On This Day
1209 – Massacre at Béziers: The first major military action of the Albigensian Crusade.
The Béziers massacre occurred on 22 July 1209 during the sack of Béziers by crusaders. It was the first major military action of the Albigensian Crusade.
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1821 – While the Mora Rebellion continues, Greeks capture Monemvasia Castle. Turkish troops and citizens are transferred to Asia Minor’s coasts.
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution of 1821 or the Greek Revolution, was a successful war of independence by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1829. The Greeks were later assisted by the British Empire, Kingdom of France, and Russia, while the Ottomans were aided by their North African vassals, particularly the eyalet of Egypt. The war led to the formation of modern Greece. The revolution is celebrated by Greeks around the world as independence day on 25 March.
Greece, with the exception of the Ionian Islands, the Agrafa Mountains, and the Mani Peninsula, came under Ottoman rule in the 15th century, in the decades before and after the fall of Constantinople. During the following centuries, there were sporadic but unsuccessful Greek uprisings against Ottoman rule. In 1814, a secret organization called Filiki Eteria (Society of Friends) was founded with the aim of liberating Greece, encouraged by the revolutionary fervor gripping Europe in that period. The Filiki Eteria planned to launch revolts in the Peloponnese, the Danubian Principalities, and Constantinople itself. The insurrection was planned for 25 March 1821 (in the Julian Calendar), the Orthodox Christian Feast of the Annunciation. However, the plans of Filiki Eteria were discovered by the Ottoman authorities, forcing the revolution to start earlier. The first revolt began on 6 March/21 February 1821 in the Danubian Principalities, but it was soon put down by the Ottomans. The events in the north urged the Greeks in the Peloponnese (Morea) into action and on 17 March 1821, the Maniots were first to declare war. In September 1821, the Greeks under the leadership of Theodoros Kolokotronis captured Tripolitsa. Revolts in Crete, Macedonia, and Central Greece broke out, but were eventually suppressed. Meanwhile, makeshift Greek fleets achieved success against the Ottoman navy in the Aegean Sea and prevented Ottoman reinforcements from arriving by sea.
Tensions soon developed among different Greek factions, leading to two consecutive civil wars. The Ottoman Sultan called in his vassal Muhammad Ali of Egypt, who agreed to send his son Ibrahim Pasha to Greece with an army to suppress the revolt in return for territorial gains. Ibrahim landed in the Peloponnese in February 1825 and brought most of the peninsula under Egyptian control by the end of that year. The town of Missolonghi fell in April 1826 after a year-long siege by the Turks. Despite a failed invasion of Mani, Athens also fell and the revolution looked all but lost.
At that point, the three Great powers—Russia, Britain, and France—decided to intervene, sending their naval squadrons to Greece in 1827. Following news that the combined Ottoman–Egyptian fleet was going to attack the island of Hydra, the allied European fleets intercepted the Ottoman navy at Navarino. After a tense week-long standoff, the Battle of Navarino led to the destruction of the Ottoman–Egyptian fleet and turned the tide in favor of the revolutionaries. In 1828 the Egyptian army withdrew under pressure of a French expeditionary force. The Ottoman garrisons in the Peloponnese surrendered, and the Greek revolutionaries proceeded to retake central Greece. Russia invaded the Ottoman Empire and forced it to accept Greek autonomy in the Treaty of Adrianople (1829). After nine years of war, Greece was finally recognized as an independent state under the London Protocol of February 1830. Further negotiations in 1832 led to the London Conference and the Treaty of Constantinople; these defined the final borders of the new state and established Prince Otto of Bavaria as the first king of Greece.
Born On This Day
1210 – Joan of England, Queen of Scotland (d. 1238)
Joan of England (22 July 1210 – 4 March 1238), was Queen consort of Scotland from 1221 until her death. She was the third child of John, King of England and Isabella of Angoulême.
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1339 – Louis I, Duke of Anjou (d. 1384)
Louis I, Duke of Anjou (23 July 1339 – 20 September 1384) was a French prince, the second son of John II of France and Bonne of Bohemia. His career was markedly unsuccessful. Born at the Château de Vincennes, Louis was the first of the Angevin branch of the French royal house. His father appointed him Count of Anjou and Count of Maine in 1356, and then raised him to the title Duke of Anjou in 1360 and Duke of Touraine in 1370.
He fought in the Battle of Poitiers (1356), in which his father the king was captured by the English. In 1360, he was one of a group of hostages the French surrendered to the English in exchange for the king. He escaped from England, after which his father felt bound in honour to return to English custody, where he later died.
In 1382, as the adopted son of Joanna I of Naples, he succeeded to the counties of Provence and Forcalquier. He also inherited from her a claim to the kingdoms of Naples and Jerusalem. He was already a veteran of the Hundred Years’ War against the English when he led an army into Italy to claim his Neapolitan inheritance. He died on the march and his claims and titles fell to his son and namesake, Louis II, who succeeded in ruling Naples for a time.
NASA: Astronomy Picture of the Day
By Nick Papadimas, The Associated Press, 11 Alive: Actress who played Big Mama Thornton in ‘Elvis’ dies in Nashville Shonka Dukureh was found dead Thursday in the bedroom of her Nashville apartment. No foul play is evident in her death.
CBS News: 15-foot snake shot and killed by police as it was strangling man
By Amelia Tait, Twenty-thousand Hertz: Podcast) Tracing the sonic history of the three-note dun-dun-DUN used to queue horror.
By Deniz Yildiran, Interesting Engineering: The world’s largest vertical farm using 95% less water opens in Dubai The produce will hit local stores as well.
By Matt Clinch, CNBC: Russia and Ukraine sign UN-backed deal to resume grain exports via the Black Sea
By Ellen Schmidt, The dodo: Bossy Emu Won’t Stop Photobombing His Mom’s Social Media Posts “Emmanuel, don’t do it” 😂
By Ben Crair, The New Yorker: The Bizarre Bird That’s Breaking the Tree of Life Darwin thought that family trees could explain evolution. The hoatzin suggests otherwise.
Mike Wallace Interviews Margaret Sanger
FOX News: ‘Non-woke’ comic book a hit with readers Comic book artist Gabe Abdul Eltaeb and Rippaverse Comics founder Eric July
TheBackyardScientist: Potato cannons – more dangerous than a grenade?
By Betty Crocker Kitchens: NEW Cheesy Ham Breakfast Skillet Hash
Taste of Home: 80 Vintage Dinner Recipes and more ->
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