On This Day
1564 – The Council of Trent establishes an official distinction between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.
The Council of Trent (Latin: Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.
The Council issued condemnations of what it defined to be heresies committed by proponents of Protestantism, and also issued key statements and clarifications of the Church’s doctrine and teachings, including scripture, the Biblical canon, sacred tradition, original sin, justification, salvation, the sacraments, the Mass, and the veneration of saints. The Council met for twenty-five sessions between 13 December 1545 and 4 December 1563. Pope Paul III, who convoked the Council, oversaw the first eight sessions (1545–47), while the twelfth to sixteenth sessions (1551–52) were overseen by Pope Julius III and the seventeenth to twenty-fifth sessions (1562–63) by Pope Pius IV.
The consequences of the Council were also significant with regard to the Church’s liturgy and practices. During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the 1590s. In 1565, a year after the Council finished its work, Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed (after Tridentum, Trent’s Latin name) and his successor Pius V then issued the Roman Catechism and revisions of the Breviary and Missal in, respectively, 1566, 1568 and 1570. These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass, which remained the Church’s primary form of the Mass for the next four hundred years.
More than three hundred years passed until the next ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council, was convened in 1869.
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Born On This Day
1924 – Annette Strauss, American philanthropist and politician, Mayor of Dallas (d. 1998)
Annette Louise Greenfield Strauss (January 26, 1924 – December 14, 1998) was an American philanthropist and politician who served as the 55th mayor of Dallas. The Annette Strauss Artist Square in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas is named in honor of her. She was the second female mayor and the second Jewish mayor of Dallas (Adlene Harrison was first; Laura Miller was the third). She was also the first woman elected to the post in her own right; Harrison served as a caretaker for the last months of Wes Wise’s term after Wise resigned to run for Congress.
Born in Houston, Texas, Annette Strauss graduated from the University of Texas at Austin in 1944. She moved to New York City where she received master’s degrees in sociology and psychology from Columbia University. She was a member of Phi Beta Kappa honor society and Alpha Epsilon Phi sorority. She worked as a Red Cross social worker in Houston for a year until she married Ted Strauss, Sr. Managing Director of Bear Stearns, in 1946 and moved to Dallas in 1947.
During the 1960s and 1970s, Strauss worked tirelessly as a fundraiser for various charities and organizations and also as a volunteer for a number of other organizations. She worked on behalf of the Dallas Symphony, the Crystal Charity Ball, Southern Methodist University, the United Way of America, the United Jewish Appeal, the Dallas Black Dance Theatre, Baylor University Medical Center and many other groups. Her efforts helped to raise millions for the arts in Dallas. Strauss was also one of the founding members of the Volunteer Center of North Texas.
Using her many connections in the city, Strauss was elected to a Dallas City Council seat in 1983. She became deputy mayor pro tem and then mayor pro tem in 1984. In 1987, Strauss ran for mayor of Dallas and won with 56 percent of the vote. Her opponents included the Texas Republican state chairman, Fred Meyer, a Dallas businessman originally from suburban Chicago.
During her tenure as mayor, Strauss helped to lead a city suffering from a sharp economic downturn.
While Mayor-Pro Tem, Annette spearheaded the effort to build a refuge for an increasing number of families living on the streets, victims of the collapsed Texas economy. The vision was a facility where homeless families could stay together as a family unit. A coalition of congregations responded, and Family Gateway was born. Originally named the Downtown Family Shelter, the S. St. Paul, 30-room facility was rededicated as the Annette. G. Strauss Family Gateway Center in 2000. The Center provides a private room, food and clothing for homeless families with children; coupled with the child care, educational and employment resources they need to recover from crisis and make positive choices for their future. Today, Family Gateway has grown to include transitional housing and permanent supportive housing units in the community to serve the growing number of homeless families. After 25 years Annette’s original vision for Family Gateway continues today; to empower homeless families to break the cycle of homelessness and embrace a life of hope and promise.
In 1991, Strauss left the mayoral position and worked as a consultant and trustee for a number of boards and foundations, including the Children’s Medical Center Foundation, the Dallas Methodist Hospitals Foundation, the St. Paul Hospital Foundation, the Timberlawn Foundation and the Texas Historical Foundation. She was also appointed “Ambassador-at-large” for the city of Dallas, an honorary position she held until her death from cancer in 1998. She was interred at Sparkman-Hillcrest Memorial Park Cemetery. Her husband Ted Strauss died on Sept. 5, 2014.
In recognition of her many years of humanitarian service, many things have been named for Annette Strauss, including the Annette G. Strauss Family Gateway Center, the Annette Strauss Institute for Civic Life at the University of Texas at Austin and also the Annette Strauss Artist Square, an open-air Performing Arts area in downtown Dallas.
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