI February 02, 2019

On This Day

1207 – Terra Mariana, eventually comprising present-day Latvia and Estonia, is established.
Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for “Land of Mary”) was the official name[1] for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia[a] (German: Alt-Livland, Estonian: Vana-Liivimaa, Latvian: Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia. It was established on 2 February 1207,[4] as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire[5] but lost this status in 1215 when proclaimed by Pope Innocent III as directly subject to the Holy See.[6]

Terra Mariana was divided into feudal principalities by Papal Legate William of Modena:

Duchy of Estonia (Dominum directum to the King of Denmark)[7][8]
Archbishopric of Riga
Bishopric of Courland
Bishopric of Dorpat
Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek
Military administration of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword[b]

After the 1236 Battle of Saule the surviving members of the Brothers merged in 1237 with the Teutonic Order of Prussia and became known as the Livonian Order. In 1346 the Order bought Danish Estonia. Throughout the existence of medieval Livonia there was a constant struggle over supremacy, between the lands ruled by the Church, the Order, the secular German nobility and the citizens of the Hanseatic towns of Riga and Reval. Following its defeat in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 the Teutonic Order and the Ordensstaat fell into decline but the Livonian Order managed to maintain its independent existence. In 1561, during the Livonian war, Terra Mariana ceased to exist.[1] Its northern parts were ceded to the Swedish Empire and formed into the Duchy of Estonia, its southern territories became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania — and thus eventually of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth — as the Duchy of Livonia and the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. The island of Saaremaa became part of Denmark.

Since the beginning of the 20th century Terra Mariana (Estonian: Maarjamaa) has been used as a poetic name or sobriquet for Estonia. In 1995 the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, a state decoration, was instituted to honor the independence of Estonia.[10]



Born On This Day

1585 – Judith Quiney, William Shakespeare’s youngest daughter (d. 1662)
Judith Quiney (baptised 2 February 1585 – 9 February 1662), née Shakespeare, was the younger daughter of William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway and the fraternal twin of their only son Hamnet Shakespeare. She married Thomas Quiney, a vintner of Stratford-upon-Avon. The circumstances of the marriage, including Quiney’s misconduct, may have prompted the rewriting of Shakespeare’s will. Thomas was struck out, while Judith’s inheritance was attached with provisions to safeguard it from her husband. The bulk of Shakespeare’s estate was left, in an elaborate fee tail, to his elder daughter Susanna and her male heirs.

Judith and Thomas Quiney had three children. By the time of Judith Quiney’s death, she had outlived her children by many years. She has been depicted in several works of fiction as part of an attempt to piece together unknown portions of her father’s life.




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Open Culture By Colin Marshall: How the Clavichord & Harpsichord Became the Modern Piano: The Evolution of Keyboard Instruments, Explained
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The Old Motor: Late-1950s Grandfather Mountain Hill Climb Photos and Film
The Old Motor: Four Fun Friday Kodachrome Car Photographs Number 191
By Jesse Mortensen: HELP WANTED: Write For Barn Finds!





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