On This Day
1814 – The Carabinieri, the national gendarmerie of Italy, is established.
The Carabinieri (formally Arma dei Carabinieri, “Carabinieri Force” or previously Corpo dei Carabinieri Reali, “Royal Carabinieri Corps”; Italian pronunciation: [karabiˈnjɛːri]) is the fourth Italian military force charged with police duties under the authority of the Ministry of Defense. Carabinieri are the national gendarmerie of Italy, policing both military and civilian populations. Carabinieri (similar to Polizia di Stato and Guardia di Finanza) are always “on duty” throughout the national territory including out of service hours, during leave and whilst on vacation, and they are always permitted to carry their assigned weapon as personal equipment (Beretta 92FS pistol). It was originally founded as the police force of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the forerunner of the Kingdom of Italy. During the process of Italian unification, it was appointed the “First Force” of the new national military organisation. Although the Carabinieri assisted in the suppression of opposition during the rule of Benito Mussolini, they were also responsible for his downfall and many units were disbanded during World War II by Nazi Germany, which resulted in large numbers of Carabinieri joining the Italian resistance movement. Since 2001, it has been one of the four Italian Armed Forces.
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Born On This Day
Emma Asson (13 July 1889 – 1 January 1965), was an Estonian politician (Social Democrat). She was the first women to be elected to the Estonian parliament. Asson participated in the creation of the first constitution of the independent Estonia, particularly within the fields of education and gender equality. She also wrote the first textbook in the Estonian language in 1912.
Emma Asson was born in Vaabina Parish, Võru County, Governorate of Livonia, part of the Russian Empire, as the daughter of a teacher. She studied at the A. S. Pushkin Girls’ School in Tartu and graduated in history at the Bestuzhev Courses in Saint Petersburg in Russia in 1910. She was then employed as a history teacher at a girls’ college in Tartu.
Emma Asson was active in different women’s organisations for social and education issues. In 1919, she was elected to the Tallinn city council as well as to the first national parliament of the independent Estonia for the social democrats. She was the first woman. In 1920 the women of Estonia were given full political rights under a new constitution. Two women were consulted over this constitution and they were Minni Kurs-Olesk and Asson. She was a member of the Education Ministry in 1919-21, secretary for the Estonian Women’s Association and Head of the Education Department in 1925-1940.
She was married to the politician Ferdinand Petersen from 1921-41.
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