FYI May 21, 2019

On This Day

293 – Roman Emperors Diocletian and Maximian appoint Galerius as Caesar to Diocletian, beginning the period of four rulers known as the Tetrarchy.

The term “tetrarchy” (from the Greek: τετραρχία, tetrarchia, “leadership of four [people]”)[a] describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire. This tetrarchy lasted until c. 313, when mutually destructive civil wars eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine in control of the western half of the empire, and Licinius in control of the eastern half.

Although the term “tetrarch” was current in antiquity, it was never used of the imperial college under Diocletian. Instead, the term was used to describe independent portions of a kingdom that were ruled under separate leaders. The tetrarchy of Judaea, established after the death of Herod the Great, is the most famous example of the antique tetrarchy. The term was understood in the Latin world as well, where Pliny the Elder glossed it as follows: “each is the equivalent of a kingdom, and also part of one” (regnorum instar singulae et in regna contribuuntur).[1]

As used by the ancients, the term describes not only different governments, but also a different system of government from the Diocletianic arrangements. The Judaean tetrarchy was a set of four independent and distinct states, where each tetrarch ruled a quarter of a kingdom as they saw fit; the Diocletianic tetrarchy was a college led by a single supreme leader. When later authors described the period, this is what they emphasized: Ammianus had Constantius II admonish Gallus for disobedience by appealing to the example in submission set by Diocletian’s lesser colleagues; his successor Julian compared the Diocletianic tetrarchs to a chorus surrounding a leader, speaking in unison under his command.[2] Only Lactantius, a contemporary of Diocletian and a deep ideological opponent of the Diocletianic state, referred to the tetrarchs as a simple multiplicity of rulers.[3]

Much modern scholarship was written without the term. Although Edward Gibbon pioneered the description of the Diocletianic government as a “New Empire”, he never used the term “tetrarchy”; neither did Theodor Mommsen. It did not appear in the literature until used in 1887 by schoolmaster Hermann Schiller in a two-volume handbook on the Roman Empire (Geschichte der Römischen Kaiserzeit), to wit: “die diokletianische Tetrarchie”. Even so, the term did not catch on in the literature until Otto Seeck used it in 1897.[4]


The first phase, sometimes referred to as the diarchy (“rule of two”), involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor—firstly as Caesar (junior emperor) in 285, followed by his promotion to Augustus in 286. Diocletian took care of matters in the eastern regions of the empire while Maximian similarly took charge of the western regions. In 293, Diocletian thought that more focus was needed on both civic and military problems, so with Maximian’s consent, he expanded the imperial college by appointing two Caesars (one responsible to each Augustus)—Galerius and Constantius Chlorus.[5]

In 305, the senior emperors jointly abdicated and retired, allowing Constantius and Galerius to be elevated in rank to Augustus. They in turn appointed two new Caesars—Severus II in the west under Constantius, and Maximinus in the east under Galerius—thereby creating the second Tetrarchy.


Born On This Day

1901 – Regina M. Anderson, Multiracial playwright and librarian (d. 1993)[18]
Regina M. Anderson (May 21, 1901 – February 5, 1993)[1] was an African-American playwright and librarian. She was of Native American, Jewish, East Indian, Swedish, and other European ancestry (including one grandparent who was a Confederate general); one of her grandparents was of African descent, born in Madagascar. Despite her own identification of her race as “American”,[2] she was perceived to be African-American by others.[3] Influenced by Ida B. Wells and the lack of black history teachings in school, Regina became a key member of the Harlem Renaissance.[4]



Beyond Bylines Savannah Tanbusch: Blog Profiles: Tea Blogs
By Nadia Kounang, CNN: Study finds CBD effective in treating heroin addiction
By Lisa Respers France, CNN: ‘Pulp Fiction’: 25 fun facts in honor of the film’s 25th anniversary
20 seconds, whoo~
By NPR Camila Domonoske: Teens Who Don’t Buckle Up: Chevy Has A Surprise For You
Know a young driver who’s ignoring your pleas to buckle up? Chevrolet suggests you might try to see if they’ll listen to a different authority figure: their car.

The automaker is introducing a feature, specifically for teen drivers, that will temporarily block the auto from shifting into gear if their seat belt isn’t buckled. A message will alert the driver to buckle up in order to shift into gear.

After 20 seconds, the vehicle will operate normally.

The feature, which Chevrolet says is an industry first, will come standard in the 2020 models of the Traverse SUV, Malibu sedan and Colorado pickup truck. It will be part of the “Teen Driver” package, which can also be used to set speed alerts and a maximum speed, among other controls, and give parents “report cards” tracking a teen’s driving behavior.

By Binaj Gurubacharya | The Associated Press: Famed climber Apa Sherpa, who lives in Utah, helps Nepal kids reach greater heights
By Ben Henry: Céline Dion’s “Carpool Karaoke” Is Hilariously Extra And You Have To See It
Open Culture: Keith Moon Plays Drums Onstage with Led Zeppelin in What Would Be His Last Live Performance (1977); Discover Kōlams, the Traditional Indian Patterns That Combine Art, Mathematics & Magic and more ->
The Rural Blog: Major dairy producers invest in dairy-free products such as oat milk, leaving small farmers increasingly in the lurch; Report ranks best, worst states to live in; how did yours do? And more ->


By seamster: How to Build a Treeless Tree House
By elewis03: Cardboard Iron Throne Cat Bed
By Ham-made: 16-Page Disposable Notebook EDC
By schwophi14: Self-wicking Rain Water Container Garden
By chinoktype: My Best Vegetable Trellis: Durable, Collapsible, Flexible
Great idea!
By l-to-the-I-to-the-double-Z-why: Simple Watering Can (cost; FREE!)
By Garage_Shop_Crafter: Children’s Triple Bunk Bed
By memestra: Herb Garden Planter
By Mtpinto: How to Build Your Own Anemometer Using Reed Switches, Hall Effect Sensor and Some Scraps on Nodemcu. – Part 1 – Hardware
Our Crafty Mom: Best Mosquito Repellent Mason Jar Hack With Essential Oils




By ruestra: Double Chocolate French Macarons
By In The Kitchen With Matt: Air Fryer Cake
By FOOD by Lyds: Creamy Flan
By Italiankiwiblog: Make Pesto Alla Genovese at Home
Our Crafty Mom: How To Make An Explosion Cake The Kids Will Love

Widget not in any sidebars


Widget not in any sidebars