On This Day
1717 – The Netherlands, Great Britain, and France sign the Triple Alliance in an attempt to maintain the Treaty of Utrecht; Britain having signed a preliminary alliance with France on November 28 (November 17, 1716).
The Triple Alliance was a treaty between the Dutch Republic, France and Great Britain, against Spain in an attempt to maintain the agreement of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht. The three states were concerned about Spain becoming a superpower in Europe. As a result, militarisation took place and caused great havoc to civilians. That enraged Spain and other states and led to brinkmanship. The alliance became the Quadruple Alliance the next year, after the accession of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.
After the deaths of Louis XIV and Queen Anne, relations between France and Great Britain improved. George I and the new French regent, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, were cousins, and both regimes faced threats. Orléans was concerned that his domestic enemies, particularly Louis Auguste de Bourbon, Duc de Maine, would combine with Spain to overthrow him, and George I wished to persuade the French to withhold support for any further Jacobite risings. According to Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, who opposed the alliance, the British Ambassador to Paris, John Dalrymple, 2nd Earl of Stair, argued that the short-term advantage to both regimes of an alliance outweighed their traditional differences. Orléans agreed, as did his secretary Guillaume Dubois, the future Cardinal, together with James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope, the English Secretary of State, is generally regarded as the principal author of the alliance.
Saint-Simon, who loathed Dubois, argued that the Bourbon Kingdoms of France and Spain should be perpetual allies, but that took no account of present realities. The Cellamare Conspiracy fully justified Orléans’s concerns of Spanish intentions, and the successful conclusion to the War of Quadruple Alliance vindicated the decision to ally with Great Britain and the Dutch Republic.
Born On This Day
1932 – Clint Hill, American secret service agent and author
Clinton J. Hill (born January 4, 1932) is a former United States Secret Service agent who served under five United States presidents, from Dwight D. Eisenhower to Gerald Ford. Hill is best known for his act of bravery while in the presidential motorcade on November 22, 1963 when United States President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.
During the assassination, Hill ran from the Secret Service follow up car, behind the presidential limousine, leaped onto the back of it and shielded Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and the stricken president with his body as the car raced to Parkland Memorial Hospital. This action was documented in the Zapruder film. Since the death of Nellie Connally in September 2006, Hill is the last surviving person who was in the presidential limousine that day.
By MessyNessy, 13 Things I Found on the Internet Today (Vol. DXXXVI): Making The New York Times in 1942; Confederate torpedo (anti-ship mine), American Civil War; A Collection of Midcentury Garage Doors; A Quote from the New-York Tribune, January 2, 1920 and more ->
By Sandra Murphy & Cynthia Chow, Kings River Life: Mystery Catch Up Group For Your New Year Reading!
Hank Shaw, Hunter Angler Gardener Cook: Gamey Meat: Here’s the Deal
Recipe courtesy of Food Network Kitchen: Whole Roasted Stuffed Cauliflower
By Thekissingcrust: Zapiekanka – If you’ve never made this Polish street food before, your pizza nights have been incomplete
By Betty Crocker Kitchens: Betty’s Best Pasta Recipes
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